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Barcode : 99999990316603 

Title - Report Of The Indian Education Commission 

Author - Government Of India 

Language - english 

Pages - 739 

Publication Year - 1883 

Barcode EAN.UCC-13 



9'999999"031 660 



REPORT- OF THE INDIAN GmirATWW rniUMi^inM 



"Appoint eel by the Resolution *"of the Government, of Wdia 

dated 3rd February i8$2 



CALCUTTA rt^^D UV^H ^SUPERINTENDENT X)F GOV CR\ME%T PRINTING^ fNDl\-tS3j 



COKTMTS 



TAG I 




11 



CHAPTER ^~ INTRODUCTORY— 

Appointment of the Commission 
Jteasons for tie Enquiry 
jrain duty oi the Commission 
Instructions to the Commission 
Subjects exempted from the Enquiry 

Method adopted hy the Commission in conducting the Enquiry 
Bnef Survey of the Evidence and Witnesses ■ . ^ " 

of the Memorials + 
of the Provincial Reports - 
Summary of the Materials ohtained . 
^^reiva ehi&£ dvri&vbK o£ TRassp&xy ■ 

uHAPTER 11 -HISTORICAL REVIEW OP EDUCATION ITS UTDIA< 

fjdu cation in Ancient India • 
under British Rule 
in Madras pnor to 1854 
m Uombny prior to 1854 
in Bengal prior to 1 854 

in the North-Western Provinces pnor to 1854 * 
in the Punjab prior to 1854 , . 

in other Provinces pnor to 1854 . « 4 
in India subsequent to 1S54 * the Despatches of iS^And 1859 
formation of the Education Department^ 1855^56 
The Indian TTniverBitiea 

Educational Census of lS$i 

Education m Madras^ 1855-56 to i8Sj-8z 

in Bombay, 1855-56 to 1 88 1-82 ... + m 
in Bengal, 1855 56 to 1881-82 

in the Horth- Western Provinces end Oudh, 1855-56 to 

in the Punjab, 1855-56 to 1881-82 , 
in the Central Provinces, 1855^56 to 1881-82 
in Assam, 1854 to 1882 . . * *" . 

, m. Coorg T 1S57 to 1881-S2 

in the ifaidarakad Assigned District 3, 1&66 to 1881-82 « 
m Ajmir-Mtgorwara* i8Sr-8a i 



11 



tt 



11 



11 



If 

IF 



If 



* IP 



It 



it 



tt 



CHAPTER IH-WDIGENOUS SCHOOLS- 

Survey of indigenous Education in IndiA . * 
High Clasa indigenous Schools m the different Provinces 
jVttitude of the Department towards such Schools 
Jjxtent of elementary indigenous Schools 
System of indigenous School Instruction 
fjlemetttary indigenous Schools in the different Provinces 
gjtatus of indigenous Schoolmasters + 
Uazar Schools * ^ * * * + 

Uecommendations regarding indigenous Schools 

CHAPTER IV-PBIMART EDUCATION- 

public primary Schools r 

Different cloeses of Public primary Schools 

Two theories of extending primary Education 



X 

%b 
2 

2—4 
4 

5 
6 

6,7 



8 

WW 

8,9 

9—u 
ir— 15 

15—17 
J7— 20 
20, 21 

72, 

25- 

" *5> 26 
26 — 59 

*9— 33 
33— 3 S 
36—40 

40—46 
44—46 

47—49 
49—51 
5». 5 3 
5*» 53 
53, 54 



S5—53 
59— 6a 

61, 63 

64i 65 
65, 66 
66 — 72 

72 

73 

73—79 



So, 81 
81 82 

53-S5 



CONTENTS- 



Table of Public primary Schools and Pupils « 

Primary Education in Madras 

w m Bombay 

„ fJ in Bengal 

Educational results in Bengal, 1 83s - • • • 
Primary Education in the Northwestern Pnmnces and Oudn 

„ in the Punjab 

in the Central Provinces • 
m Assam * * 



pi 

u n 

in Coorg 



„ in the Haidarabad Assigned Districts 
Statistics of Primary Education for ell India 
Recommendations regarding Hystems of State primary Education 
Methods of Registration of Attendance * 
School Accommodation 

„ Apparatus and Libraries 
Standards of Instruction and results of Examinations 
Uniform standard of Ezamination for primary Schools 

Different Provincial Standards in use 

The place of English in primary Schools * * 

Results of Examinations m primary Schools , 
Recommendations as to Standards and Examinations . * 

Physical Training * 

Moral lt • ■ 

Jteligions teaching 

Training ot Teachers - 

Table of trained and untrained Teachers in primary Schools 
n showing number of Training Schools for Vernacular Teachers in 

Normal Schools and Teachers in Madras - 

#f tr m Bombay * 

t , l( in Bengal * 

tt tt in the NorthJiVestern Provinces and Ondh 

„ fJ m the Punjab 

tt in the Central Provinces 

, r in other Provinces 

Recommendations as to supply and position of Teachers . 

I'ees and eienrphems < * 

Scholarship system • 

Prizes * * 

Public Patronage • • 

Night Schools and school-hours 

Special attempts in backward Districts and for Special Classes • 
Education of Aboriginal races . , 
Low castes and out castes * 
Depressed races + 
Poor classes • 

Bnei notice of female Schools 

■Relation of Boards to primary Education . * 
' Boards! and Suggestions regarding them, tor the different Provinces . 
General Review of the Powers of Local Boards , 
Return of Municipal expenditure on primary Education in i S3 1-8 j 
Recommendations regarding Ways and Means , 

» n School Funds 

» n the Uighta and Dntm of Schoolmasters . 

Recommendation regarding Legislation t t 

Expenditure on Primary Education 

» in 1870-71 and 1 83 1-83 

Ciavma of primary Education upon Public Punds 

1* on Prtmntial Revenues 

Cost of Education ui primary Schools \ , 
Eecommendations recapitulated . • m 9 * H * 

CHAPTER V —SECONDARY HDTJCATIOK- 

Da&uition tha Term 

Secondary Instructs m high Schools . , [ 



CONTENTS 



in 



Secondary Instruct on in middle Schools 

Different classes of secondary Schools in the various Provinces 

General Review of secondary Education 

Secondary Education before 1854 

from 1854 to 1871 
1 from i8?r to 1882 

in Madras 

in Bombay 
, in Bengal 

in the North Western Provinces and Ottdh 

m the Punjab 

in the Central Provinces 

111 Assam 

in Coorg 

in Berar 

Statistics of secondary Schools in 1870 71 and m 1881 82 

Changes of Class fication between 1870-71 and 188 1 82 

Comparison of Schools and Pupils in 1870 71 and 1881 82 

Relative Increase of departmental and other Schools 

Girls Schools in 1870 71 and 1881 82 

Spread of secondary JEducation through private effort 

Expenditure on secondary Schools 

Different sources of Expenditure 

Annual cost of educating each Pupil 

Initial Standards in secondary Schools 

The place of English and the Vernacular in secondary Schools 

Vernacular as £he Medium of Instruction 

Schools exclusively Vernacular 

Different aims of middle Schools 

Middle Schools independent of University Standards 

Final Standards of middle Schools in the various Provinces 

Summary of middle Schools 

Final Standards of high Schools in Madras Botnbiy and Calcutta 
Conroanson of Standards in, the different Universities 

Proposals for an alternative Standard in high Schools 

Recogmt on by Government of adopted Standards r£ 

Slisconcept ons regarding the term u High School 

Result of recognised Examinations 

The Matriculation Exam nat on 

The middle School Examination 

Examination of Girls 

Race and creed of Pupils 

Languages studied m secondaiy Schoola 

Teit-boolkS for secondary Schools 

School Libraries 

School Accommodation Apparatus and Furniture in the various Pro\ inces 
Registration of Attendance 
Training' of Teachers 

Arrangements for training of Teachers in secondary Schools in the 

various Provinces 
JTumber of Teachers trained and untrained in secondaiy Schools 
Pay and prospects of Teachers in secondary Schools 
Means of improving the Pos tion of Teachers in secondary Schools 
Teea in secondary Schools in the vonons Provinces 
Btfccmroendat ons as to Fees 
Scholarships in secondary Schools 
Scholarship Systems in. different Provinces 
Recommendations as to Scholarships 

as to Examinations 
recapitulated 

CHAPTER VI— COLI/EGI ATE EDUCATION— 

Review of the growth of Collegiate Education 
The earlier Colleges and their Objects 
Colleges in Bengal proper 

in the i orth- Western Provinces of Bengal 



Ml 

I78 
178—l8l 
l8l 

ib 

181 182 

182— T 84 
184—186 
186—188 

i3S 189 

189 igo 
190 
tfi 

190 191 
191 

192 193 

194 19S 

195 196 
196 — 198 

19S 199 
199 — 201 

2G1 — 204 
205 206 
206 

206 — 208 
208 209 

209 — 2 1 1 
211 

211 212 

212 213 
213 — 2l6 

216 217 

217 ZlS 

219 ZZO 

221 222 

222 223 

223 224 
225 

225 226 

226 

s 226 227 

28 — 130 

210 
J J 
^30—232 

33—234 

*34 335 
235 236 



36- 



39- 



+6- 
P U8 

>9- 

54 



233 

239 
341 
242 

246 
243 
249 
25* 
253 

=55 



256 

xb 

* 5 6— 3 59 
59—261 



CONTENTS # 

Colleges in Madras 

„ in Bombay - . * * * I w \ * 
Collegiate Education fcra 1857 to 1882 in the different Produces 

The Canning 1 Culte^e, IrucknO^r ****** 

TLfi Otient&i College at Lahore ^ * - * . . 

The Jluhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarji 

<■ Colleges maintained by Native Prince* and Chiefs . 

Statistics of Collegiate Education from 1857 to 1 87 1, and from 1B71 to 

i832 

The scope and character of Collegiate Instruction 
Duration of College Courses and Standards of Examination 
Subjects for the M A. DegrcO - « 
Gradea of Colleges and tuihonal staff 
Boarding Houses * • * * 

Oriental Colleges * 

Collegiate Education in 188 z in thfl various Provinces 
Fees in Colleges in the different Province * 
Opinions oi Witnesses regarding payment of Tees 
Arts College Scholarships * 
EtWaxshipa m the different Provinces * 

Social position of College Students * . + # 

Salaries q£ Professors in the various Provinces 

Summary t • • - 

College Libraries ... * 

Laboratories and Apparatus for Instruction • 

Statistics of Oriental Colleges 

Moral Training in Colleger - - 

Religious Teaching iu Colleges » 

Physical Training . 

The University Entrance Examination < 

Objections to tho Entrance Ezttmination of the Calcutta University . 
Effect of Collegiate Infraction upon the enlightenment of the People 
Pvtif esft-LotL^ adopted by th<& ilftymly of educated Natives 
Be commendations , 

Extension of Collegiate Education * . 
Grants-in-aid * ^ 
Professional stall and pensions * . 

Salaries * * . , 

Subjects of study • , 
Admission to College lectures of Students -who have not passed the 

Entrance Examination • . * + p 
Moral Teaclmiig 

Feea , fc 

The Amount ■which.it is proposed to expend on Scholarships 
Recommendations recapitulated ► . , , t 

CHAPTER VII— mTEHWAL ADMINISTRATION OF THE EDUCATION 

DEPARTMENT— 

Introductory 

Constitution of the Education Department 

Conditions of Service of Graded Officers 

Admission of Natives of India to the Graded Service 

Subordinate Graded Semico in Bengal and Bombay 

Directing St nil of the Department 

Proposed Changes m tht System t>f Control 

Character of the proposed Changes 

Extension of the functions of the University 

Consulting Provincial Boards of Education 

Educational Conferences 

Proton of gther Educational facilities 

Relation of the Department to Schools w Competition 

Regulation m Force, and opinions of Witnesses 

Recommendation for definite Rules 

Policy m, regard to Pees 

Classification of School* Statistical Returns 

Inspecting Staff of the BeparttncBt 



263—265 

265^ *66 
266 
266— *6g 

*6S 

26$, i$ 

269, ly Q 

270, iyi 

2 7*. *7 3 

*73-*Si 
281— *g 3 

281— »8 4 
285. 

286 — sgg 

* 8 9. 
2 9°. 291 
2 9 l > *92 
2 9 2 ~ * 94 
2 94» 295 

3 97> » 9 8 

2 99. Joo 

300. 3a 1 

3 01 — 304 
304 

305, 306 
306 
ib 

3a6 
3°&— 3&8 

3 oS * 309 
3°9— 311 

3"— 313 



3i3 
3'3, 3u 

314,315 

3'5 
315,316 

3 J 7» 318 
3*8— 34o 

3 2 o, 3ji 

3 2 i» 3J2 

3», 3» 3 

3*3 
3*3, zi 4 

3*4, 335 



CONTENTS 



r 



?10F 



Work done by In pec t ng Officers ^26 

Inspecting Agency in Madras 3^5 ^zj 

in Bombay 3 2 7 

inBoigal 328 32g 

in the North Western Provinces and Oudh 3^ 

in the Punjab 3^ 330 
in the Central Provinces 

in the other Provinces t& 

Inspection of Girls Schools * 33 r 

Employment of Inspecting Officers at Head quarters ifi 

Cost of Inspection mid Control 33 1 333 

Increase of the Inspecting Staff 333 

Organisation of the Inspecting Staff 333 334 

Enlistment of Voluntary Inspect on 4 $ H 334 33 j 

System of Departmental Exam nations in toe varions Provinces 335 336 

Lim tihon of Compulsory Examinations v 336 337 

Examinations for the Public Service ^ c * ^37 

Teaching Staff * 337 333 

Text books Appointment of a Committee 335 

Beport of the Ttnt book Comraitteo 338 340 

Resolution of the Government of Ind a<>n the Beport 341 343 

Action *tahen in the different Prbnncea 342 

Text books m the different Provinces 342 345 

General Suggest ons regarding Text books 34; 346 

JSpecial Tost boots for Village Schools 34ft 347 

Future Act on Tnth regard to Test-books 347 34S 

Recapitulation of Ueeommendations 348 — 350 

CHAPTER VIII —EXTERNAL RELATIONS OP THE DEPARTMENT TO 

INDIVIDUALS AND PUBLIC BODIES— 

Introductory ^ £ 351 

Sect 1 — e Xtelatiq i*bf tie State to Non Departmental -Ejfofi 

^ObjectTof Ibe-Despatch of 1854 The Grant in aid system 
Soopo^nnd Character of the Grant in a d system 
Superns pn and Inspection 
•* Eorafttum. of an. Education. Department 

Establishment of Umvetfs t es Scholarships School Books 
Training Schools 

bnmmtfry of the Relations of the State to Private efftfrt 
Review of Progress m the Despatch of 1859 

Nece^s ty bf encouraging Private Effort Limitat ons of the Policy of 
Withdrawal 

Limitation of State Expenditure m lugher Schools 
Ultimate Objects of the Grant in aid System 



351 


352 


35* 


353 




3j3 


MS 






354 


354 


355 




355 




tb 


355 


356 




357 




357 



Section 2 — TJ e Gro cth of Private B ti&rprtse in Edticat or 

Introductory 357 — 359 

Private Effort m H story and Stat st csof Ifadras from 1854 to 1SS1 82 359 — 364 

in Bombay 364 — 367 

in Bengal 367 — 370 

m North "Western Provinces and Oudh 37o— 37* 

m the Punjab 373 — 375 

in the Central Provinces 375 — 378 

in Assam 378 

in Coorg *T * *b 

in the Ha darabad Ass gned Districts tb 

General Financial Result 37^ 379 

Summary 379 3S0 

Sect ok 3 Tie G& eral v &o of the Educat on frov ded Ij Pr vale Effort in i88f~$2 and of the 

a d affor led to \t 

Introductory 3 8 ^ 3 Sl 

Attendance in Aided and Unaided Inshtut 0113 3^3 



Tl 



CONTENTS. 

Attendance in each cla$g of Aided Institutions . 

Expenditure under the Grant-in-aid Bales 

on each class of Aided Institutions - 
Increase or Decrease of the aid given to Private Effort 
Comparative Expense of Education in Aided and Departmental 
Institutions 

AmO^t qf Self-Support by means of Fees in Aided and Departmental 

* Institutions . - - • * 

Tho-'Energy sometimes shown by private Effort - 
S^mmnTy^ ^ . * . * ■ • * • 

Section i^Syslems of Grants-in-aid : Their Advantages and Dis&dvaniages - 



387— 3 i 
390, 3< 

397—399 

399 

399, 4<x> 

400, 4 01 



401 

401, AC2 



402 — 403 

405 



Different Systems of Grants-in-aid * 
A j^xfctt System rattft^^s ^ 
The Salary-grant, System** * 

TfiaJSaiary grant iSyst^cb^ its Advantages, Disadvantages, Defects in 

its Rules : Summary ^ • *■ 
The System of Payment by Results . * . 

The Results System: ita Advantages IKsadvaiitfrgea, ^Defects in its 

Rules : 'Summary , ' ^ ^ ^ • * 
The Combined Systems * * ^ - ./ 

The System of ** Eixed Period ,f Grants > 
The *' Pried Period " System : its Advanf&ges, Disadvantages^ Defects 

m its Rules Summary* ■ * . / » * ( * 411—^413 

The System of capitation Grants on the average monthly^ Attendance^ ^ 413 
Special Grants . , * . ^ \ * ^ , m ^ ^ * 

Systems of Grants-in-aid summarised * * . \<* . . * 413^4^4' 
Farther Recommendations r m „ „ * ' / . * , — 



^,405— 4t»^j| 

410^411 



-1 . 



1 »- f 2 



Septiok 5 — Sufficiency or Insufficient of the amount of aid at present afforded to Private Effort $ 1 * 

Principles in determining the "necessary Rate of *Aid J . *t , 416 — 41S 

Application of the principle to existing facta * - \ - * ^418 

The General Result of the^ajodry . ^ > , v * . J ; 418-^420 

Cautions in applying the Standard employed 1 .< ' r ^ t * * % 1 42^4 ?i 

S^ciency or Insufficiency t)f aid to Girls r Schools , " . ^ ; ^ - * 4^j^5j 

Section 6,— Points suggested by th^ Evidence Memorials 9 and Prottncial TleporU as to /Aa vVirms 

systems of Atd and ihdr Administration ; * 1 * *«, 

Introductory * * ; - ; , / .1 C • ^24. 

Evidence hearing on systems of Aid on the amonnts obtainable j on 1 * 

Conditions of 'Aid; on Administration / ^ ; 434^430 

Complaint of -want of sympathy in Administrations „ * ^ ^ j " 430^433 



COMblBVOTl * 



433 



433- 43+ 
434^43°" 
436—441 
441 

44t* 44* 



Stcnotf f.—Relaiioni of private enterprise in Education with (a) the Department and (l) OomptUng 

private Institutions ? 

r ~* " 

Introductory . . . p . , m m 

The Origin of the Chiei Complaint 

The vanons conditions of the Success of private Effort 

Summary 

Relations of private Enterprise to competing private Institutions ^ 

Sscn<i\ 8. — RthU&n* of prirais Effort triih Local and Municipal Boards - 

Introductory 

Boards as managers of Schools j as Distributors of Aid 

S tCTio* 0 — Tta future of^Mded Education. ^ - 

Introductory . 
Need ol increased Resources 
Increased R^aonrees from Fees 



44? 
442^444 



444 

444, 445 

445, 446 
446 

446, 447 
447 

•a. 



COTTCENTS 



The best practical Safeguard 447 448 

Importance of the co operation of Managers 448 
Means of increasing the Influence of Aided Education in certain 

localities 448 449 

Proposed extension of the above Recommendation 449 450 

Supplement to the last Recommendation 450 

The future of Aided Education in other Special Localities 450 451 

Section 10 — The Withdrawal of the State from (fie d red Prov & m and Mafagmm t 

of Education, e&pectaltj of h gher Education ~* 

Introductory 45 r 

Op mons oi Witnesses 451 452 

The Bearing of the Policy of Withdrawal on Missionary Education 453 453 

Withdrawal in favour of Missionaries to tod Avoided 453 454 

The Position of Missionary Enterprise m Ednfeitton • * 454 

Tl e limits of opposing views within the Comlimsicfft 1 ^ ^ 454 455 
Consideration *m favour 6f Withdrawal t Saving to Public Funds 
Summary of the Argument from Economy Possibility of improve 
meat in the Results oi private Effort ^ Meed of variety m the Type 

^ of Education Encouragement to religions Instruction 455—460 
Considerations opposed to^Withdrawal t ^he danger of a fa3so lxupres 
^ ^bioti hein^made on the public, iJjfiSciil ty of maintaining Colleges 
c of the highest Type by EaiiVe Effort f Influence of Government 
Institutions fa* keeping tip the Standard of Education The present 

^ state oi popular Feeling ^ 460 — 461 

^j'lnancial considerations affecting Withdrawal 462 463 

Wfthdiawo^ from Management not to include Withdrawal from Control 463 

^Fhe 3ilEculty of *dcfimng the best line of action 16 

The course of dtfCuss^on m tjio Commission 463 464 

General conclusion arrived at ^ 464—466 

Pmct cat agreement as to Subsidiary Recommendations 466 

Recommendations to talre effect at the time of Transfer <y ib 

<5encral Principles ^to ^regulate tho Transfer of JSchools 466 467 

The Schools that shoald be first Transferred ^ 467 

Oeneral Principled to regultte the Transfer of Colleges 467 — 469 

Re^oinmeudations as to Colleges in Madras m Bombay m Bengal 469 470 

Conclusion > * 470 

ci^tta* n — Indirect Atd& which He Slafa may afford topntate Enierpriso ire Ed tea 

* (ion 

Introductory * ^ * ^ 470 471 

State Patronage of Educated Men 471 472 

provision of varied Occupation for Educated Men 472 473 

Elevation of tho Profession of Teaching 473 474 

Approval of private Effort to bo clearly shown 474 475 

Estabhbhmentof Universities 475 

Summary ib 

Swctio** 12 — Itccaj? tulat on of Recommendations 4 75 —479 

CHAPTER IX— EDUCATION OF CLASSES REQUIRING SPECIAL 

TREATMENT 

Introductory 480 

Section i — Nat vc Chefs and Noblemen 

The Native Nobility 480—483 

Section * — ITukatttmadanf 

Early Efforts in the Cause of Mnhammadan E ducat on * 483 
Reasons alleged by Mnhammadana (or holing aloof from the Educa- 
tion offered in Government Schools 

Statistics in 1871 72 484 

Suggestions made by Government of India to the Local Governm nts ib 

Measures taken in Madras Results 484—486 

j in Bombay ^ 4^ — 488 

r m Bengal ^ 488 — 49 1 



Mil 



COMEMS 



Measures taken in North Western Province t Itoulti 
Indepcn lent cfforta made tl o Muhammivlfln* of 11 o Norfl Wcaicrn 
Provinces 

Measures tal.cn in the Punjab m Ondb Ami in tl c oil cr Frormctti 
Mcmomls regard ng Mul ammadan I dncflt on 

Op a oca of the Loeil GoremmenU on tho Mcmor al of the National 

MubanunacLin Assoc at on 
Bepl from Bengal v/ tl Mcmornn lam on Memormli from Malm* 

In?m Tiombay from tbe^iorth Fnmncvi nttd Ondl f ntfi 

11 Fuujnb from tl c oil cr Provinces 
Conetus ons and Rccommcn lat ona of tl c Commw^ on 
App\ cat on t>! llocommwiflat Tegwl ng MuhftmmvKftt to other 

Racea 

Section 3 — Tie Along nat Race* 

The Aboriginal $ribc*r6fr Ind a * 
Tl c r want of Lflnf Atjon 

Tho difficult rfl attend np tl e F ducat on of Akongrru 
RecQznmcnila U&ns i*^rd ng f) d Prov $ un of Sch ot L 
Recommeudat on aa "to Language f ■ 

Section 4 — Tfie Xow Oastes * 

Educat on of Low Castes — ^ 

The D fficult ea * 

Author tat vo Dec a on on the fenl jcet * * 
Measures taken to meet tl 0 D\iT cully 1 
RGCQmmcudkt qus regard tig Lovr Ctota ChiUjxtv 

t * 

StcnoN s — Poorer (Jlassc* of Boc efj + 

Educat on of the fopr ^ j 
Recommendations rec»i tnlated f 

CHAPTER X— FEMALE EDUCATION — ^ 

Introductory * 1 ^ 

Female t ducat on n Anc en I India 1 ^ 

D v i on of the subject t 
in Madras In Bombay in Bengal in Ttl c North 
Western Provinces and OadU mtliD PurijA^y }n 
the Central ftovmcck In A 15am ^ in, Coorg in 
the Ha darabad Ass gned Districts 
Census Returns of Female Educat an for 
Female Educat on throughout India in iSSa 
Review of the Statement 
Kon Departmental A gene es 

lemale Educat on Hun c pal t eg and Local Boards 
Other Agencies 

Mixed Schools for Boys and G rh 
Subjects of instruct on for G ila includ Needle work 
TerUbooka for G rla 
Instruct on and Textbooks 

Agenc es for Female Educat on other than Schools 
Zanana ItfisB ona 
Secular Zenana Agenc es 
L terature for the Zenana 
Qual ty of the Instruct on m G rls S ho. 0 U 
Results of the Examinations n G rls Schools i83l S* 
Review of Exam oat on Resultein G rla Scboola 18S1 Si 
Defic ency or Teachm for G rb Schools 
Male Teachers for Girls Schools 
1 emale Teachers *or Gyxla Selioob 
SchoolmaBters wires as Teachers 
Widows as Teach e "s 
D fQcnlt of Female Teachera 
Training of Female Teachers 
Female Educat on Expenditure on n iBSt 3i 
D ffercnt sources of Funds 



* 4f 

49* m 

493 — 

49*5 — 19** 

498 



<9S— 505 
507 



507 5 c8 
50S 509 

5 C 9 

510, su 
5 i,- S i3 

5 16 y? 



yr-j 518 

510 



5.1- 



^ 511 

1 



* 5*9 



53' 

53* 
533 



S3* 
S3* 
533 

534 
534 

<b 

535 

535 
536 

536 
tb 

537 

538 

S3S 
1/, 

539 

539 
540 

54a 

b 

540 s* 1 
54* 



53* 
535 

536 
537 

538 
539 



CONTENTS. 







U 1 1411 LO B lU*UlU tU Vtf414 UtUUUlD « 




IrtSTiPctTCSSGS iov Girls* Selmrilci 








Priica for Girls* Schools 


* 


Schohrslups in Girls' Schools . 




"Artificial Stimulants " to Girls' Schools 








Female Education Recommendations » 





CHAPTER XI —LEGISLATION— 



Educational Legislation in general 

t t u hi India • 

Measures affecting rural Districts in the various Provinces , 
„ llanicipalitaes tn the various Provinces . , 

Ho view of ondenco iu regard to Legislation in tto various Provinces 
Conclusions from this Hevicw * « . p 
Basis of the Recommendations of tho Committeo 
Arguments of tho Minority of the Commission • 

„ „ Majority of the Commission . 
Recommendations . 



CHAPTER XII —FINANCIAL SUMMARY — 

Introductory* Division of the subject # 
Definition of terms - * * * , * + + , 
'Elimination of certain charges 

Incidence of Expenditure on Public Qnd other Funds * , 

Provincial Funds ( 

-* Local Rates • < 

Municipal Contributions * 

Fees 

Other Sources < - * * 

Comparative incidence of Expenditure in various Provinces , ( 
Distribution of Public Expenditure # # m # 

„ t* Fnnds accordmg to Educational Agencies 

Total Educational Expenditure in India 

Comparison of Departmental Statistics with the Imperial Accounts f 
Provincial Contributions + 
Local Fund Contributions • 
" Municipal Contributions . 

lnsufiicicncy o! Contributions from Public Fnncb 



* 



• * # • 



CHAPTER XIII — RECOMMEND ATIOXS OF THE COMMISSION— 

Itccommcndatjon'i on Indigenous Education ... . 

„ on Primary Education . 

„ on Secondary Education .... 

„ on Collegiate Edncation ... , 

„ on the Internal Administration of tho Education 

Department. ...... 

„ on tho External Relations of the Department . 

M regarding Classes requiring Sjwcial Treatment 

„ on Female Fd neat ion , 

„ 05 to Legwlition ...... 



MINUTES OR DISSENTS Dr MEMBERS OF THE COXitlSSWX— 

Dissent recorded by the Ilononrable BhndLb MooVcrj^a, C I E 

„ by tho ReTen_nd Dr. Jean, S J. . » 

Minute recorded by D Barbour, Esq ... 
« „ by IvnshinaiU Tnmhak Tclanc;, Esq 

Di"?v>nt recorded by Arthsr Hott*II, Esq . . 
JTute by the President ... 



54* 
S4*r 543 

543 

544 
it. 

544, 545 

545 
545—548 
543, 5^ 



550 
55^ 551 
551—554 
554—557 
557—559 

559. 56o 

560, 561 

561—563 
563—565 
565-567 



568 
568, 569 

569 
565, 570 

570—572 
57* 
57*, 573 

573 

573. 574 

574, 575 
575—577 

573 

5/3. 579 

579, 5 8 ° 

580, 58 1 

581, 581 

5S», S83 
5H 5S4 



585, 586 

5 86— 589 
5S9, 590 
590-501 

S9»-594 
594—597 
597—599 
599. 6co 
600—601 



603 

ib. 

603—605 
CC6—619 

6:o 
Ctl, 6»J 



vm CONTENTS 

Measures taken m North Western Provinces Results 
Independent efforts made by the llntammitdaiifl of the North Western 
Provinces 

Measures taken in the Punjab m Ondh and in the other Provinces 
Memorials regard ng Mrihammadan Ed neat on 

Op n ops of the Local Governments on the Memor al of the National 

iltAammadan Assoc at on 
Kepi e&^rom Bengal w th Memorandum on Memor ala from Madras 

irom "Bombay from the ITrath Western Provinces ani On&h from 

th£ Punjab from the other Provinces 
CoEclnfl ong and Recommendations of the Comm sb on 
Appl cat on of Recommendat ona regarding Mnhammadans to other 

Races 

Section 3 — The Alor g not races * k 

The Aboriginal ynhejj-fjf India 
The r vrnnt of Eineatjon 

The difficult es attend the Udueat on o£ Aliongmea 
Recommendat ons regard the Prov s on of Schools 
Recommendat on as*to Language * f 

StCtlQ^ 4 — Tk& Lav? Castes 

Education of Lott Castes 
The 13 Sicult e9 

Author tat ve Dep 9 on on the^ SnbjecE * \ 
Measures taken to meet the Difficulty 1 
Recommendat ana regarding Jjow Cfeste CbvtArea 1 

Sect on 5 — Footer Classes of Sot e£y * * 

Education of the"popr ** 
Recommendations recap fculatecl 

CHAPTER X —FEMALE EDUCATION — 

Introductory * t 

Female Educat on n Anc enfc India * 

( D v s on of the subject 1. 

in Madras In Bombay n Bengal in vthe North 
Western Provinces and Oudh m thfe Pnrijdb** in 
the CenlrpI T^rovmces 111 A 5 5am > in, Coorg m 
the Ha dar*ibad Ask gned Districts ^ * v 

Census Returns of Female Ed neat on fomSSl 
Female Education, throughonfc India m 188 2 
Keview of the Statement * 
fTon Departmental Agencies ^ J 

female Educat on Mun cipal t es and Local Boards 
Other Ag^nc 

Mixed Schools for Roys and Gvrla 

Subjects of instruct on for G ilfi nclud ng Needle \rork 
Text books for Girls 
Instruct on and Text hooka 

Agenc eafor Female Edncat on other than Schools 
vfianana M sa ons 

Secular Zenana A gene ea 
Jj terature for the Zenana 
Qual ty of the Instruct on in G tU S hook 
Results of the Examimt onam G vh Schools 1881 Sz 
Review of Exam nat on Results n G rls Schools tSSt 8* 
Pefic ency of Teachers for G rb Schools 
Afalfl Teachera for Git Is Schools 
Femirts T^htrs f or Gitls Schools 
Schoolmasters wivea as Teachers 

B fficult es of Female Teachers 
Train ng of Female Teachers 
Female Educat on Expenditure on in 188 1 Si 
Different Gources of Funds 



493^496 
498 



498^503 
505—50; 

507 



507 508 

508 509 

509 5 10 

510 5" 

r 6 a? 



1 



fir S i8 

18 — 520 



521 
521 S" 



530 

53i 

ib 

S3i 532 
S3* 

532 533 

533 534 
534 

a 

534 S3S 
535 

535 536 

5i 6 

ib 

536 537 

537 538 
538 

b 

538 539 
539 

539 54° 
540 

b 

54° 5*i 
542 



CONTEXTS. 



Suitability of tho Grrant*in*aid Holes 
Grants-in-aid to Girls' Schools 
Inspectresses for Girls' Schools 

School Feea 

Prizes for Girls' Schools . 
Scholarships in GirU* Schools 
"Artificial Stmmknts " to Girls* Schools 
Summary . • . * , * * 
Female Education : Recommendations 



CHAPTER SI. — LEGISLATION — 



Educational Legislation in general 

j, *> in India 

Measures affecting rural Districts in the various Provinces * 

tfl Municipalities in the various Provinces * 

Review of evidence in regard to Legislation in tho various Provinces 
Conclusions from this Review . 
Basis of the Recommendations of tho Committee 
Arguments of tha Minority of tho Commission * 

„ „ Majority of the Commission . 
Recommendations „ 



Pi EU 

54* 

543, 543 

543 

544 

ft, 

544, 545 
545 

545—543 
548, 549 



550 
550,55' 
551—554 
554—557 
557—559 
559* S60 
560, 561 

561-563 

5 6 3— 5«5 
565-567 



CHAPTER XII.— FINANCIAL SUMMARY— 

Introductory: Division of the subject 553 

Definition of terms * . * . . . _ . . . jgg j ^ 
Elimination of certain charges + 

Incidence of Expenditure on Public and other Funds . , . 5^9) 570 

Provincial Funds « + 570—573 

* Local Bates • + • + + 572 

Municipal Contributions * * . » » m , m $7*j 573 
Fees 

Other Sources < , t * , 573/574 

Comparative incidence of Expenditure in various Provinces . , 574, 575 

Distribution of Public Expenditure * 575~577 

11 tt Funds according to Educational Agencies . 573 

Total Educational Expenditure m India j 7 S j 

Comparison of Departmental Statistics roth the Imperial Accounts • 57^ 58a 

Provincial Contributions \ . . 580,581 

Local Fund Contributions 581,562 

* Municipal Contributions t 582* 583 

Insufficiency of Contributions from Public Funds * , , * 5^3* 584 



CHAPTER XIII.— RECOMMENDATIONS OF TEE COMMISSION— 

Recommendations on Indigenous Education • 

on Primary Education . 
on Secondary Education t 
on Collegiate Education , 

on the Internal Administration of the Education 

Department- 
on the External Relations of tho Department , 
regarding Classes requiring Special Treatment 
on Femalo Education 

as to Legislation , . . * * . * 



585, 586 
5 66— 589 
589, 590 
590—593 

$92— 594 
594-597 

597-599 
599- 600 



MINUTES OR DISSENTS BY MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION— 



Dissent recorded by the Honourable Ehudeb Mookerjea, C J E F • • 603 
rt by the Reverend Dr. Joan, S J. ft. 

Minute recorded by D, Barbour, Esq * • ♦ .* • 603—605 

M by Kashinath Tnmbat Tdang, Esq. . , * 6ctf— 619 

Dissent recorded by Arthur Howell, E*q * 620 

Note by the President . . 61 J, 6ii 



X 



CONTENTS 



APPENDICES A, B C — 

Appm£ a A — HtsoVutwm oi tno Government of India appointing tbe 

Education Ccmmiaa on 623^-6*8 

Jppercilup U —List cf Witnesses T?ho have given Evidence before the 

Commission 628 — 63* 

Append x 0 — List of Memorials received *by th& Commission 632 — 639 

STATISTICAL TABLES— 



(See separate Index at their commencement) 



1 to Ixini 



REPORT 

OF 

THE EDUCATION COMMISSION 



CHAPTER I 

INTRODTJCTOIIY 

1 Appointment of the Commission — On the 3rd February iSS*, the 

Government of Indii appointed in Education Commission, with a rtetv to 
enquiring into the working of the existing system of Public Instruction* and 
to the further extension of that system on a popular basis The Commission 
consisted of thej;wenty one members noted below* and 1 secretary A certain 
number of members were selected from each of the Presidencies and Provinces, 
excepting Burma and Assim, md cayc iras taken, in their selection* tint 
they should fairly represent the various races and classes interested in Indian 
education 

2 Seasons for the Enquiry*— The instructions to the Commission Tvere 
contained in the Resolution of the Ghn ernor General in Council dated tlio 3rd 
February 188" f That document set forth the Court of Directors' Despatch of 
the 19th Jul) 1854 as the basis of tlio educational policy of India The Reso* 

* Pre* dint 

Tl q Ilouotrabl* W W Huxteb, RJi LL D CLl E JlemJwr of lb* \ ceroy * Leg slat ve Council 

ZZcmbcrs 

Tho Honourable ^attid A jihad Ruin Bihidcs, C S I (wbo afterwards w Lhdrw an d was merged bj 

his ton Me. Sayyid [Maemcd) 
Tbe Honourable D 31 BAfcBaUB CS Secretary to tbe Gorerament of Ind % in tbe Ftoaiacwl I\partiii«it 
The BeTd \V IL Ulickbtt M*A. Franc pal of tho Chimb Uimon D v a ty College CaT utt*. 
Mr Airuf 3 loniiff Uoeu B A* Birr iter-at-Lav 
31 r *L Caorr 31 A D rector of Pull d Infraction, Pen£4l 
II r Iv* Deiohtov B*A Principal of tbe Agtm College North Western Pro? tnws 
if r J T Fotsxes Inspector of **cbools 3fadru 
3Ir A P IIotoll, 31JU C S Coram ss oner of Benr 

Mr II r Jacob, Educational Inspector 1)01111)37 * 

Air W Lkc\Ue\EB C Frst As*wlant*Cbllector Satan, Homily 

Tt 9 Hetd AY 3I1LULB, 3IJV*, Fnac pal of the 3I*draj Chr stum College 

31 r I lijjiOA^ririA MtfPlUAtt MA Profes*or of iTathemat cm Prei d*ncy Colle* e MaJru 

Tbe Honotirabf lHt« Btici»*d Mooeekjei CJ E. Ijsspector ef Schoob Ben^ 

11 r C PjUEtOf M*A Inspector of Schools Punjab 

Tbf Honourable 3Iabar*ja S r Jqtex&sq MqBaj* Ticca?, ECjSX 3fcnrf*r of tb* V «rojr • I^yiJat t# 

COQUC I 

Mt Kxsmsxin TfiiiiB« TtLt^a 31 A„ BairatcMt Law Borabaj 

31r G E W*» CS CoHwtGrof Jasurmr ^rtbAW *rn lro¥inc« 

Tlio taxi A Jsi^ UP C5J) Lcctarcf *=t Jqm|4i * CtiUeg* \<j£*patam (eow it Tnca noya tj 
'Mr C. A P Bsowkixo M*A„ In. pcttor Geutral cf Ldtjcauon Ontral Furnaces 
Mr Hui Garmt Hi&iv Faujab 

)Ir H L. Ricx D rteter of Pub c It^tnic n 3Tj»ort «d Cot?rg 
Iber^fiire bo gma n tb* f Hon g ptvra^f b*, 



2 



HEPOrT OF THE education commission [chap I 

luhon states that, while the Government acknowledged the mnstcrly and compre- 
hensive outline supplied by that Despatch, they deemed it of importance to rcvi cw 
the progress made, and to enquire how far the superstructure corresponded witli 
the original design Such «m enquiry was instituted by order of the Secretary 
of State for Indu in 1859, shortly after the controlling authority lad H 
from the East India Company to the Crown But circumstances prevented the 
preparation of any complete or comprehensive report Nearly n quirter of a 
century had smce elapsed, and the. Governor General in Council believed that 
the time had now come for instituting i further and more circful investi- 
gation into the existing system, and into tho results nttuncd by it, than had 
hitherto been attempted * 

3 The mam Duty of the Commission —In appointing i Commission 

for that purpose, His Excellency declared tliat its duty should be to enquire 
particularly into the manner in which effect had been given to the Pe 
spatch of i8 0 4 , and to suggest such methods as it might think desirable, with a 
view to more completely curving out the policy therein laid down t " The Gov 
« eminent of India," says the Uesolution, " is firmly convinced of the soundness of 
" that policy, and has no wish to depart from the principles upon which it la based " 

4 Instructions to the Commission : Primary Education —The Gov- 
ernor General m Council desired that the Commission, m enquiring how far 
these principles had been acted on, " should specially bear in mind the great 1m 

* porfcmce which the Government attaches to the subject of Primary Education 
'The development of elementary education was one of the main objects contem- 
plated by the Despatch of 1 854 Attention was specially directed in that 

" Despatch to the question ' how useful and practical knowledge, suited to every 

* station m life, might he best conveyed to the great mass of the people, "who are 
" utterly incapable of obtaining any education worthy of the name by their 
" own unaided efforts,' and it was desired that ' the active measures of Govern- 
w ment should he more especially directed for the future to this object* 

* Although the matter was thus prominently and at the outset pressed upon the 
" attention of the Indian Administrations, there can His Excellency in Council 
" believes, he very little doubt that, owing to a variety of circumstances, more 
" progress has up to the present time been made in high and middle than in 
"primary education The Government of India is not disposed m any way to 
" regret this advance It would be altogether contrary to its policy to check or 
"hinder in any degree the further progress of high or middle education But 
" the Government holds that the different branches of Public Instruction should, 

if possible, move forward together, and with more equal step tlian hitherto, and 
the principal object, therefore, of the enquiry of the Commission should be e the 
present state of elementary education throughout the Empire, and the means 
" by which this can everywhere he extended and improved ' " 

5 Instructions to the Commission : Private Efforts and Grants-in- 
aid — " "WMe this is the mam object to which the enquiries of the Commission 
" should be directed, the Governor General in Council desires to impress upon it 
" at the same time the fact that it is not possible for the Government to find 
■ funds sufficient to meet tho iull requirements of the country in the matter of 
primary education, if those requirements are to he judged by any European 
standard The resources at the disposal of Government, whether Imperial 
( Provincial, or Local, are, and must long remain, extremely limited m amount! 
aud the result is, not only that progress must necessarily be gradual, hut that, 



ct 
tt 
tt 



4 

CHAP. I.] % INT110DUCT0IIT, 3 

M if satisfactory progress is to be made at all, every available private agency must 
u bo called into action to relieve and assist the public funds in connection with 
"every branch of Public Insf ruction. It was in view of ' the impossibility of 
*' Government alone doing all that must be done to provide adequate means for 
t'thc education of the Natives of India,' that the grant-in-aid system was 
** elaborated and developed by the Despatch of j 854 ; and it is to the wider ex- 
" tension of tliis system, especially in connection with high and middle education* 
" that the Government looks to set free funds which may then be made applicable 
"to the promotion of the education of the masses. c The resources of the State 
"ought/ as remarked by the Secretary of State in Despatch No. 13 of 25th 
* 6 April 1864, f to be so applied as to assist those who cannot be expected to help 
" themselves, and the richer classes of the people should gradually be induced 
u to provide for their own education/ "* 

6. Instructions to the Commission : Transfer of Schools to Native 

Management — " In pursuance of this policy, it is the desire of Government to 
" offer every encouragement to Native gentlemen to come forward and aid, even 
" more extensively than heretofore, in the establishment of schools upon the grant- 
" in-aid system : and His Excellenoy in Council is the more anxious to see tliis 
u brought about, because, apart altogether from the consequent pecuniary relief 
" to Government, it is chiefly in tliis way that the Native community will be able 
r< to secure that freedom and variety of education which is an essential condition 
*' in any sound and complete educational system, , . . The Government is 
f ( ready therefore to do all that it can to foster such a spirit of independence and 
" self-help. It is willing to hand over any of its own colleges or schools in suit- 
« able cases to bodies of Native gentlemen who will undertake to manage them 
" satisfactorily as aided institutions ; all that the Government will insist upon 
<e being that due provision is made for efficient management and extended use- 
fulness, , . . It is specially the wish of Government that municipal bodies 
c * should take a large and increasing share in the management of the public 
"schools within the limits of their jurisdictions. The best way of securing this 
** result should also he considered by the Commission/'t 

7. Instructions to the Commission: Kates of fees: Scholarships*— 

s The Governor General in Council next called attention to the statement, not 
unfrecjuently made, that the wealthier classes in India do not at present pay 
enough for the education of their children- He laid down the principle that 
f f persons in good circumstances should pay the full cost of their children's edu- 
cation, or at any rate that no part of this should fall upon State funds. But 
^"in endeavouring to secure this result, care must be taken that no unnecessary 
1 " obstacles are thrown in the way of the upward progress of really deserving 
" students of the poorer classes.'^ The funds available for scholarships should 
he so distributed as to afford ample facilities for obtaining a good secondary edu- 
cation to a large number of youths in the secondary schools. The scholarships 
tenable during the University course need not he so liberal, but should still be 
sufficient to hold out a fair opportunity of obtaining an advanced education to the 
best of the pupils in the middle and high schools. But Government scholar- 
ships ought not in any way to be placed on an eleemosynary basis. They 
** should always be given as distinct rewards for merit, tested and proved by 
'* competitive examinations/* $ TVhile the State provision for scholarships was to 
be allotted exclusively by competition, the Governor General in Council pointed 
out tlmt it," will leave a wide field open for the establishment of scholarships 
(< requiring local or other qualifications through the munificence of private indi- 
" viduals or corporations/* J 

* Eolation, paraa 3 and q f Be^oluhon, paiaa 10 and 11. J Eesot at ton f para- is. 



i EEKffiT Or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. [CHAP. I 

8 Instructions to the Commission: Indigenous Schools.-In conncc 

*- Tdncition the Commission was directed to « particularly ra- 

tion with ^^^T^^^^ 8C i 100 ls a*t in different parts of the 

" Go^rnmcnt of India is disposed to advocate the making as much wo as po - 
-SbtoX schools"* "The great object in the first instance is to get such 
« schools stablished: their improvement and elation to a higher standard 
« 5£. though of great importance, an object of subsequent endeavour. . . . 
«4hc°CommLsion should advise as to how this cm best be done, without 
Attempting a too rapid advance, or throng obstacles in the ,ay of the 
« extension of the area of instruction, especially xn backward districts, t 

9. Instructions to the Commission: Secondary Education .-TVith 

record to Secondary Education, the Commission was directed to enquire into the 
« quality and character of the instruction at present imparted m schools of this 
« class The great majority of those who prosecute their studies beyond the pn- 
"mary sta-e wdl never go beyond the curriculum of tbc middle, or at furthest of 
« the hi"h schools. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the education 
" they receive should be as thorough and sound as possible. There are grounds for 
" doubting whether there is not, in some Provinces at any rate, much room for lm- 
"piovementm this respect. . . . It would be contrary to tho policy of Govern- 
" ment to adopt any measures that would have the appearance of restricting aided 
« schools to the use of any particular class of text-books, or to interfere with the 
« free choice of the managers in such matters But it is desirable to know how 
" far the general suggestions of the [Text-book] Committee have found ncccpt- 
" ance in the different Provinces, and what is being done to carry them out in 
" the case of both Government and aided instruction." $ 

10. Instructions to the Commission: Inspection: Female Educa- 
tion —The Commission was also to enquire into the present system of educa- 
tional inspection, with a view to lemoving defects, introducing improvements 
and securing the aid of a large amount of voluntary agency in the work of inspect- 
ing and examining schools. The important and difficult subject of female 
education was to receive special consideration, together with the best means of 
encouraging and extending it so far as the circumstances of tho country 
permit. 

11. Instructions to the Commission: Subjects exempted from its 

Enquiries.— "While thus assigning a large area of enquiry to the Commission, 
the Governor General in Council exempted certain special branches of educa- 
tional work from its investigations. These branches included the general 
working of the Indian "Universities ; technical instruction, whether medical, 
legal, or engineering ; the education of Europeans and Eurasians. Tho Govern- 
ment of India also warned the Commission that in providing for the extension of 
primary schools, " the limitation imposed upon the action of Government by 
" financial considerations must always be borne in mind." [] 

12, Method adopted by the Commission in conducting the En- 
quiry. — The Education Commission assembled in Calcutta on the 10th of Peb. 
ruary 1882, and sat regulaily until the 31st of March. Its deliberations 
during this session were chiefly directed to preparing a scheme, with a 
view to clearly ascertaining the state of education in each of the several 
Provinces of India. Por this purpose, tho representative members for each 
part of India were constituted a Provincial Committee. Tho Commission 

» EeBoktion.jata 13 f Resolution, para 15 J Resolution, para 17. || Itaaolutujn, para. 



IX 



CHAP. I.] 



r 

INTEODTTCTOltX, 



5 



elaborated a detailed plan upon which the Provincial Committees were, durin<* 
ihe ensuing eight months, to draw up a Hoport dealing with the past Ms* 
tory, present condition, and future development of education in their respoctive 
Provinces- Before it separated, the majority of the Bengal witnesses were also 
examined by the Commission. At the end of ITarch the first session of the 
Commission in Calcutta terminated, and the memhers returned to their own 
duties in the different Presidencies, The next eight months were devoted to 
tho local collection of materials upon which the Commission might hase its 
deliberations during the second session. These materials were of three kinds* 
First, the evidence of witnesses in each Presidency and Province; second, 
memorials submitted to the Commission by Associations, individuals, and public 
bodies throughout India ; third, the Provincial Beports drawn up for the Com- 
mission by its members, arranged in Committees so as to represent the Pro- 
vinces to which they respectively belonged. The Commission re-assembled in 
Calcutta on the 5th of December 1882, and continued its sittings during the 
following months. It at onco appointed six sectional Committees, each of 
which was instructed to deal with the evidence, memorials^ and Provincial 
Reports hearing on the subjects referred to it, and to prepare Recommenda- 
tions for discussion by the Commission. Having fully deliberated on the 
materials before it, and agreed upon its Recommendations* the Commission 
concluded its collective labours on the 16th of March 1883- Before separat- 
ing, the Commission placed on record its acknowledgment of the valuable 
services rendered to it in various ways by its Secretary, Mr. Lewis Rice* 
The Report was then drawn up by the President of the Commission and a 
representative Committee of five members, — namely, Mr* Croft (BengalJ, Mr. 
Miller (Madras) , Mr. Howell (Central Provinces), Mr* Lee- Warner (Bombay), 
Mr- Deigliton (North-Western Provinces). Mr* Jacob was entrusted with the 
preparation of the Statistical Tables contained in the Report — a task which 
proved to be one of exceptional difficulty. The Commission had reduced the 
results of its enquiries to 222 specific Recommendations: of which i8o were 
passed unanimously* while the remaining 42 were carried by a majority* The 
Recommendations aro to be accepted as the deliberate decisions of the Com- 
mission, and they form the basis of this Report, The Draft Report was 
circulated for approval to the membeis of the Commission in their respective 
Provinces. 

13. Brief Survey of the Evidence. — The witnesses were chiefly selected 
by the Provincial Committees, with a view to representing the various educational 
interests in India; but a number of them consisted of gentlemen who spontane- 
ously requested to be examined. The Commission prepared a series of ques- 
tions covering the whole area of its enquiry, and forwarded a copy to each wit- 
ness for consideration. AVMe inviting answers to the particular questions thus 
circulated, the Commission did not confine the replies of the witnesses to 
those subjects, hut welcomed the evidence of each witness on any educational 
matter in which he was interested, or with regard to which he had special 
knowledge. The number of witnesses thus examined was 193, and their 
evidence, taken as a whole, forms a unique exposition of the most trustworthy 
opinion in India regarding the instruction of the people- As the enquiries of 
the Commission were to a large extent directed to the working of the existing 
system, the Education Department was strongly represented among the wit- 
nesses of each Province. The institutions interested in the application of 
the granMn-aul principle were numerously represented by Missionaries, both 
Protestant and Uoman Catholic, by delegates selected by Native Educational 
Societies, and by the Head-masters of Native schools, Higher education was 
also repiesented by many gentlemen w ho, after a distinguished career in the TTni- 

2 



c KcronT or toe eptjcition* commission [cnw. l 

Tcrsitlcs of Calcutta, Madras, or Hominy, arc now actively engaged in Ipdhn 
professional life. Indigenous rind priinny education m tcprMentei InoUal} ■ 
by a number of* itne^es specially interested in the instruction of tlio toner 
classes, but also liy Pandits and Maulaus of indigenous schools, lhe various 
mccs of India-mudus, llulmmmadans, Sikhs Itor*K— were impartially heard. 
Particular care was taken tint the educational tianU of any cla*s P Mich . w 
the Mubammadans h*™ fallen bclviml in the race of life under British 
Rule, should receive the fullest consideration* The number of witnesses was 
approximately futcd at an average of 30 to 40 Jor each Province; but tins 
territorial standard was modified according to the local necessities of the 
different parts of India* 

14. Local Examination of the Witnesses— The examination of the 193 

witnesses was conducted at convenient centres in the Provinces to ivhicli they 
respectively belonged- The President of the Commission made a tour round 
India* and held a session with the Provincial Committee in each of the main 
territorial divisions, for the purpose of hearing evidence The cross-examin- 
ation of the ^witne^&os was conducted by the President and Provincial Commit- 
tees at considerable length. The list of witnesses is given in Appendix II to 
this Report, and the number beard in each Pro\inco is summarised below** 
The evidence thus collected throughout India, together with statements con- 
nected therewith, aggregates about three thousand printed pages, 

15* Brief Survey of the Memorials, — The number ol the memorials 

received by the Commission was 323. They came from e^ery part of India, but 
were most numerous in the Punjab and NorthAYcstern Provinces, uhere the 
language to be used as the medium of instruction is still a question of keen 
interest among the people, 0£ the total number of 323 received throughout 
India, 140 were submitted by Educational Societies, Sttuucipalities, public 
bodies, or individuals interested in bchool lvork; ^bitc 183 miy bo described 
a& ^o^ular tam^tocs ^ttjyrctrag to b& feigned l&y 233,6 19 persons. The list 
of memorials is given in Appendix C to this Report, and tbo number recch ed 
from each Province is summarised below- 1 

16. Brief Survey of the Provincial Eeports— Seven Reports were 

prepared by the Provincial Committees of the Commission for tbo ter^ 
Tutorial divisions of India ivbicb those Committees respectively represent.} 

* Number of wstacasea beard m each Province— 

Bombay , 3 3 

Bengal 



31 

North Western Provjuces anil Oodb a3 

45 



ti 



Punjnb 

Central Frotiuces „ 

Tout * 193 

rt tfe Be^l mt^se* were heard the r«mm«l Commie, pr^de^r bj its *m C^irrrua 
T Ijist of memorials received from each Province— 

Trcm Madm * 2J 
Bombay 

N 01 fch ^Western Pro? locea and Oudli » i r 

Punjab J* 

Miscellaneous ^ g 

Total 323 

p^.rri 1,, the BecwuJ WfflSi 7 ' °' ***** A Ec P ort ° a m ftSf 



CILU\ I*] 



INTRODUCTORY- 



7 



Tiikcn as a whole, they exhibit, on a uniform plan and in complete detail, the 
past history, the present condition, and the future wants of education in each 
Province of India. They aggregated over 1,100 pages, and have supplied much 
of the information on which the present Report is based, A copy of each is 
submitted to the Government with this Report. 

17. Summary of the Materials obtained —The materials collected by 

the Commission from Tebruary to November 1882 consist, therefore, of the 
evidence of 193 witnesses examined at local centres throughout India ; of 323 
memorials, chiefly from Associations, or from sections of the public interested 
in education ; and of a special Keport for each of the great territorial divisions 
of India prepared by the Provincial Committee, The Commission re-assembled 
in Calcutta on the 5th December 1882, to deliberate upon the mass of printed 
and manuscript documents thus obtained. It divided the questions before it 
into six principal branches, as follows : (1) Indigenous and Primary Education ; 
(2) Secondary and Collegiate Education ; (3) the Internal Administration of 
the Education Department, including the system of inspection and examina- 
tions ; (4) the External Relations of the Education Department, including 
grants-in-aid, and the withdrawal of Government in favour of native manage* 
ment of colleges and schools ; (5) the Education of Special Classes of the 
community requiring exceptional tieatment ; (6) Educational Legislation. A 
series of proposals were drawn up on each of these subjects by the Committee 
entiusted with its consideration. These proposals were then discussed and 
adopted, rejected, or modified by the Commission The conclusions thus 
arrived at were, a** already stated, embodied in 222 specific Recommendations 
which are to be accepted as the deliberate decisions of the Commission, 

18* Twelve chief Divisions of the Enquiry— The Report will accord- 
ingly follow the classification indicated in the last paragraph, and treat the 
questions referred to the Commission by the Government of India in the follow- 
ing twelve Chapters: — 

(a) Historical review of education in India , Chapter II, 
(6) Indigenous education ; Chapter III. 

(c) Primary education ; Clnpter IV. 

(d) Secondary education ; Chapter V. 

(e) Collegiate education ; Chapter VL 

(f) Internal administration of the Depirtment : control, inspection, ex- 

aminations, text-books ; Chapter YII 

(g) External relations of the Depaitment to individuals and public bodies * 

grants-in-aid, private efforts; Chapter VIII. 

(h) Education of classes requiring special treatment; Chiefs and nobler, 

the TMuhammadans, the aborigines, Ion -castes, and the poor; 

Chapter IX. 
(t) Female education ; Chapter X. 
ij) Educational Legislation ; Chapter XI 
(#) Emancial Summary ; Chapter XH 
(I) Recommendations of the Commission ; Chapter XIII. 



CHAPTER II. 



HISTORICAL 11EVILW Ol 1 l/DUCATION IN INDIA 

19* Education in Ancient India.— Since their first appearance mnnthen 
ticlustorj, the Indians Imt nlunjs enjojed the reputation of bung a learned 
people Stcgaslhcncs t lie Greek ambassador to tho court of Chandra Gupta 
about 300 is c , found a grme and polished society in which phiIo*oph\ and 
Rficnce were successfully cultivated and held in honour The rich stores of 
Sanskrit litcnture ^luch lmo come down to the present age confirm this 
description In the four stages prescribed for n Brahman's life, the first, incluA 
ing youth and carl) manhood, Mas tint of the Brahnnthan, or karncr, and 
extended over man) years lint the Bnhmans confined their tea thing of the 
Dhanua Shastras to their own and the other two " twicc-born " castes and midc 
it penal to communicate 1113 but clemontirj knouletlgt? tothe senile and mixed 
multitude lluj Buddhist reformation placed religion and education on a mort 
popular basis Ihc Chinese travellers and the Pali texts alike bear witness to 
this fact, and in the seventh century \ i> , the vnst monastery of Jsatnndi formed 
a scat of learning which recalls, hj tho numbers and the zeal of its students, the 
later Universities of mcdmal Europe After tho Musulman conquest, tho 
mosque became 111 India, as in other countries of Islam, a centre of instruction 
and of literary actiuty Education alike among the Uuhamnndans and tho 
Hindus is ba^ed upon religion, and was supported by endowments ind bequests 
%n V l0 & mtiB r ^ lc ^-* ls *' I^dn Company found the four ancient methods of edu- 
cation still it work, m the instructional* en by theBrabmans io their ihsciplcs* 
in the tols, or seats of Sanskrit learning, and in the maktabs and nndra^is, or 
schools and colleges of tho iluhammadans , and in tho large number of humbler 
nllage schools winch also existed These village schools gave an elementary 
jducation to the trading chsscs and to the children of the petty landholders 
ind uell to do famihes among the cultivators 

20* Education Tinder British Hole— -When the East India Company 
received charge of Bengal from the Delhi Emperor, it aimed only at discharg- 
ing the duties fulfilled by the previous ruling pouer It respected endowments 
made to educational institutions, and its earliest efforts were confined to the 
establishment of a Muhammadan and a Sanskrit college of the old types 
But three influences were at work winch forced it into new fields of edu- 
cational activity A knowledge of English became a means of livelihood to 
natives at the centres of Government, and a demand arose Yor English instruc 
Uon in the Presidency towns As the old exotic court language, Persian, fell 
into disuse and especially ^vhen it ceased to bo tho language of official life, 
the demand for education in the vernaculars winch had superseded the foreign 
tongue made itself more widely felt Meannhile, a now influence m fa\our of 
popular education was being brought to hear upon the Indian Government 
by missionary and philanthropic bodies both m thib country and in Europe The 
eld system how over, did not give place to the new 111 thou t a struggle Tor 
yeara the medium and the character of the instruction to" he en en 
i w.l e w? eBt S ? hools Md Colle ^ s ™™ the subject of a vigorous 



ihTSi bet t Ween tlle Anglicists andUic Orientalists The former p aT ty 



con 
urced 



iMtrurfion of the higher kind should be given through the I^hsh 



ohap. n.] msrojucAL review of ctucaitoit m india, ' g 

language, and should ha in accordance with f modern ideas, The latter, Vhile 
admitting tba£ uhat was "then ^taught as science Lad no right to tint title, 
wished to maintain the study of the Oriental classics in accordance with the 
methods indigenous to the country. Both parties broadly and prominently 
admitted the claims of the vernacular languages, Among the Orientalists were 
many distinguished of the officers of Government, and for sometime their views 
prevailed in the General Committee of Puhlic Instruction. But the minority 
gradually became more and more powerful ; and when in J 835 the two parties 
were so evenly balanced that tilings had come to a dead-lock, it was ITacanlay's 
advocacy of English education that turned the scale against the Orientalists. 
His famous Minute was immediately followed by a Resolution of the Gov- 
. ernor-Gcneral, which plainly declared for English as against Oriental education* 
A few years later the Orientalists made several efforts to rescind this Be- 
solution and to revert to the previous policy in favour of the classical languages 
of India. They received, however, no encouragement from the Government j 
and in 1839 Lord Auckland published a Minute which finally closed the con- 
troversy. The purport of this Minute was (t that although English was to 
" be retained as the medium of the higher instruction in European literature, 
* ( philosophy, and science, the existing oriental institutions were to be kept up 
" in full efficiency, and were to receive the same encouragement as might be 
" g\ven to the students at English institutions- Vernacular instruction was to 
" be combined with English, full choice being allowed to the pupils to attend 
" whichever tuition they might individually prefer. "* Since that time educa- 
tion in India has proceeded upon the recognition of the value of English 
instruction, of the duty of the State to spread Western knowledge among its 
subjects, and of the valuable aid which missionary and philanthropic bodies 
can render in the task. In reviewing the progress of education we proposo to 
consider, first, the early efforts of the East India Company and of private socie- 
ties prior to 1S54; secondly, the principles laid down for the guidance of the 
Departments in the Despatches of 1854 and 1859; and thirdly, the progress 
of education in each Province of India between 1 S54 and 1882. The condition 
of education in India in 1881-82 in every class of colleges and schools, the inter- 
nal mechanism, as well as the external relations of the Departments, the question 
of legislation, and the financial administration of education will form the sub- 
jects of separate Chapters of this Report. 

21, Madras: Education prior to 1854.— Education has never been 

wholly neglected in the Southern Districts which now form the Presidency of 
Madras* The indigenous schools, a relic of very early times, fell far short of 
modern European standards, but they helped, as elsewhere in India, to raise the 
general standard of intelligence ; and they gave a practical training to their pupils 
for the affairs of life. In 1 8 a 2, when the British Government, represented by Sir 
Thomas Jlunro, began to manifest an interest in popular instruction, and insti- 
tuted such enquiries as could then bo made, 157,000 boys and more than 4,000 
girls were found in attendance at about 12,000 schools. With the exception 
of a few institutions conducted by European Missionaries, all existing schools 
were supported and managed by the people themselves. The instruction given 
was either extremely rudimentary, or when it dealt with higher subjects, aimed 
at little more than the cultivation of the memory. 

22. Madras: Government Heasnres, 1826 to 1854,— The Government 

' of Madras accordingly established, in 1826, a Boird of Public Instruction, 
and under the care of! that Board, nearly one hundred schools were opened in 
the rural districts, together with a central institution for the training of teachers 

* HoveU 9 hot* on Education prior to iSj4» p"£ie 42, 



10 



he pout or rni r tit/cation cosntrsio'* [ctiu* n 

in Hadrv Tins central institution supplied eventually the \wn of the 
Madras High School; 1mt tlic schools in the Districts languished, and in 
a few jears wcro abolished as failures Dj appointing other Hoards and liy 
lustitutm!? various examinations, Government mnth K\tn\ suWtfUcnt cnflci 
voura to encoungo a demand for a Ik ttcr education linn the mdi^nom «chooh 
afforded But up to 1S54, tho onlj attempt ninth nrmcd to l»o a success was 
tho Madras IIi a 'h School Pounded on tho Central Madras Institution of 
1S26, it was opened as a high school in 1841, and for man} jcars irvs conducted 
hy Mr L. B Powell, afterwards Director or Public Instruction Tlic high 
school nuicM} gained tho rt putation which, under the namt of the Presidency 
College, it has* uniformly preened l«o schools «>f a BimUar character were 
founded at Cuddaloro and Kajamaliendn, m 1S53 and 1854 rcspcctnclj 
When, therefore, the Despatch of 1854 nas written, these three institutions in 
which English was taught were the onh result of the efforts which Govern- 
ment had made during twenty eight years 

23 Madras: Private Effort, 1786 to 1854— Meantime, other 

iccncics had hecn at norX Schools for I urasnns had long flourished in 
Midns One of tlicm, the Military Orphan As\lum, founded in 1786, became 
widely known through the method of instructio n borrowed fro m the indigenous 
system and first applied in it hy Dr Bell In school* of this class, a few na tires 
reccn cd a fair education Hut tho philanthropic spirit from \\ Inch such institu- 
tions sprang, made its effects fclton the natives of thecountrj more directly hy 
nnothcr channel As noticed in paragraph 96 of the Despatch of 1854, Southern 
India o\tcs much of its educational progress to the efforts of missionary sone* 
tics, — efforts earh recognised b) tho Local Got eminent In 1 790, the Society 
for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge opened a school for natn cs, which, 
after passing through many changes, still flourishes as St Peters College at 
Tanjorc lhc Government of Madriis made grants to the Society for this institu 
tion, and for one or two others, with wluch tho venerated name of Schwann was 
connected In 'Madras, therefore, missionary effort in education had oh tamed 
State aid, and thus established tho claims of private effort to tho recognition of tho 
State, hcfoic tho close of the eighteenth century Tho Missionaries of the 
American Board opened a number of primary schools in tho Madura District in 
1834 , and maintained for many years, subsequent to 1835, a school in the town 
of Madura in which English was taught But the measure which did most for 
education m the South was taken hy another missionary body In 1837, Mr 
Anderson, the first Missionary of the Scottish Church to Southern India, opened 
an institution m Aladras He aimed at implanting m natives of tho country 1 
desire for education of a distinctively Western type, communicated through the 
medium of the English language The success of the experiment was unequi 
vocal from the outset Mr Anderson's Institution became a centre of educa 
tional actmty, and was surrounded in a few yrars hy vigorous branch schools 
It is now represented by two great institutions in the Presidency town tho 
Madras Christian College, and the Church of Scotland Missionary Institution 
and by the many auxiliary schools of these parent institutions m Madras and 
the —ajng ftstnefe Smoo ,837 and particularly Jrom ,84,^" 
alieady mentioned, the Government High School was opetfed, eflu^ w 
made steady progress in Southern India The example of tho Wi? i n T 
jus quickly followed by other Christian ChUrch 
Society establish Mission^ 

their college at Nemmtam m iR^rt * 4 » JcsUlt Tath ^ 

- - i. & ^^Z^S^X SSL 



CHAP. II*] HISTORICAL KEVimv Or EDUCATION IN KTDIA. 11 

expanded rapidly in Timievelly and Tanjore, It is estimated that in 1854 
about 30*000* boys 'were being educated in schools conducted by missionary 
societies, and about 3,000 -were obtaining at least the elements of a liberal 
education in English 

It was not until 1842 that nativo effort began to wort 011 the modern basis, 
by the opening of Pachaiyappa's Institution in Madras. The funds were de- 
rived from a charitable bequest of old standing, which by a decree of the 
Supreme Court was made available for educational purposes, and placed under 
a body of native gentlemen as trustees. The school at once took a high posi- 
tion, and has continued from its foundation until now to be the most distin- 
guished example of native educational effort in the Presidency, In 1854, the 
institution in Madras and its branch schools, which the trustees had opened at 
the sacred cities of Conjeveram and Chidambaram, were giving a high class of 
education to about a thousand pupils* 

24. Madras : Female Education, 1841 to 1854.— Female education had 

also made a certain amount of progress independently of tho State, and chiefly 
under missionary management, beforo the publication of the Despatch of 
1S54. Boarding-schools were maintained from an early period by the Church 
of England Societies in Tinneyelly ; but they were almost exclusively attended 
by the daughters of converts to Christianity, The first direct effort at educating 
Ilindu girls of the higher castes iras made at Madras in 1841 by the Mis- 
sionaries of the Scottish Church. The attempt had to struggle against many 
obstacles; and in 1843, the school was still on so small a scale that only 
nino pupils were in regular attendance. The difficulties were, however, gra- 
dually overcome, and since 1843, the growth of female education among the 
Hindus, though not rapid has been uninterrupted. In 1 845 the first girls' 
school, partly under native management, was opened in Madras, It has proved 
the precursor of many more ; but even yet, female schools under any other 
than missionary management are few and small outside the Presidency town* 
In 1854, there were probably 7,000 girls at schools conducted by missionary 
societies ; and although the bulk of these were Native Christians, there was 
also a considerable proportion of Hindus belonging to the higher castes. The 
nine pupils at tho school of the 3?ree Church of Scotland in 1843 had increased 
to about 700 in 1854. 

25* Madras: General Summary-— Thus, when the Despatch of 1854 

appeared, a good f oundation for education had been laid. The three Govern- 
ment schools, although the number of their pupils was hut small, were efficient 
and served as useful models. The natives, besides continuing to maintain their 
indigenous schools, had begun to demand education of a modern type. Mis- 
sionary schools had also been set up in many Districts and encouraged by the 
State. While the Presidency town had kept the lead in many ways, educa- 
tion had been widely developed throughout the Province 

26, Bombay : Education prior to 1854.— The educational history 0 f 

Bombay prior to 1854 is mainly a lecord of the work of missionary 
societies and of the Board of Education established in 1840, During the 
ascendancy of the Portuguese in Western India, their religious orders had 
organised a fairly complete system of education, wliich was developed until 
then: expulsion by the Maratbas, The orphanages and colleges established 
by the Pranciscan and Jesuit orders were closed before the middle of the 
eighteenth century; but the parish schools of the Portuguese territories 
survived ^the wieck of the power under which they had grown up. When 
British rule established itself in the capital of the Deccan, a remarkable 



12 EEPORT OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION [CHAP n 

influx of mrssumary enterprise took place Tho religious societies of America 
England Scotland, and Ireland, ned with each other m an honomable rivalry 
to coyer the newly acquired temtones with schools The American Missionary 
Souety opened a school for boys m Bombay in 1814, and ten years later 
established the first school for native girls m Western India TheZZtZ' 
ce ful operations were conducted ,t Ahmadnogar in the Decoan,™ the y 
still maintain several schools The Scottish Church, with the l^Twlon 
as its honoured representative, worked chieflv m -Rrm, w 7 i l ^ , 
the London Missionary Society^ select d Surat Z nZ ♦ 7 ?° E< ? Un ' 
first field of labour The operation ^ of the ct I « ™ m GujMat M ltS 
much wider In addition te s central An'ln vT ^kT 7 WCIB 
estabhshed m memory of Robert ^Motv ^ ^ at B ° m ^ 

work of education in the Poo™ and E ^ ssl ™ were engaged in the 
and Bassein m the Eonkan 7J « . / the Decca *. at Than* 

Schools in the Native States of TT^ P ? Engllsl1 and Vernacular 
Gujarat Schools from the London EST' * t0 ° k ^ of the 
devoted !ts attend to the ^TZv^ ^ ****** 

Province of the Bombay Vim^^^???**"* » every 

e f theBombayEdu 
the duty of educating the poor, not LTeWtL^ ^ tl ° nS took U P°* ^ 
]oimng Districts I* 6eyen ^ S&^h^t 1 !? Wt m tie ad 
charge of the growing respons^ with f n t to tte ^ 

attention exclusively to European and Indo Eurl? ' 14 theref 0rc ***** * 
of providing for the mstruLonTth ^ttl?^ ^f^ 10113 aud lef fc ^ task 
C5t ^edin t 8 2 ^^ a new assoe.at.on 

importance of the new Society J ZT i b ° ok and Sc ^ol socle tv f** 

a census taken of existing agencies A J* . operation was surveyed and 
school books The wantstf te Zre^lT** ^ made to «*Sr 8^2 
policy was laid down, and -sistanle^ A [ufo of 

stone s minute on the Society 8 Keport Si be T ^ M * %im 
Bombay Provmcial Committee, lt discloses tl, ' ^ m tho ^port of the 
explains its success Not merelv ffl fcT ? Wlde auns of «w Society -nS 
Presidency, outside Smd, Divis^ ^ 

and c<itendin<r education Tf „ i * 0lIVe v engaged m the work of nm 

of tho it^'i^ »» fa iSFSS 

matclyamounhngtonearlrJtrl , 611 horet »e<Iin ,8„ a 7~T If 8 



0 an arr angement 



CHAP* II.] HISTORICAL REVIEW OV EDUCATION IN INDIA. 18 

which had injured primary education in tho districts, and contributed to the 
failure of tho Presidency College. A Board of Education was therefore created 
in 1840 consisting of six members, of whom three were appointed by tho Native 
Education Society as its last act, and tlueo by Government 

28. Bombay: Board of Education, 1840 to 1854*— The Board of edu- 
cation was the force which directed tho movement of education in Bombay, be- 
fore tho State recognised its duty of organising a Department of Public Instruc- 
tion* Its success was partly due to tho impulse nhich the efforts of tho Missionaries 
had given to education, and partly to the alleged poverty of the indigenous 
system in Western India* It has been noticed that the District Officers had 
failed to manage successfully the primary schools entrusted to their care, 
Tho creation of tho Board was thus tho natural outcome both of the growing 
demand for instruction arid of the need of a central authority. The Itistory of 
education in Bombay between 1840 and 1855 is the history of the Board thus 
created, and of tho missionary societies which continued their independent 
work. Annual reports published by tho Board bear testimony to the sound- 
ness of their policy and to their far-sighted views on education. The Board 
took over all the Native Education Society's Vernacular Schools in Bom- 
bay and in the rural Districts, as well as the Government Vernacular Schools 
throughout the Presidency, They assumed charge of the English schools, of the 
Poona Sanskrit College founded in 1821, of the Normal classes, and of the 
Elphinstono College. They divided tho educational area of the Presidency 
into three divisions, each under a European Inspector ; established School Com- 
mittees, and stipendiary studentships; and undertook to open a vernacular 
school in every village containing 2,000 inhabitants, provided the people sub- 
scribed a certain share of tho cost. They also enquired into the condition of 
indigenous schools, and ascertained that in 1842 there were 1,420 such schools 
attended by upwards of 30,000 scholars. As, however, the funds at their dis- 
posal wore inadequate, and the general character of the indigenous schools 
seemed indifferent, tho JJoard rendered them no aid, and preferred to carry 
j ih&pcftj&jr bequeathed io ihrxo bp 3Ar* ITonntsiuari J^/ihinsfrux^ In 
Sir Erskine Perry became the President of the Board, and continued to hold 
that office until 1852. He was a strong advocate of English schools, and of 
leaving the education of tho masses to the indirect influence of the downward 
filtration policy, holding that it was better to concentrate on the higher educa- 
tion of tho few a grant which was inadequate to make any impression on the 
masses. But, at the same time, ho was anxious to open higher education to the 
poor, and to encourage a thorough study of the vernacular pari passu with 
English, On his retirement, only 43 Vernacular schools had been added to the 
list of Board-schools, whilst the number of English schools and their attend- 
ance had been doubled. His special encouragement of higher education 
involved a deviation from the previous tendency of the educational movement 
in Bombay, and met with some opposition. But his policy stimulated private 
enterprise, and called forth public liberality* Nine private English schools were 
maintained by their promoters as a means of livelihood at the Presidency town ; 
liberal endowments were created for the foundation of girls' schools in Ahmeda- 
bad; and the distant town of Dhnlia subscribed Us. 21,000 for a school fund. 
On Sir Erskine Perry's retirement from the direction of the Board, a reaction 
commenced in favour of primary education. Small grants-in-aid were for 
the first time offered to indigenous schools ; appointments in the lower grades of 
the public service were thrown open to public competition ; and the State sub- 
sidy for education was increased to Rs, 2,50,000, The Board now undertook 
to open a school in any village in the Presidency, on the condition that the 
inhabitants would engage to defray half the master's salary and to provide 

4 



u REPORT OT TOE mTJOMKW COmtlSSlOK [CHAT IT 

a school room and class hooks Thirty five vilhge3 immediately applied for 
Lh ob on these terms and twenty five o£ the demands we comphedmth In 
he foiling year, iS 54 ,the numher of appbcations rom cno Division alone 

no f ew tW 84 The numher of Enghsh and Normal vema uh 
schools was also increased, and Smd now hegan to ho provided for A school 
for Hindus of the lowest castes was opened in this year at Ahmadnigar ihe 
first school of this kmd had been estiUished m Poona a few years before, by a 
private person, and the Scottish Mission at Surat had opened similar schools in 
i8« The public libraries aided by the Education Board amounted to 22 , 
and during the year 46 000 copies of elementary school hooks we printed for 
the book depositories at Bombay and Poona 

29 Bombay : Female Education, 1824 to 1854 —It lias been shown tbat 

the first attempt at educating Hindu girls in Midras was made by the Mission- 
aries of the Scottish Church in 1841 To the American Missionary Society is 
due the credit of having opened the first native guls' school in Bombay m 1824 
By the year 1829 no fewer than 400 female pupils -were receiving instruction in 
their schools In 1837, the Scottish Missionary Society had already attracted 
300 girla to their schools, and m 1 840, five schools for the daughters of the higher 
classes of Hindus were opened in the neighbourhood of Poona by the Society 
The Church Missioniry Society established their first female school m 1 826 , and 
thus the cause of female education was actively taken in hand by the missionary 
societies of Bombay, from the earliest commencement of their labours in the 
field of education By 1 85 1 , native society had already given satisfactory proof 
of its independent interest m extending education to girls In that year, an 
endowment fund of Its 20 000 was created by Mr Maganhhai ICaramchand, 
of Ahmedabad for the foundation of two girls' schools in that city The 
institutions have flourished without interruption, and still occupy a high posi 
tion amongst the numerous schools for girls which have been established m the 
Division of Gujarat In the same year, a native gentleman of Poona Mr 
Joti Govindrao Phule, opened a private school at Poona, which was long held 
in high repute "While the missionary societies and a few native gentlemen 
of position, were thus engaged, a still more important stimulus to the cause oE 
female education was supplied by Profe^or Patton of the Elphinstone College 
He promoted the formation of a " Students' Literary and Scientific Society," 
which entirely supported in the city of Bombay nine vernacular free schools 
for girls attended by more than 650 pupils 

30, Bombay: General Summary— "When the Board of Education 

resigned office in May 1855, they were able to show that during their 15 years' 
administration the expenditure on education, together with the number of 
schools and scholars, had nearly trebled while the quality of the instruction 
imparted had greatly improved With the single exception of gnla' schools 
which they left entirely to private enterprise, they had laid the foundations 
of a system of education winch anticipated many of the principles of the 
Despatch of 1854 The way had been prepared for a University, by the 
establishment at Bombay and Poona of institutions for imparting instruc 
tion m Literature, Law, Medicine, and Civil Engineering At all the Dis 
tnct head quarter stations m the Presidency, except Kami, an English 
school had been established, as a model to excite and to encoura-e imita- 
tion leraacuhr schools controlled by the Board ^ere springing up on all 
sides ^le at the sime tune the indigenous schools Merc LngTnspected 
and encouraged A >ery interesting feature of the list period of the Board s 
administration was the introduction of the system of prLry schoo s a" 



CHAP, II,] HISTORICAL HE VIEW OF EDUCATION IX INDIA* 13 

fered by tho State, but mainly supported by the people themselves This sys- 
tem may be regarded as the germ from which the local fund schools that now 
exist were developed* 

31. Bengal: Educationpriortol854.— A vigorous system of indigenous, 
education has, at all times within historical memory, flourished in Bengal* 
Under the early Brahman civilisation, the instruction of the youth of the higher 
castes formed a religious duty, and in the case of the Brahmans themselves, 
the years devoted to learning were recognised as one of the four periods in the 
scheme of each man's life. When the English acquired the country, they found 
' a number of scattered institutions, known as tols, devoted to Sanskrit instruction 
on the ancient methods ; a number of learned Muhammadans, usually attached 
to noble families or to mosques, who were engaged in teaching the youth of 
that creed ; and a number of village schools of a humbler sort, which gave a 
practical, although an irregular, education to the lower orders. These three 
classes of institutions have been preserved in the educational system introduced 
by the British in Bengal. The old Sanskrit method may still be seen at work in 
the tols of Nadiya, while its modern counterpart flourishes in the Sanskrit 
College in Calcutta. Muhammadan learning on the orthodox basis is main- 
tained by the Calcutta Madrasa or central Muhammadan college, and by 1,250 
recognised Muhammadan schools or foundations, known as maktabs. The ancient 
village schools are now represented by upwards of 50,000 lower primary schools 
aided or inspected by the Education Department, and by upwards of 4,000 
which have not yet been incorporated into the system. The re-organisation of 
public instruction upon a pre-existing basis has, from the first, characterised 
British educational efforts in Lowei; Bengal. * In 1781, "Warren Hastings, the 
first Governor General of India, established the Calcutta Madrasa as a seat 
of Muhammadan learning* The Permanent Settlement of 1793 recognised 
in perpetuity the rent-free grants of land enjoyed alike by the Sanskrit 
tols and the Muhammadan maktabs. In 181 1, the Court of Directors en- 
tertained proposals for still further encouraging the ancient learning by 
txro Sanskrit Colleges in Nadiya and Tirhut But the discussions which 
shortly afterwards took place, both in England and India, with regard to 
the renewal of the Company's Charter in 1813, brought into prominence 
other views, and eventually gave a new direction to State education. The 
truth is, a demand had sprung up for a class of instruction different from that 
imparted by the ancient methods. The upper classes no longer desired merely 
a traditional knowledge of the Sastras or of the Koran They wished to give 
their children an education which would enable them to make their way in life. 
In 1817, certain wealthy native citizens of Calcutta opened the Hindu 
College, for the education in English of children of the higher castes. The 
School Book Society, established in the same year, undertook the preparation of 
works, suitable for school clashes, in English and the vernaculars. During the 
next sixteen years, a struggle went on between education in the ancient writings 
conducted upon the ancient methods, and education in modern branches of 
knowledge through the medium of tho English language- An English 
education began to be recognised as an assured means of livelihood. In 
1819, the School Society set on foot a project for establishing schools, both 
English and vernacular, all over the country, with its central organisation in 
Calcutta. Missionary effort aUo began to make itself felt. During the ten 
years from the renewal of the Charter in 1813, tho fresh impulse given to 
education was really the result of private efforts, which were partly due to 
natives as in the case of tho Calcutta Hindu College, and partly due to joint 
Associations of English and native gentlemen, or to missionary bodies as in the 
case of the Baptist Press at Serampur. 



1C ntrouT or the ratfavnos commission, [cuap> ii 

32 Bengal: The Committee of PuMic Instruction, 1823 to 

Tbe Charter of 1813 had provided a sum of Us. 1,00,000 to l>e Expended 
annually on education from the puttie revenues- In 1823, tho Gov- 
ernment, under pressure of Parliamentary enquiries and non-official ^pcicttes, 
at length organised measures for giving effect to this provision of its Charter* 
It appointed a Committee of Public Instruction, consisting of distinguished 
public officers, for the control of education. The action of the Comifoittee 
is thus described by one of our colleagues, Mr. Howell, in his Note on loca- 
tion in India : ■* From its earliest constitution this Committee ivas guided - Iff 
" two great principles, Trhich became traditional, and had the most important^ 
" effect upon the progress o£ education. The first \ras an endeavour to win the 
f( confidence of the educated and influential classes, hy encouraging the learning 
"and literature faiat they respected, and by strictly avoiding any suspicion of 
" interference with religion. The second principle vras that, as the funds at the 
" disposal of the Committee were quite inadequate for any purpose of general 
" education, the best application of them would be to high education, \* hich was of 
" course out of the reach of the masses and only attainable by the few* From the 
"former principle sprung the controversy between the Anglicists and Orion- 
" talists, that grew in intensity during the first twelve years of the Committee's 
"existence and was only finally settled in 1839 Erom the latter principle, 
founded on the view that schools must be Government institutions, and that re* 
"construction and not improvement was the business of the Committee, 
"resulted the policy which was long maintained,' 1 In 1824, the Committee 
established the Calcutta Sanskrit College, against the wishes of a numerous 
body of Native memorialists, with Raja Kammoban Roy at their head, who 
prayed that the college might be for English, and not for Sanskrit teaching. 
But under Lord Wilham Bentmck, the cause of English education, as opposed 
to instruction exclusively in the ancient classical languages of India, rapidly 
gained ground. Under his auspices, Mr- Aetata, about 1835, conducted a wide- 
spread enquiry into the then existing state of popular education, Mr, Adam 
estimated the number of village schools and patshalas at about 100,000 in 
Lowex Bengal, and in one of the ablest Reports ever written in India, earnestly 
pleaded for the instruction of the people. No general effort was, however, 
made to assist or improve the indigenous schools until 1S55. In 1835, a Gov- 
eminent Resolution, inspired by Macaulay's condemnation of the old systems 
^ of oriental learning, decided the long controversy between the Orientalists 
and the Anglicists in favour of education through the medium of the English 
language The freedom conferred in the same year upon the Tress, the 
abolition of Persian as the language of the Courts in 1837, and the wider career 
and larger responsibilities accorded to native judicial officers hy a series of Acts 
from 1836 to 1843, gave an impulse to education on the new basis, The sums 
placed at the disposal of the Committee of Tublic Instruction had risen from 
Rs, 1,00,000 in 1823 to R&. 4>5°P°o in 1805 ; and in 1839, the Committee 
found itself in a position to establish a system of substantial scholarships in 
English-teaching schools It divided the country into nine educational circles, 
in each of which there was to be a central college, while everp District within 
the circle was to be provided with a school teaching both English and the 
vernacular. In 1830, Dr. Alexander Duff, as Missionary of the Scottish Church, 
established in Calcutta the college now represented hy the Free Church of 
Scotland's Institution and the General Assembly's Institution of the Church 
of Scotland. 

33. Bengal: Council of Education, 1842-54.-In 1842-43, the old 

Committee of Public Instruction gave place to a more powerful body known, 
as the CouncU of Education. The Council directed its efforts cluofly, although 



CHAP. II.] HISTORICAL BE VIEW OP ^EDUCATION IN IKDIA. 17 

1 

not exclusively, to higher instruction in English and the vernacular. It 
organised a fairly complete system of examinations, with scholarships, both 
vernacular and English, for distinguish ed students, and it endeavoured to pro- 
vide that success at its examinations should practically lead to employment 
in the public service. Whilo using its examinations as a means for raising 
the standard of education throughout lower Bengal, the Council of Education 
did much to improve the character of the text-books, and to create a regularly 
trained staff of schoolmasters. After twelve years of unwearied activity, it 
had raised the number of institutions under its control from 28 in 1S43 to 
151 in 1855, and the number of pupils from 4,632 in 1843 to 13,163 in 1855, 
The number of teachers had, during the same time, multiplied from 191 to 
455i while the annual expenditure by Government had only increased from 
Us. 4,12,284 to 33s. 5,94,428. The Council of ^Education had secured a large 
measure of success alike in extending higher instruction, and in creating 
a general senso of the pecuniary value of a good education. But it made at 
this timo no attempt to deal with the 100,000 indigenous village schools, which 
ITr. Adam's enquiries had disclosed in 1 835. Before the Council gave place in 
1855 to the Department of Public Instruction, it had, however, set up in differ- 
ent parts of the country vernacular schools to servo as models of instruction 
upon the modern basis. Lord Hardinge, between 1844 and 1848, sanctioned 
ioi such schools. The schools on the whole failed, their places being already 
occupied by the indigenous system ; but those of them which survived long 
continued to bear the name of the Governor General by whom they were 
founded. A scheme for a University in Calcutta was under consideration 
when the Despatch of 1 854 arrived, and the Council made over its functions 
to the new Department of Public Instruction. 

34 North-Western Provinces : Education prior to 1854*— The first 

step taken hy the British Government towards the education of the people 
in the North-Western Provinces, was the establishment of the Benares Sans- 
krit College in 1791. During tlte next half century, the management of 
education in the -North-Western Provinces continued in the hands of the Govern- 
ment of India acting through its Committee of Public Instruction. In 1843, 
the control of funds was made over to the Local Government, and adminis- 
tered by local Committees. Until this year, State, education concerned itself 
chiefly with colleges, which in their earlier period were of an oriental charac- 
ter, but became gradually de-orientalised after the publication of Lord William 
Bentinck*s Kesolution in 1835. 

35. North-Western Provinces: Government Measures, 1791 to 

1854.— The Colleges established during the first period, from 1791 to 1843, 
were three in number ; at Benares, Agra, and Delhi The Benares College, part- 
ly on account of incompetent and dishonest management, and partly because 
the course of instruction was itself of little practical value, obtained no real 
success tiU about forty years after its foundation. But with the introduction 
of English, and under the skilf ul organisation of Dr. Ballantyne, rapid progress 
was made, and before 1854, the College had completely changed its character. 
In the place of obsolete studies negligently pursued, Dr. Ballantyne substituted 
a liberal education, somewhat similar in character to that prescribed by the 
Indian Universities of the present day. Discipline and regularity succeeded to 
confusion and misrule; a system of stipends, attracting but a scanty attendance 
of fastidious students, gave way to the general payment of fees. The numbers 
steadily increased, and although the College was no longer of an onen al type, 
Sanskrit literature hecame a real and fruitful study. Western science let m a 
light on what Eastern learning had left dark ; Western methods were applied to 



-g HEPOltT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. [COtP. n. 

problems o£ language and to systems of jurispmdence. The Colleges at Agra 
and Delhi, founded between 1823 and 1825, ^ * quicker growth; par y 
because they took advantage of the experience gained at Benares, and partly 
because relMous prejudices were less powerful than at that centre of Hinduism. 
They admitted Husalmans as well as Hindus, and prescribed a course of 
instruction more adapted to the practical requirements of modern life. As at 
Benares, the question of stipends for some time caused much difficulty-. Long 
use had sanctioned the practice, and the ancient native scats of learning were 
almost exclusively charitable foundations. Of any sentiment involving a loss 
of self-respect in those gratuitously educated, Hindus and Mnsalmans were 
alike ignorant ; as their religions consider it a pious duty to receive as well as to 
impart knowledge. Tor a time, therefore, they resisted the payment of fees, and 
against the withdrawal of stipends rebelled by desertion. Patience, however, 
on the part of the authorities, and a growing appreciation of the money value 
of English education, gradually reconciled the people to the new system. In 
1854, the students in the three colleges numbered 976 ; but only a small propor- 
tion of them were in classes corresponding with those of the present colleges. A 
college then contained classes in which ihe alphabet was taught, under the same 
roof with classes reading Shakespeare, the Calculus, Smith's "Wealth of .Nations, 
and the Bamayana, Except that it contained forty or fifty more advanced stu- 
dents, and that its discipline was more perfect, it did not differ from the secondary 
schools which sprang up between 1820 and 1854 in the more important towns, 
such as Allahabad, lleerut, and Bareli. Of these schools there were eight in 1 843 
with an attendance roll of 1,007. But ®* e establishment of many of them was pre- 
mature, and in 1853-54, the eight had fallen to three, and the pupils to 779. Of 
the schools which survived, that at Bareli was afterwards raised, for a time, to 
the status of a College, while those at Ajmir and Sagar are represented by the 
high schools of the present day. Missionary enterprise had also been at work 
in this Province, and the Despatch found over 4,000 pupils in missionary schools 
of which the returns are forthcoming 



36. North-Western Provinces : Indigenous Education prior to 

1854. — The English-teaching schools and colleges which have been described 
touched the merest fragment of the town population, and did not touch the rural 
classes at all. Until 1 846, whatever instruction those classes received was con- 
veyed in their own indigenous schools. Something more was required ; and in 
1846 the Local Government declared in the following terms the policy which 
they intended to pursue : " Landed property in these Provinces is found to be 
<f very minutely subdivided, and the existing rights in the land are of many 
*' different kinds. In prosecution of its duty the Government has made great 
" exertions to protect theserights by denning their nature and extent, andhy devis- 
" iug a system for their complete registration, The efficiency of this system 
" depends on the ability of the people to comprehend it, and to take precautions 
" that whatever affects themselves is accurately shown in the j-egisters, For this 
" purpose it is necessary that they should be able to read and write, and should 
* ( understand the elementary rules of arithmetic." Actuated by this benevolent 
policy, the authorities had various courses open to them. They might have 
laboured to improve and extend the indigenous system, or they mi° ht Jaave 
exclusively set up superior schools of their own. Or, again, they mi^ht 
have combined the two systems. We have only to show the course which 
they did pursue and the reasons which induced them to choose that course 
It would be out of place here to criticise the policy which they deliberated 



adopted, and perhaps at this distance of time it would be difficult to offer inv 
dedded opmion on the matter. It is, of course, possible that the enquiries 
instituted did not ascertain with complete accuracy the proportion of p U pS 



cmr. ii.] msiouiCAL iievtew of education- in rroiA. 10 

attending the indigenous schools. But in 1848 it was computed that out 
of 1,900,000 males of a school-going age, only 68,000 were receiving any in- 
struction. Vfith a few exceptions in which Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian were 
intelligently taught, the schools we considered as hardly answering tho 
Western idea of the word in a single respect. They were not permanent ; for a 
teacher would, perhaps only for a few months, gather round htm half a doyen 
pupils who after his departure might or might not find some one to take his 
place. They could hardly bo said to have had any system at all. The sub- 
jects taught were considered almost useless for the object which, tho Govern- 
ment desired. A little leading, chiefly of sacred texts, a very little writing, 
and some elementary- arithmetic comprised the usual course. Books uero 
almost unknown. The teachers, as a rule illiterate, seemed to offer but little 
prospect of that rapid improvement which was required. The difficulties in the 
path of reform, however, lay not only nor chiefly in the character of the schools 
and the unfitness of their masters. Beligious feelings and interested moth es 
combined to excite and keep alive a dread of any interference from without. 
It seemed also clearly impossible, without groat waste of money, to attempt 
any complete scheme of mass education, while the information at the disposal of 
Government was so imperfect. Eight Districts were therefore selected for experi- 
ment, and Sir. H. S. Ileid was appointed Visitor-Genera], with an adequate staff 
of subordinates, to push forward more minute enquiries, to help by suggestions 
the schools already in existence, to encourage the establishment of other?, to 
prepare suitable books, and to choose teachers for such schools as would accept 
them. At the same time a number of model schools were started and main- 
tained by tho Government at certain central points. In point of order and 
system they differed greatly from anything to -nhich the rural classes had 
been accustomed. In their studies they looked to what was practically useful, 
one main object being to substitute the homely vernaculars for a foreign litera- 
ture to which tho more ambitious of the indigenous schools wero so much 
addicted. The lines thus laid down in 1 850 were closely followed for the next 
four or five years. It may be that the form of encouragement given to the indi- 
genous schools was not the most suitable ; but, after a review of the progress 
made, tho Local Government arrived at the conclusion that it was unsatisfac- 
tory, and gradually abandoned the original scliemc for one in which the 
control of education should be more entirely in its hands. Supported by 
tho voluntary contributions of the landholders but managed by Government 
officers, tho villago schools, then organised, slowly displaced the indigenous 
maktab and pathsala, and at length became tho only form of primary 
vernacular education which the Government cared to promote. 3fr. Tuomason 
was the first Lieutenant-Governor of the North-TFest who gave a perma- 
nent impulse to popular education. He instituted a series of enquiries 
iuth a view to persuading the people to set up schools for themselves, 
and laid tho foundation of tho existing system of education. The establish- 
ment of tho tahsili or higher vernacular schools is thus described by a Ke*o- 
lution of the Government of tho tforth-TVestcra Provinces in 1S50: "There 
"will ho a Government villago school at tho head-quarters of every tahsUdan 
«. % w hicb will bo conducted by a schoolmaster, who wul rece n e 

" from Its, 10 to so per mensem, besides such fees as ho may collect from his 
" scholars." The tahsili school taught reading and writing, accounts, and land 
mensuration on tho native system, with geography, history, and g^metry, 
throng the medium of the vernacular. In . S54. the attendance at tabs* schools 
numbered 4f 66S, at tho moderate State expenditure of lis. 9.565. Tuo Lalla- 
bandi, or lower primary vernacular schools, which now number thousand, in 
the Northern Provinces, originated about .851 m an experiment made by 
Mr. Alexander, Collector of Mutta. plan was to choose a pargaaa. 



20 KEPflRT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. [CHAP. It. 

and to ascertain how many children of a school-going ago it contained, what 
revenue it paid, and what expense it could therefore bear. A cluster of four or 
five villa-es was then marked out, and the most central of the v illagcs was fixed 
upon as the Bite of the school. The cost was levied by a voluntary rate m aid, 
which originally varied in the different Districts, but ultimately the zamindars 
agreed to contribute towards education at the rate of one per cent, on their 
land revenue. Mr. Alexander's idea was quicUy taken up in other Districts. 
In 1853, Agra, Bareli, Etah, Etawah, Mainpuri, Muttra, and Shahjahanpur 
all had a certain number of halkabandi schools, and at the close of 1854 there 
were ahout 17,000 boys receiving education in them. The teacher's pay 
varied from Rs. 3 toy, the average beirig about Its 4-10-0. Reading and 
writing with a little arithmetic, mensuration, and geography, were tho subjects 
taught, and although more abstruse studies were subsequently included, it is 
doubtful whether such ambitious additions served a useful end. 



37. Kortb/Western Provinces : General Summary.— Tho results 

attained, chiefly by tho system inaugurated hy Mr. Tbomason, prior to the 
establishment of the present Department of Public Instruction, are thus 
summarised from the report of the Provincial Committee for the North- 
Western Provinces. In 1854, the total number of schools, in the eight 
selected Districts, ia stated to have "been 3,770 with. 49,037 scholars. This, 
however, includes 1,949 scholars at missionary schools, and excludes 1,525 at 
the Delhi and Benares Colleges and the Sagar and Ajmir High Schools. Of the 
49,037 scholars, 6,588 owed their education to Government ; 17,000 attended 
the primary schools supported by the zamindars; while upwards of 25,000 
are put down to schools of the indigenous class. According to the best statistics 
now available, the total number of institutions in this Province in 1854 was 
3,920 with nearly 53,000 pupils. The expenditure hy Government was at this 
time ahout Rs. 2,25,000, of which Rs. 1,80,000 went to the colleges and high 
schools. 



38. Punjab : Education prior to 1854.— The Punjab hecame a British 

Province only an 1849, and tho difficult problems arising out of the annexa- 
tion left little leisure for educational efforts, before the foundation of the 
present Department of Public Instruction on the basis of tho Despatch of 1854. 
On assuming charge of the Province, however, the British Government had 
expressly declared its intention to take in hand the education of the masses. 
It found a three-fold indigenous system of instruction at work, consisting of 
Hindu village schools corresponding to those of the Northwestern Provinces • 
Sikh schools, a large proportion of which taught in the GurmuMii character the 
language of the Sikh Scriptures or Granth ; and Muhammadan schools, usually 
conducted by the Mulla of the local mosque, and giving instruction of a strongly 
religious type These indigenous institutions were left undisturbed, but durfno- 
ttie interval between 1 849 and 1 854 the new Administration established only about 
a dozen schools in the Province. In the latter year, there were Government 
Anglo-vernacular schools at Amritsar, Rawal Prodi, and Gujarat. An attempt 
had also been made in places, especially in the Gujarat District, to introduce the 
village school system of the North- Western Provinces; encouragement was 
given to Missionary schools at Amritsar, Pirozpur, Ludhiana, Ambala Kan-ra 
and Kotgarh, some of which had existed before the annexation of the Province' 
But the only conspicuous Government institution within the territories nm, 
known as the Punjab was the Delhi College ; and Delhi was not included within 
the Province until 1858. As, however, this institution has been identifi d 
during he past quarter of a century with the Punjab, we may here briefly 
recapitulate it, ongm. la , 1g2> an oriental College supported by voIuS 



CUAV II ] HISTORICAL REVIEW Op HDUCATtON K, INDIA 91 

contributions fromMuhammadan gentlemen, was founded at Delhi for the study 
of Persian and Arabic, but owing to the reduced circumstances of the patrons 
tho funds failed In 182$ (as we have mentioned in connection with the 
North-Western Provinces), a Government college was opened at Delhi under the 
Committee of Public Instruction, and m 1829, it was endowed by a munificent 
bequest of lis 1 ,70,000 from the Nawab Itimad ud Daula, Prime Minister of 
the King of Oudh The application of the endowment was the subject of 
much discussion , but it was finally resolved by the Committee that the Delhi 
College should be made an efficient institution for Muhammadan learning This 
resolution was not, ho* ever, carried into effect, the Delhi College being, even 
in 1830, of the same type as that at Agra The Delhi College always attracted 
1 large preponderance of Hindus , and for some years the endowment has been 
applied to tho support of a successful middle school, attended almost exclu- 
sively by the Muhammadans, and known as the Anglo Arabic school A 
school of Engineering, opened at Lahore prior to 1S54, was soon afterwards 
abolished 

39. Central Provinces : Education prior to 1854 —In the Central P10 

vinces the case was not very different. The East India, Company acquired 
from the Marathas in 1817-18 the Northern Districts of these Provinces, long 
known as the Sagar and Narbada territories Nagpur and the adjoining 
Districts, until their lapse to the British in 1 853, belonged to the Raja of 
Berar, who in 1826" ruled over a territory considerably larger than England 
and Wales The Maratha Government had done nothing for popular edu- 
cation in these territories Each noble Hindu house had its own Brahman tutor , 
the few wealthy Muhammadan families and soldiers of fortune maintained 
maulavis to instruct their children , village schools of a humble type and in 
small numbers also existed But neither the Maratha Government nor its 
subjects recognised any duty on the part of the State to educate the people 
"With the establishment of order by the British m the newly acquired Sagar 
and Narbada territories, philanthropists began their work, and at then* own 
cost established schools after an English model Such schools irene opened 
in Sagar in 1827, and in 1830 the Government of India gave a grant for 
their support Besides these schools at Sagar, others were also opened in the to wn<* 
of Hoshangabad and Jab^lpur The school it Hoshangabad thd not flourish 
and was closed in 1841 Hie Jabalpnr school was made over in 1851 by its 
Managing Committee to the English Church Mission, by nhom it his since 
been maintained with a grant in aid from 1862 

40 Central Provinces : Indigenous Schools —In 1843, the Sagar and 

Narbada territories were transferred to the Government at Agra Mr Thoma- 
son made minute enquiries regarding the state of education previous to commenc- 
ing that scheme of primary education with which his name will ever be asso- 
ciated He found 48 Persian and Arabic schools, of which 20 were of ]c«s 
than one year's standing Nine of the 48 so called schools taught gratuitously, 
and tho average number of scholars in each was less than nme Besides 
these Persian schools thero were 231 Hindi and Sanskrit schools, with an 
equally small attendance, m one half of which schools gratuitous education 
was given Mr Thoniason proposed to endow a school in ever} village of a 
certain size. Tor its maintenance, from 5 to 10 acres of land were to be sot 
aside, and it * as supposed that the schoolmaster, besides recenmg tho 
proceeds of this endowment, would receive fees in kind and money from hi* 
pupils The scheme, however, was not sanctioned, and even ually tho Court 
of Directors assented to the imposition of a one per cent school cess 

41 Genual Provinces: General Snmmary.-Tnien, therefore 



20 HDFOBl OT THE EDTTCUTOV COMMISSION [CIIAP It 

and to ascertain how many children of a Bchool-gomg ago it contained, what 
revenue it paid, and what expense it could therefore heir A cluster of four or 
five villages was then marked out and the most central of the villages * as fixed 
upon as the site of the school The cost™ levied by a voluntary late m aid, 
winch originally varied m the different Districts, hut ultimately the zammdars 
agreed to contribute towards education at the rafe of one per cent on then- 
land revenue Mr Alexander's idea was quickly taken up in other Districts 
In 1853, Agra, Bareli, Etah Etawab, Mainpuri, Muttra, and Shahjahanpur 
all had a certain numher of halkahandi schools, and at the close of 1854 there 
■vrere ahout 17,000 boys receiving education m them The teacher's pay 
varied from Us 3 to 7, the average heiiig ahout Ks 4-10-0 Heading and 
writing with a little arithmetic, mensuration, and geography, were the subjects 
taught, and although more abstruse studies were subsequently included, it is 
doubtful whether such ambitious additions served a useful end 



37. North-Western Provinces * General Summary.— Tho results 

attained, chiefly hy the system inaugurated by Mr Thomasan, prior to the 
establishment of the present Department of Public Instruction, are thus 
summarised from the report of the Provincial Committee for the North- 
Western Provinces In 1854, the total number of schools, in the eight 
selected Districts, 19 stated to have heen 3,770 with 49037 scholars This, 
however, includes 1 949 scholars at missionary schools, and excludes 1*525 at 
the Delhi and Benares Colleges and the Sagarand Ajmir High Schools Of the 
49037 scholars, 6,588 owed their education to Government , 1 7,000 attended 
the primary schools supported by the zamindars, while upwards of 25,000 
are put down to schools of the indigenous class According to tho best statistics 
now available, the total numher of institutions in this Province m 1854 was 
3 920 with nearly 53 000 pupils The expenditure by Government was at this 
time ahout Its 2,25,000, of which Bs 1,80,000 went to the colleges and high 
schools 



38 Punjab • Education prior to 1854 —The Punjab became a British 
Province only in 1 849, and tho difficult problems arising out of the annexa- 
tion left little leisure for educational efforts, hefore the foundation of the 
present Department of Public Instruction on the basis of the Despatch of 1 854 
On assuming charge of the Province, however, the British Government had 
expressly declared its intention to take in hand the education of the masses 
It found a three-fold indigenous system of instruction at work, consisting of 
Hindu village schools corresponding to those of the North-Western Provinces 
Stkh schools, a large proportion of which taught in the Gurmukhi character the 
language of the Sikh Scriptures or Granth , and Muhammadan schools, usually 
conducted by the Mulla of the local mosque, and giving instruction of a*stron°>ly 
religious type These indigenous institutions were left undisturbed, hut during 
tiie interval between 1849 and 1 854 the new Administration established only about 
a dozen schools m the Province In the latter year, there were Government 
Anglo vernacular schools at Amntsar, Rawal Pindi and Gujarat An attempt 
had also been made m places, especially in the Gujarat District, to introduce the 
village school system of the North Western Provinces, encouragement was 
given to Missionary schools at Amntsar, Wpur, Ludhiana, Amhala Kamrra 
and Kotgarh, some of which had existed hefore the annexation of the Province 
But the on y conspicuous Government institution within the territories 
known as IhePnajah was theDelhi College , and Dellnwas not included 
the Province until 1858 As, however, this institution has been idelS 
during the past quarter of a century »ith the Punjab, ^ may Lre hr^flT 
recapitulate its origin In ,79*. an Oriental College supported by voluntfrj 



CHAP. II.] niSTORICAJ, REVIEW OP EDUCATION IS IKJQIA. 21 

contributions from Mubammadan gentlemen, was founded at Delhi for the study 
of Persian and Arabic, but owing to the reduced circumstances of the patrons 
tho funds failed. In 1825 (as wo have mentioned in connection with the 
Korth-Western Provinces), a Government college was opened at Delhi under tho 
Committee of Public Instruction ; and in rSzg, it was endowed by a munificent 
bequest of Us. 1,70,000 from the Nawab Itimad-ud-Daula, Prime Minister of 
the King of Oudh. The application of the endowment was the subject of 
much discussion ; but it was finally resolved by the Committee that the Delhi 
College should be made an efficient institution for Muhammadan learning. This 
resolution was not, however, carried into effect, the Delhi College being, even 
in 1830, of tho same typo as that at Agra. The Delhi College always attracted 
a large preponderance of Hindus ; and for some years the endowment has been 
applied to tho support of a successful middle school, attended almost exclu- 
sively by the Muhammadans, and known as the Anglo-Arabic school. A 
school of Engineering, opened at Lahore prior to 1854, was soon afterwards 
abolished. 

39. Central Provinces : Education prior to 1854.— In the Central P10- 

vinces tho case was not very different. The East India Company acquired 
from the Marathas in 1817-18 the Northern Districts of these Provinces, long 
known as the Sagar and Narbada territories. Hagpur and the adjoining 
Districts, until their lapse to the British in 1853, belonged to the Raja of 
Berar, who in 1 826 ruled over a territory considerably larger than England 
and "Wales. The Maratha Government had done nothing for popular edu- 
cation in these territories. Each noble Hindu house had its own Brahman tutor ; 
the few wealthy Muhanunadan families and soldiers of fortune maintained 
maulavis to instruct their children ; village schools of a humble type and in 
small numbers also existed. But neither the Maratha Government nor its 
subjects recognised any duty on the part of the State to educate the people. 
"With tho establishment of order by the Biitish in the newly acquired Sagar 
and Narbada territories, philanthropists began their work, and at their own 
cost established schools after an English modei. Saeh schools were opened 
in Sagar in 1827, and in 1830 the Government ot India gave a grant for 
their support. Besides these schools at Sagar, others were also opened in the towns 
of Hoshangabad and Jabalpur. The school at Hoshangabad did not Hourish 
and was closed in 1841. The Jabalpur school was made over in 1S51 by its 
Managing Committee to the English Church Mission, by whom it has since 
been maintained with a grant-in-aid from 1862. 

40. Central Provinces : Indigenous Schools.— In 1843. too Sagar and 

Narbada territories were transferred to the Government at Agra. Mr. Thoraa- 
son made minute enquiries regarding the state of education previous to commenc- 
ing that scheme of primary education with which his name will ever be asso- 
ciated. 'He found 48 Persian and Arabic schools, of which 20 were of less 
than one year's standing. Nine of the 48 so-called schools taught gratuitously, 
and the average number of scholars in each was less than nine. Besides 
these Persian schools there were 33 1 Hindi and Sanskrit schools, with an 
equally small attendance, in one-half of which schools gratuitous education 
was given. Mr. Thomason proposed to endow a school in every village of a 
certain size. Por its maintelSmce, from 5 to 10 acres of land were to be sot 
aside, and it was supposed that the schoolmaster, besides receiving the 
proceeds of this endowment, would receive fees in Mud and money from his 
pupils. The scheme, however, was not sanctioned, and oven ually the Court 
of Directors assented to the imposition of a one per cent, school cess. 

41. Central Provinces : General Summary.-^ 11 - before, the 



20 REPORT Or THE EDUCATION C01IMIS3IOV [citAl* I! 

and to ascertain how many children of a Bchool-gomg ago it contained, what 
revenue it paid, and what expense it could therefore bear A cluster of four or 
five villages was then marked oat, and the most central of the villages was fixed 
upon as the site of the school The cost was levied by a ^ oluntiry rate in aid, 
which originally varied in the different Districts, but ultimately the zamindars 
a<reed to contribute towards education at the ra£c of one per cent, on their 
land revenue Mr Alexander's idea was quickly taken up m other Districts 
In 1853, Agra, Bareli, Xtab, Etiwah, Munpun, Sluttra, and Shahjihanpur 
all had a certain number of Inlkabandi schools, and at the close of 1854 there 
were about 17,000 boys receiving education m them The teacher's pay 
varied from Rs 3 to 7, the average berrig about Es 4-100 Beading and 
writing with a little arithmetic, mensuration, and geography, w ere the subjects 
taught, and although more abstruse studies w cro subsequently included, it is 
doubtful whether such ambitious additions served a useful cud 



37. North- Western Provinces: General Summary.— The results 

attained, chiefly by the system inaugurated by Sir Thomason, prior to the 
establishment of the present Department of Public Instruction, are thus 
summarised from the report of the Provincial Committee for the North- 
Western Provinces In 1854, the total number of schools, in the eight 
selected Districts, 13 stated to have been 3,770 with 49 037 scholars This, 
however, includes 1 949 scholars at missionary schools, and excludes 1,525 at 
the Delhi and Benares Colleges and the Sagar and A]mir High Schools Of the 
49,037 scholars, 6,588 owed their education to Government , 1 7,000 attended 
the primary schools supported by the zimindars , while upwards of 25,000 
are put down to schools of the indigenous class According to the best statistics 
now available, the total number of institutions in this Province in 1854 was 
3,920 with nearly 53,000 pupils The expenditure by Government was at this 
time about Ks 2,25,000, of which Ks 1,80,000 went to the colleges and high 
schools 



38 Punjab : Education prior to 1854.— The Punjab became a British 
Province only in 1 849, and the difficult problems arising out of the annexa- 
tion left little leisure for educational efforts, beforo the foundation of the 
present Department of Public Instruction on the basis of the Despatch of 1854 
On assuming charge of the Province, however, the British Government had 
expressly declared its intention to take in hand the education of the masses 
It found a three-fold indigenous system of instruction at work, consisting of 
Hindu village schools corresponding to those of the North-Western Provinces 
Sikh schools, a large proportion of which taught m the Gurmukhi character the 
language of the Sikh Scriptures or Granth , and Muhammadan schools, usually 
conducted by the Mulla of the local mosque, and givmg instruction of a strongly 
religious type These indigenous institutions were left undisturbed, but durin* 
tiie interval between 1 849 and 1854 the new Administration estabhshed only about 
a dozen schools in the Province In the latter year, there were Government 
Anglo vernacular schools at Amntsar, Rawal Pmdi, and Gujarat An attempt 
had also been made in places, especially in the Gujarat District, to introduce the 
viUage school system of the North- Western Provinces, encouragement was 
given to Missionary schools at Amritsar, ttrozpur, Ludhiana, Ambala, Kan-ra 
and Kotgarh, some of winch had existed before the annexation of tho Vx>y£>' 
But the only conspicuous Government institution within the territories now 
known as thePunjab was theDelhi College , and DeWs not mcfuded wiZ 
the Province until 1858 As, however, tins institution has been identified 
during the past quarter of a century with the Punjab, "we may Lre blflv 
recapitulate its origin. In 1 79=, an Onental College supported 



CHAP II ] 



HISTORICAL HE VIEW OP EDUCATION INDIA 



21 



contributions fromMubamraadan gentlemen, Traa founded it Delhi for the study 
of Persian and Arabic, but owing to the reduced circumstances of tho patrons 
the funds failed In 1825 (as lve have mentioned ra connection with the 
NbitluTTestern Provinces), a Government college was opened at Delhi under the 
Committee of Public Instruction, and m 1829, it was endowed by a munificent 
bequest of Its 1,70,000 from the Kawab Itimad ud Daula, Pnme Minister of 
tho King of Oudh The application of the endowment was the subject of 
much discussion , but it was finally resolved by the Committee that the Delhi 
College should ba made an efficient institution for Jiulinnxmidan learning This 
resolution was not, however, carried into effect, the Delhi College being, even 
m 1830, of the same type as that at Agra The Delhi College always attracted 
a large preponderance of Hmdus , and for some years the endowment has been 
applied to the support of a successful middle school, attended almost exclu- 
sively by the lluhimmadans, and known as tho Anglo Arabic school A 
school of Engineering, opened at Lahore prior to 1 8541 soon, afterwards 
abolished 

39. Central Provinces : Education prior to 1854 —In the Central Pro 

Tinces the case was not very different The East India Company acquired 
from the Marathas in 1817-18 the Northern Districts of these Provinces, long 
known as the Sagar and Narbada territories Nagpur and the adjoining 
Districts, uatil their lapse to the British in i8^3> belonged to the Raja of 
Berar, who in 1826 ruled over a territory considerably larger than England 
and Wales The Maratha Government had done nothing for popular edu- 
cation in these territories Each noble Hindu house had its own Brahman tutor , 
the few wealthy Muhnmmadan families and soldiers of fortune maintained 
maulavis to instruct their children , village schools of a humble type and in 
small numbers also existed But neither tho Maratha Government noi its 
subjects recognised any duty on the part of the State to educate the people 
With the establishment of oider by the British in the newly acquired Sagar 
and Narbada territories, philanthropists began their work, and at their own 
cost established schools after an English model Such schools were opened 
in Sagar in 1827, and m 1830 the Government of India gave a grant for 
their support Besides these schools at Sagar, others were also opened in the towns 
of Hoshangabad and Jabalpur The school at Hoshangabad did not flourish 
and was closed m 1S41 !he Jabalpm school was made over in 1S51 by its 
Managing Committee to the English Church Mission, by whom it has since 
been maintained with a grant in aid fiom 1862 

40. Central Provinces : Indigenous Schools— In 1843, the Sagar and 

Narbada territories were transferred to the Government at Agra Mr Thoma- 
son made minute enquiries regarding the state of education previous to comment 
ing that scheme of primary education with which his name will ever be asso- 
ciated He found 48 Persian and Arable schools, of which 20 were of le<s 
than one year's standing Kine of the 48 so called schools taught gratuitously, 
and the avera-e number of scholars in each was less than nine Besides 
these Persian Ichools there were 231 Hindi and Sanskrit schools, with an 
equally small attendance, m one half of which schools gratuitous education 
was given Mr Thomason proposed to endow a school m ever> villige of a 
certain size Por its maintenance, from 5 to 10 acres of land were to be set 
aside, and it was supposed that the schoolmaster, hesxdes receiving the 
proceeds of this endowment, would receive fees in land ^ ^ 
pupil. The scheme, howercr, *as not sanctioned, and even uaUy the Court 
o£ Directors assented to the imposition of a one per cent school cess 

41 Central Provinces: General Summary.-™:-, ifamta. ti* 



CHAP. II.] HISTORICAL REVIEW OP EDUCATION llf INDIA. 23 

schools, indigenous 01 other, fop elementary education; and (7) the iatro- 
duction of a system of grants-in-aid. Tho attention of Government is 
specially directed to the importance of placing the means of acquiring useful 
and practical knowledge within reach of the great mass of the people. The 
English language is to bo the medium of instruction in the higher branches, and 
the vernacular in the lower. English is to ho taught wherever there is a demand 
for it, hut it is not to be substituted for the vernacular languages of the country. 
The system of grants-in-aid is to be based on the principle of perfect religious 
neutrality. Aid is to be given (so far as the requirements of each particular 
District as compared with other Districts and the funds at the disposal of Gov- 
ernment may render it possible) to all schools imparting a good secular education, 
provided they are under adequate local management and are subject to Govern- 
ment inspection, and provided that fees, however small, are charged in them. 
Grants are to be for specific objects, and their amount and continuance are to 
depend on the periodical reports of Government Inspectors. Ho Government 
colleges or schools are to be founded where a sufficient number of institutions 
exist capable, with the aid of Government, of meeting the local demand for 
education ; but new schools and colleges are to be established and temporarily 
maintained where there is little or no prospect of adequate local effort being 
made to meet local leqnirements. The discontinuance of any general system 
of education entirely provided by Government is anticipated with the gradual 
advance of the system of grants-in-aid ; but the progress of education is not 
to be checked in the slightest" degree by the abandonment of a single school to 
probable decay. A comprehensive system of scholarships is to be instituted so 
as to connect lower schools with higher, and higher schools with colleges. 
Female education is to receive the frank and cordial support of Government 
The principal officials in every District are required to aid in the extension of 
education ; and in making appointments to posts in the service of Government, 
a person who has received a good education is to be preferred to one who has 
not. Even in lower situations, a man who can read and write is if equally eli- 
gible in other respects to he preferred to one who cannot. 

The second great Despatch on education, that of 1 859, reviews the pro- 
gress made under the earlier Despatch, which it reiterates and confirms with a 
single exception as to the course to be adopted for promoting elementary edu- 
cation. While it records with satisfaction that the system of grants-in-aid 
has been freely accepted by private schools, both English and Anglo-vernacu- 
lar, it notes that the native community have failed to co-operate with Govern- 
ment in promoting elementary vernacular education. The efforts of educa- 
tional officers to obtain the necessary local support for the establishment of 
vernacular schools under the grant-in-aid system are, it points out, likely to 
create a prejudice against education, to render the Government unpopular, and 
even to compromise its dignity. The soliciting of contributions from the 
people is declared inexpedient, and strong doubts are expressed as to the suit- 
ability of the grant-in-aid system as hitherto in force for the supply of verna- 
cular education to the masses of the population. Such vernacular instruction 
should, it is suggested, be provided by the direct instrumentality of the officers 
of GcernmentTon the basis of some one of the plans already in opcratmn for 
the improvement of indigenous schools, or by any modification of those j£u» 
which may suit the circumstances of different ^T^J^S^Z 
of imposing a special rate on the land for the provision of ekmentary eauca- 
tion is also commended to the careful consideration of the Government. 

Other important Despatches have since been received t^£%£« 
Stat,, and have been examined by the ^f^^^^%^T a 
how far the action of the Department of Public Instruction ^ 



22 KETOUT OF IHE EDTTCATIO^ COMMISSION. [CHAP. II. 

Department of Education commenced work in tlie Sagar and Kirbada territories 
in 1 854, it found a section of the people familiar with the idea of school instruc- 
tion. In the southern portion of the Central Provinces, -which lapsed to Govern- 
ment in 1853 on the death of Eaghoj^ Bhonsla, the situation was altogether 
different. The Nagpur Government under the Bhonslas had given no direct 
support to education. In 1 826, m their capital at Nagpur there were indeed 
4 6 schools with 936 pupils ; hut in the country, education was confined chiefly 
to the Brahman caste. It was a rare thing to find a cultivator who could sign 
his name. There were no schools exclusively for Muhammadans. English 
education m Nagpur was solely supplied by the Missionaries of the Tree Church 
of Scotland's Mission, who were liberally supported by contributions fiom 
England. Attempts had been made in 1 842 by a German mission to establish 
schools for the Gonds, but were abandoned on the death of four of the 
missionaries. Education had made but little progress in the Central Provinces, 
when on the amalgamation of the Nagpur Districts with the Sagar and Narbada 
territories in 1862, the present Department was organised for the new Province 
thus created. 

42. Other Provinces : Education prior to 1854— Of the minor Pro- 
vinces, the Haidarabad Assigned Districts weie not made over to English admi- 
nistration until 1853, and Oudh became a British Province only in 1856. They 
do not therefore find a place in this part of the present Chapter. Assam formed 
part of Lower Bengal until its constitution into a Chief Commissionership in 1 874. 
The little Province of iCoorg, in Southern India, has, however, an educational 
history of its own. On its annexation to British India m 1 834, three Anglo- 
vernacular schools were founded by Government, and in 1842, the Roman 
Catholics opened a school at Vira]pet In 1843, eleven Kanarese schools were 
also at work ; and in the following year, the Bev. Mr. Moeglmg of the Basel 
Mission, the first Protestant Missiomry in Coorg, offered to take charge of 
the existing schools, and to open superior ones if furnished with funds bv 
Government. In 1 855 he tool charge of tlie Merkara English School, but the 
attendance fell off, and when the Department of Public Instruction was estab- 
lished in 1 85 7 the state of Education in Coorg was described as very unsatis- 
factory. 

43. Education in India subsequent to 1854 : The Despatches of 

1854 and 1859.— We have now traced tho early efforts of the East India 
Company towards the education of the people. These efforts differed in regard 
both to the scalo of operations and to the methods employed in the various 
Provinces. In 1854 the education of the whole people of India was definitely 
accepted as a State duty ; and the Court of Directors laid down with ful- 
ness and precision the principles which were to guide the Indian Govern" 
mcnt in tho performance of this great task. Their Despatch of i£e 4 s tiU 
forms the Charter of Education in India, and after the East India Companv 
itself bad disappeared, its principles were confirmed by the Secretary of State in 
the Despatch of the ? th April 1859 The purport of these two documents 
may bo thus summarised. The Despatch of 1854 commends to the special 
attention of the Government of India the improvement and far wider extension 
of education both English and vernacular, and prescribes as the means for the 
attainment of these objects : (,) the constitution of a separate Department of 
the administration for education ; {2) the institution of Universities at thl 
Presidency owns ; (3) the ^establishment of institutions for tnZ?£to£ 

anVh^ 

establishment of new middle schools; (6)' tt*Xta7£<2J£ 



CUAT. II.] HTSTOKICAI. REVIEW Or EDUCATION IN INDIA* 23 

schools, indigenous or other, for elementary education; and (7) the intro- 
duction of a system of grants-in-aid. Tho attention of Government is 
specially directed to tho importance of placing the means of acquiring useful 
and practical knowledge within reach of tho great mass of the people. The 
English language is to he the medium of instruction in tho higher branches, and 
tho vcrnaciilir in the lower. Engifsh is f 0 he taught wherever there is a demand 
for it, but it is not to be substituted for tho vernacular languages of the country. 
The system of grants-in-aid is to ho based on tho principle of perfect religious' 
neutrality. Aid is to bo given (so far as tho requirements of each particular 
District as compared with other Districts and the funds at the disposal of Gov- 
ernment may render it possible) to all schools imparting a good secular education, 
provided they aro under odequato local management and aro subject to Govern- 
ment inspection, and provided that fees, however small, arc charged in them. 
Grants arc to bo for specific objects, and their amount and continuance are to 
depend on the periodical reports of Government Inspectors. No Government 
colleges or schools aro to be founded where a sufficient number of institutions 
exist capable, with t ho aid of Government, of meeting the local demand for 
education; but new schools and colleges are to be established and temporarily 
maintained where there is little or no prospect of adequate local effort being 
made to meet local requirements. The discontinuance of any general system 
of education entirely provided by Government is anticipated with the gradual 
advance of the system of grants-in-aid ; but tho progress of education is not 
to bo checked in tho slightest degree by the abandonment of a single school to 
probable decay. A comprehensive system of scholarships is to be instituted so 
as to connect lower schools with higher, and higher schools with colleges. 
Female education is to receive the frank and cordial support of Government. 
The principal officials in every District aro required to aid in the extension of 
education; and m mating appointments to posts in the service of Government, 
a person n ho has received a good education is to be preferred to one who has 
not. Even in lower situations, a man who can read and write is if equally eli- 
gible in other respects to bo preferred to ono who cannot. 

The second great Despatch on education, that of 1859, reviews the pro- 
gress made under the earlier X>espatch t which it reiterates and confirms with a 
single exception as to tho course to be adopted for promoting elementary edu- 
cation. TVliile it Tecords with satisfaction that the system of grants-in-aid 
lias been freely accepted by private schools, both English and Anglo-vernacu- 
lar, it notes that the native community have failed to eo-operate with Govern- 
ment in promoting elementary vernacular education. The efforts of educa- 
tional officers to obtain the necessary local support for the establishment of 
vernacular schools under the grant-in-aid system are, it points out, likely to 
create a prejudico against education, to Tender the Government unpopular, and 
oven to compromise its dignity. The soliciting of contributions from the 
people is dtclarcd inexpedient, and strong doubts are expressed as to the suit- 
ability of th(s grant-in-aid system as hitherto in force for the supply of verna- 
cular education to the masses of the population. Such vernacular instruction 
should, it is suggested, be provided by the direct instrumental^ of the officers 
of Government, on tho basis of some one of the plans already in operation for 
tho improvement of indigenous sehoofe, or by any modification of those plans 
which may suit tho circumstances of different Provinces. The expediency 
of imposing a special rate on the land for the provision of elementary educa- 
tion is also commended to the careful consideration of the Government. 

Other important Despatches have since been received ^ £e Be^of 
State, and have been examined by the Commiss on w.th 
ho* far the action of the Department of Polmc Instruction in India is m 



24 BEFOILT OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION, [cil VP. K. 

accordance with the orders received. But the Despatches of 1854 oud 1859 
* stand out from all later documents as the fundamental Codes on w Inch Indian 
education rests, 

44. Despatches of 1854 and 1859 considered —Such is a very brief 

outline of the main provisions of the orders upon which the educational policy 
of India during the last twenty-five years has been based, and by which it 
must in pursuance of our instructions be tested. We shall consider and ex- 
pand those orders in full detail in the several Chapters of the Report in w Mch 
each branch of education is treated. Meanwhile it may be said that the main 
feature of the Despatches cited, which most distinguishes thcra from all previous 
orders on the same subject, is contained in the annexed extract from the Des- 
patch of 1854. 

*' It is well that every opportunity should havo been given to tho*o (the 
" higher) classes for the acquisition ol a Yiheral European education, the effects 
" of which may ho expected slowly to pervade the rest of their fellow -country* 
" men, and to raise, in the end, the educational tone of the whole country, Wo 
ifi are, therefore, far from underrating the importance, or the success, of the efforts 
which have been made in this direction ; but the higher classes arc both able 
* ( and willing, in many cases, to bear a considerable part at least of the cost of 
* fi their education ; and it is abundantly evident that in some parts of India no 
" artificial stimulus is any longer required in order to create a demand for such 
ff an education as is conveyed in the Government Anglo- vernacular colleges. 
" We have, by the establishment and support of these colleges, pointed out the 
** manner in which a liberal education is to ho obtained, and assisted them 
" to a very considerable extent from the public funds. In addition to this, we 
" are now prepared to give, by sanctioning the establishment of Universities, full 
ft development to the highest course of education to which the natives of India, 
" or of any other country, can aspire ; and besides, by the division of University 
" degrees and distinctions into different branches, the exertions of highly cdu- 
" cated men will be directed to the studies which a^-e necessary to success in the 
"various active professions of life. We shall, therefore, have done as much as 
** a Government can do to place the benefits of education plainly and practically 
■* before the higher classes in India. 

" Our attention should now be directed to a consideration if possible, still 
u more important, and one which has been hitherto, we are bound to admit, too 
« mucli neglected, namely, how useful and practical knowledge, suited to every 
e( station in life, may be best conveyed to the great mass of the people, who are 
( * utterly incapable of obtaining any education worthy of the name by their own 
(f nnaided efforts ; and we desire to see the active measures of Government more 
,( especially directed, for the future, to this object, for the attainment of which 
" we are ready to sanction a considerable increase of expenditure," 

On the same subject the Despatch of i8$g declared that "if Government 
u shall have undertaken the responsibility of placing within the reach of the 
<* general population the means of simple elementary education, those individuals 
"who require more than this may, as a general rule, be left to exert themselves 
c * to procure it with or without the assistance of Government," 

We do not liere imply that education for the great mass of the people is 
the sole object of either Despatch. On the contrary, it is clear from the sum- 
mary above given, and from toe immediate context o£ the extracts just cited 
that schools were to be started for » every condition of lif e," including schools 
of higher education intended for what may be called the higher classes Still 
if any portion of the orders can be pronounced characteristic and distinctive, it 
is that potboy which not only had never teen enunciated befoie, but was 



ciut\ ii.] niSTcmiCAL irevnnr op ruircATTOjr iy ikdu, 25 

opposed hoth to the earlier policy and to tho reiterated views of the moat 
influential educational agencies then in existence in India- It will be our duty 
to show how the policy of 1854 has been carried out in each Province ; how 
it was affected by any previous bias or tendency ; and by what progressive 
steps it has arrived at its present development. That policy has been 
expressly re-affirmed in tho orders constituting the Commission, and its 
re-affirmation at this date is conclusive evidence of the soundness of Lord 
Dalhousie's appreciation of it when ho declared that « it left nothing to her 
" desired, if indeed it docs not authorise and direct that more should be done 
" than is within our present grasp." Pew declarations of policy have been so 
comprehensive or havo so well stood the searching test of time. 

45. Formation of the Education Department in 1855-56.— On the 

publication of tho Despatch of 1854, steps were taken to form an Education 
Department in each of the great territorial divisions of India as then constituted • 
and before the end of 1 856, the new system was fairly at work. The formation of 
the separate Departments continued over a period of about 1 2 years, from 1 854-55 
in the larger Provinces to 1S66-67 in the Haidarabad Assigned Districts. A 
Director of Public Instruction was appointed for each Province, with a staff of 
Inspectors and Deputy or Assistant Inspectors under him This organisation of 
control and inspection remains substantially unchanged to the present day, 
with such rlodifications and additions as were required by the creation of new 
crritoml divisions, or by the amalgamation of old ones, The Education Depart- 
ment in each Province acts directly under the orders of the Provincial Govern- 
ment and has developed a system of working more or less distinctively its own. 
Everywhere it took over tho Government or the Board institutions which had 
grown up under the earlier efforts of tho East India Company. We have 
endeavoured to collect all tho statistics* still available of educational institutions 
existing in India when the Department thus commenced its work, But the 
figures are not in every case to be relied upon. TVe shall briefly review 
the Iristory of education in each Province under its separate heads of primary, 
secondary and collegiate. Wo shall summarise the progress made in developing * 
the grant-in-aid system ; and we shall conclude with a few general remarks 
on the policy pursued, We must, however, notice at the outset that 
throughout this Heport British Burma is excluded from our notice. The 
omission of Ajmir from the statistical Tables and from subsequent Chapters will 
he presently explained. In addition to these omissions we are precluded by 
our instructions from dealing with the condition of education in those Native 
States of India Tvhich, unlike the Feudatory States of Bombay, either administer 
their own systems of public instruction, or else leave education entirely to 
private effort without any assistance from the State. Our Report is therefore 
concerned with nine Provinces of India, namely, Madras, Bombay* Bengal, the 
North-Western Provinces and Oudh, the Punjab, the Central Provinces, Assam, 
Coorg, and the Haidarahad Assigned Districts, or as the last Province is usually 
called, Berar. When we speak of India, we refer to these nine Provinces 
oalv 



46. The Indian Universities, 18 57-1882. -The Resolution wpomtm 

the Commission excludes the Universities from the scope of our enquiry ; and 
we dun, both here and in Chapter VI, mention them only in their bearing upon 
collegiate and higher secondary education. The Despatch of 1854 prescribed the 
establishment of Universities, and in 1857 tho three University of Calcutta, 
Madras, and Bombay were incorporated by Acts of the Indian ^lature The 
constitution of these hotlies was modelled on that of the London University, with 

• Se'e 6e nml TabU i« «ri ih of tte Statical MU* *f 0* *f th, Bepori 



0{J BrporT or the education coinnssio^ [chap n 

noli modifications as were locally needed The control of each TJmversity 
was rested in a Senate composed of a Chancellor, Vice Chancellor and Telhnvs, 
the latter being in the first instance partially selected from the previously 
existin* Councils and Boards of Education The function of these Universi- 
ties is W of examination, and not of instruction The latter is conducted 
hy the affiliated colleges and other institutions authorised to send up can 
didates for the University examinations TVhile the three elder Indian Uni 
versities have been successfully at woik during a quarter of a century, a 
fourth University was established for the Punjab hy an Act of the Indian 
Legislature m 1882 As the University was not established until af tei March 
31st, 1882, the institution now known under that name is treated in this Eeport 
and its statistical Appendix as a college The Punjab University was the result 
of a movement begun in 1864, and warmly supported by successive Lieu 
tenant Governors Among its promoters Dr Leatner holds a very prominent 
place It is mainly an examining body, but exercises a variety of functions for 
the promotion of literature and education Its distinguishing features are that 
it owes its origin to other than State eftorts, and that it is designed to give 
special encouragement to oriental studies 

47. Educational Census of 18 81-— Educational statistics are only m 

telhgible in the light of statistics of area and population The latter show the 
extent of the work to be done, and are the best guide to the progress of the future 
on the basis of the progress in the past TVith this view we include in the an* 
nexed tabular Statement the area aud population of the Provinces with which 
wo are now concerned It must be borne in mind that these figures com 
prise a vast variety of countries and races, differing very widely from each 
other m their nature character, progress and stage of civilization , and that 
until these differences are fairly understood, only an imperfect conception 
can be formed of the full import of the educational statistics that follow In 
any case, the magnitude of the scale on which education is attempted in Indii 
will be obvious to all It must also be borne in mind that these educational 
statistics aTe derived from the Reports of the Census taken in Pebruary 1S81, 
and are therefore much less recent than those given m our Eeport, from which 
they differ for this and other reasons The Census officers necessarily took a 
wider and more cursory survey than the officers of the Department The former 
were instructed to record not only the number of pupils m schools incorporated 
into the State system, but also those who were receiving instruction in indigenous 
or other schools m no way connected with the Department But it is known 
that several errors have crept into the Census returns, which were collected 
by a largo ind generally untrained igency of enumerators who bang unused 
to the work, were liable to fall into mistakes Moreover, the Census figures 
include Europeans and Eurasians, who are excluded from our returns 
In ITadras, the Census figures include Native States with more than 300 000 
persons , in Bengal, they include Kuch Behar, Hill Tipperah, and the Chota 
Nagpur Mahils, with more than 1,300,000 persons Ag-un, in Bombay and 
elsewhere it is known that 1 largo percentage of children nt school were * 
leturncd not as u under instruction,' but as "able to read and write" In 
Assam it was thought that only those who had attendrd school on the day of 
enumeration were to be entered as under instruction, and, as many schools 
were closed on that day, the Census returns give results far below those 
shown by the Department In the Punjab the Deputy Superintendent 
of Census Hunks that urong returns were intentionally made because a 
"nahvo woman may be able to read, but it is not fitting that a respect 
< *le woman should be able to write.-that accomplishment being reserved 
"for women of hght character • In other Provinces various ii»^e 



cair. ir,] itistoiiicu. kdyicw 0 f education is etdia 27 

jragBcil for the differences which etist between tho departmental and 
tho Census returns TTitti tlicso reservations, tvo subjoin the followm- 
Table — a 

EDT7CATIOVAL CENSUS OF INDIA. IN iSSl. 
















female roriTL^nov 


- — • — — 










1 

AM* f a 










PlOVO^T Dlf TO tQti(, 


- i _ 1 _1 _ 

Tolu truuft 
population 


write 






1 


Under 
tlotv 






' 


— 




lot not 

^__k Iff" n ■ ^^^^^ Hr 

tlfli* 


vndnr 

UlJD 


Malm *bo 
ran trad adO 

write but 
at* not uudet 


Tint uirt 
under 

Inw mcs 
t on 


1 on 


Tenia! b 

•rrtf* tut 
it* not 


t 


s 




4 


_ — 


0 


! 

7 




* 


to 


11 


ti 




lit Ht 








1 in 00 


tin ro 


■15 7^ 





«4 Sit 


% la ^aj 




rilrit A Urrt 

■ m p v ill 


Lli lit 
•'♦■Til 

JJ.75J 


*W?7 7 * 
3 571 






1 K * * 


* n 
1 ** 1 j 




S8 460 
* 7J i 


31 *4J 

■p 1 i ■ 


1 j 1 


1 •4>f 




'S3 I&l 


UfiiS S3 






1 14 




^ gi 370 


JS 750 


01 4W 




t» 










1 on irt 








9 77 


> sew 


t J 69 




|*nT^*h — IJriXt b t*Mlaf J 


tori « j j 


10 s o 053 






1 ««s 


■ » 11 




fl a 


& 407 


1 4 « 


1 013 








7* 8*3 




t 04 






3 71 


4 137 


1 r*^39 


1 1 




4« lit 








> »TS 


1 » ^ 




1 0G~3 


J 7<» 














8 S3* 


1 U 


t 11 




43 




t iSo 




W trifle 


iT7ir 






57s 7 


\ s& 


> 14 




35* 




3*30 ; 






*jtt 


rt**<4 


**?7 




* » 44 








ft* J 






Tot* I* 




101 J)' **9 






1 In 4] 


tin a 




l 7 ioa 




iin BjS 


















1 











t Itrthilci thfw\*tlT*BUlei ^liJch nfl not »Mlit*J bt Lba Per*rtm«nt» 

Addmg British Burma, ^vlncli was excepted from the enquiries of the 
Commission, tho totals for all India ire as follows Under instruction, males 
2,620,913 # females 145,523* totil 2,766,436, able to read ind mite, but not 
under instruction, males 6,743,502 , females 258,486 , total 7,003,988 Com- 
paring these figures with those for tho following yeir, which luive been 
supplied to tho Commission from the more accurate departmental returns of 
nahve pupils only, we obhin the following results Excluding Europeans and 
lunsians and omitting notice of Ajmir, tho Department was cognisant of 
2,51 7,629 miles and of 126,349 females at school in 1882 , tho Census officers 
ascertained that 2,487,697 miles and 07,200 females, including Europeans 
and Eurasians and not omitting Ajmir, wero under instruction in 1881 The 
total expenditure on those branches of education with which our Beport deals 
according to Departmental returns for 188 r-Ss, was Us 1^6^10,282 (nominally 
£xfii i,oaS)» of which Es 60,64,135 were contributed from Provincial lerenues, 
Hs 26,48,298 from local rates and cesses, Rs 4>u*419 torn Municipal funds, 
37*86,006 fiom fees, and Rs 3**°°-394 from endowment and other sources 
Tull details as to the methods and objects of this expenditure will he given m 
Chapter XII 

48. General Educational Results in 1881*82.-1* we compare the 

figures for 1882 With the bebt estimates avail iblo f 01 1 S55, the progress made 
during the 27 years has been very great The Ingbest total recorded for 1855, 
include estimates for indigenous schools is above 50,000 schools, with 
935>°oo scholars, for nil India This total includes 500,000 pupils estimated as 



23 



rEPOttT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION 



attending the indigenous spools of Bengal alone In 1SS1 82 the depart* 
menial returns for all classes of institutions, including those for Europeans 
and Eurasians and for special instruction, show 1 12,632 schools and 2,665,636 
pupils , or including Ajmir and British Burma 1 16,048 schools with 2,760 086 
pupils' while the Census officers show that there were 2,520,143 pupils under 
instruction at the beginning of the calendar year 188 1, in the British districts 
of India, exclusive of Burma, or 2,766,436, including British Burma It should 
he remembered, however, that the returns for 1881 82 are far more complete 
and trustworthy than those for 1855 The numher under instruction, together 
Tnth those ahle to read and write hut no longer under instruction, exceeds 9* 
millions for British India (including British Burma) out of a population of 
2o8| millions But if we compare the present state of education m India with the 
actual requirements of the people, the result is less satisfactory It is difficult 
to estimate exactly what those requirements are In European countries, it is 
usual f 0 take the children of school-going age at one sixth of the entire papula 
turn* so that, in round mimbers, one child should he at school for every six per 
sons of the population It would, however, be misleading to apply the same 
ratio to an oriental country, where the great hulk of the population, estimated 
at 65 5 of the whole, is agricultural Moreover, the poverty of the country 
must form an important consideration Not only is the duration of the school 
going age necessarily shorter than m Europe, hut, as a matter of fact, millions 
of peasant families depend on the labour of their children m order to raise 
sufficient food to keep them alive during the year The ratio of one child at 
school to each six persons of the population implies a standard of comfort and 
civilisation unknown m India Again, education m most European countries 
is compulsory by law , hut having regard to the poverty and actual educational 
requirements of the great hulk of the population of India, the Commission 
declined even to enter into the question of a compulsory Education Act, which 
must at least b* preceded by the provision of adequate school accommodation 
We have adopted 15 per cent as on the whole affording the best estimate of the 
children of school going age But whatever proportion may be adopted, it is 
certain that a vast unoccupied area exists for further educational efforts, especially 
m the direction of primary instruction The average throughout British India 
(exclusive of British Burma) according to the Census of 1881 is one male under 
mstruction to 42 of the whole male population, and one female to 85S of the 
whole female population The great differences shown to exist in different 
Provinces clearly prove the possibility of extension Taking the departmental 
returns for 1881 82 and comparing the pupils at school with the population of 
school going age, we find that Madras, the oldest of the great British Provinces, 
^hows a ratio of 17 78 for hoys and of 1 48 for girls under instruction , while 
Bombay heads the list with 2291 and 1 59 per cent for boys and girls respectively 
The ratios in Bengal are respectively 20 82 and 80 as against 8 2$ and 28 in the 
adjoining territories of the North Western Provinces and Oudh In considering 
the returns for the last mentioned Provinces, which are the least satisfactory in 
India it must be borne m mind that Oudh was annexed in 1856, and if taken 
separately from the ^orth Western Provinces, to which it was attached in 1877, 
the proportion for the latter would he impioved In the most recent addition 
to the Empire, the Central Provinces, the ratio for boys is 10 49 per cent of 
the school going population and 44 for guls , while in Assam the ratios are 
respectively 1461 and 46 per cent Eor the nine Provinces of India with 
which our Report deals, the average ratio which hoys and girls under in 
struction hear to the population of school going age is 16*28 and 84 respect 
ivclv The Punjab does not reach that average showing 1 2 r ( of the male 
population of school going igc under instruction and 72 of the female population 



chap, ii.] 



UlSTOniOAI, REVIEW OP EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



29 



These figures* are enough to show that a large extension of primary 
education throughout India is practicable and desirable, and we may add that 
this extension, demands a further expenditure of publio funds. At the sitne 
time ire do^ not overlook the necessary limitations to increased expenditure 
which arc imposed hy the poverty of India It has been estimated by the 
best authorities that the average annual income in India per head is Us. 27, 
which is very small even as compared with thai of the poorest European 
countries, The average income of each person in Great Britain and in Franee 
was found in 1880 to he £33 and £23 respectively. In Portugal it was ^8 
and in Turkey £4. Moreover, the whole amount of taxation actually paid by 
British subjects in India amounts annually to about 40 millions sterling, and 
varies from an incidence of Us. 3-2 in Bombay to Be. 1-6 in the Central 
Provinces. These figures should be borne in mind in estimating the practi- 
cability of educational as of other administrative reforms. "We now proceed to 
consider each Province in detail. 



49. Madras : Education from 1855-56 to 1881-82.— When the Depart- 
ment began its work in the Southern Presidency it inherited very few Gov- 
ernment institutions. But tho field of education was already occupied by two 
a gencies of considerable importance. The missionary societies in the Presidency, 
inCoorg, and in the adjoining Native States had organised 16 secondary schools 
which were at once placed on the aided list, while 27 similar institutions remain- 
ed unconnected with the Department. In primary missionary schools which 
received no aid there were nearly 33,000 children, while in the Government 
primary institutions at the close of its first year the Department was educating 
only 2,093 pupils. Besides these results of missionary effort, the indigenous 
schools in tho Presidency irero educating 161,687 children, and nati re enterprise 
had already created iz secondary schools, of which 9 were placed oa the aided 
hst. Thus at the outset the Madras Department found a scheme of education 
already fostered hy independent effort, which merely awaited judicious en- 
couragement ; and it left tlio Department under less obligation than existed 
elsewhere to create schools of its own, or to stimulate a demand for edu- 
cation. 



50. Madras: Primary Education— Partly in consequence of too exclu- 
sive attention to higher education, and partly from the want of adequate funds, 
the duty of diffusing primary education amongst the masses was neglected by 
Government until 1868. Tet there was abundant material upon which the 
Department could have immediately begun work, not merely in the indigenous 
schools of the country, but also in the well-organised institutions which were 
maintained by private effort, chiefly by the Missionaries. In the year 1868 the 
new scheme for ** result grants " came into force ; and m the same year the 
Government of India called the attention of the Madras Government to the 
need of providing from local rates the means of extending elementary instruc- 
tion amongst the agricultural classes. In 1871 the Towns Improvement Act 
was passed, which gave municipalities power to expend part of their income 
upon education ; and it was followed by the Local Funds Act of the same 
year, imposing a local cess from which the ways and means of primary 
education have been chiefly drawn. Private effort responded at once to the 
offer of assistance held out to it by the Grant-in-aid Code, and before the 
Xocal Funds Act of 1871 became law, the direction which primary education 
in Madras was thenceforward to take was practically determined. Including 
the primary classes attached to secondary schools, there were in 1870-71 about 

» Sue General Table 2a at tbe eud ol tl» Beport. 

8 



30 EBPOKT OF TEE EDUCATION COtfUISSIOS. [CHAT. H. 

So 700 children in schools recognised by the Department, and of these only a 
small fraction were in Government schools. As soon as the necessary 
funds were provided from local rates, the schools increased with regular and 
rapid progress, and in 18S2 there we 360,643 children in primary schools 
maintained, aided, or inspected by the State. Of the schools thus incorporated 
into the State system only 8 per cent, were departmental schools, 51 per cent- 
were aided, and the rest were under inspection. It will thus he seen that in 
Madras preference has been given to private enterprise, and that the work of 
the Department has been one of adoption of existing institutions rather than 
one of direct creation by the instrumentality of Government- But great atten^ 
tion has been paid to training the teachers and foj improving the method of the 
indigenous schools brought into the system. TraMng schools for male teachers 
have been systematically maintained. Although flje provision of scholarships 
to enable promising boys to proceed to secondary scilfols has been inadequate, 
and the grants-in-aid have not in all cases been sunjjciently liberal, still the 
records of examination, as well as the increasing proportion of trained teachers, 
prove that the results which have been obtained since 186S are not only 
numerically great but satisfactory in quality. The policy followed by the 
Department has created as well as incorporated private schools ; and already, 
according to the departmental returns, Madras follows closely upon Bombay and 
Bengal in the proportion of its male population who are under instruction in 
the schools recognised by the Department, while the Census leturns show that 
in the proportion of its population who are " instructed" it stands fir&t among 
the Provinces. The proportion of local fund income now devoted to primary 
education is, however, less than was anticipated when Act IV of 1871 was 
passed. 

1 

51* Madras: Secondary Education, 1855 to 1882-— In Madras the 

Department found itself the heir to thirty years of educational effort, the result 
for the most part of missionary zeah The Government schools of secondary 
education were only three in 1854-55* — the high school of Madras, and the 
Provincial schools of Eajamahendri and Ouddalore. Missionary schools of 411 
classes numbered about 700, and of these between 40 and 50 were what would 
now be called secondary schools. The three schools established under the 
Pachaiyappa trust were also giving a high class education to about 1,000 
pupils. On the formation of the Department in 1855-56, the Madras high 
school, which had long been doing the work of a college, received the higher 
title. Provincial schools, intended to be raised in future years to the same 
rank, were established by the Department in four important towns ; as were 
also seven schools of the middle class giving instruction, more or less element- 
ary, in English. The first grant-in-aid rules were published in 1855, an( l 
every disposition was shown by the Department to give fair play to schools 
under private managers, which (as the official records of the time show) were 
intended ultimately to supersede those managed directly by the Department. 
The result of action conducted in this liberal spirit was that, by 1870*71,1110 
number of grant-in-aid institutions for secondary education had risen to 40 
high and 523 middle schools (including one high and 90 middle schools for 
girls). Together they educated 18,893 pupils, excluding the attendance in 
primary classes. At the same date the departmental system showed 14 high 
and 67 middle schools for boys, educating 3,233 pupils in all classes above 
the primary. The expenditure on departmental institutions of all grades rose 
from lis, 95,704 in 1855,56 to Es. 2,13,472 in 1870-71. The expenditure on 
grants-in-aid rose within the same period from Es. 11,105 to Es, 3,3c ^ 
The standard of education advanced at a corresponding rate. Out of 21 Dis * 
tricts (exclusive of the Presiiency), 13 had in 1870-71 been provided with 



cnAP, ii.] 



HISTORICAL REVIEW OF EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



31 



Government high schools ; while 39 schools of the same class had also been 
established under private managers. Every District but one had its high school, 
whether Government or aided; and* in three towns Government and aided 
schools worked side by side. The period from 1870-7 1 to 1 88 1-82 is marked by 
an important ciiange of policy, the general character of which will be gathered 
from the fact that the number of Government schools rose within this period 
from 8 J to 159, while that of aided schools fell from 527 to 271, The loss was 
confined to middle schools, chiefly for hoys, receiving grants-in-aid. The num- 
ber of aided middle schools for girls also fell from 83 to 18, whilo the Depart- 
ment itself established one high and three middle schools of the same class. 
Much of this heavy loss is, .no doubt to ho explained by greater accuracy of 
classification; hut the revision of tho grant-in-aid rules contributed in no slight 
degreo to the result, by reducing the rates of aid to secondary schools and making 
tho rules more stringent. The expenditure on grants-in-aid to secondary 
schools fell between 1,870-71 and 1881-82 from Us. 2,37,000 to Ks. 77,000. 
This decrease is due partly to tho reclassification of a number of middle as 
primary schools, partly to tho separation of the primary departments of middle 
schools with corresponding separation of expenditure, and partly to the exclusion 
at the latter date of schools for Europeans and Eurasians. The reductions, 
however large, cannot therefore he precisely determined ; but some indication 
of their extent may bo afforded by the fact that the number of unaided 
secondary schools returned for* 188 1-82 was 334, with 4,929 pupils. The ex- 
penditure from public funds in 1881-82 on 23 high and 136 middle schools, 

1 managed by the Department and educating in all 6,288 pupils, was Us. 1 , 1 4, 1 88 ; 
while tho expenditure from tbo same sources on 48 high and 223 middle 

, schools receiving grants-in-aid and educating together 13,072 pupiU, was 
Rs. 77,6 r 7. 

52. Madras : Collegiate Education— Though in the matter of collegiate 
education this Province has since advanced with rapid strides, it was not until 
1837 that it had any institutions which could properly he called colleges. 
Here, therefore, collegiate education did not pass through the oriental stage 
^ hich in Bengal, Bombay, and the North- Western Provinces was preliminary to 
the present development; and this circumstance was perhaps favourable rather 
than unfavourable to ultim ato progress. For many years after the incorporation 
of the University in 1857, students were allowed to appear for the higher exa- 
minations without any certificate of having attended an affiliated institution. 
Thus the line between high schools and colleges was by no means sharply drawn. 
An institution which sent up candidates for the 1?. A. Examination one year 
might 6end no others for several years afterwards. But so late as 1865 there 
were not more than five or six institutions that could properly rank as colleges ; 
and the number of students attending them did not probably exceed 200. In 
187! the colleges, excluding one for Europeans and Eurasians, were eleven m 
numher with about 420 students. Of these, 5 were departmental colleges and 
6 under private managers. By 1882 the number of colleges had doubled, and 

' the number of students nearly quadrupled. Of the 14 colleges under private 
managers, 1 1 received grants-in-aid, while 3 were unaided. 

53. Madras : Female Education.~-The total number of girls at school 
when the Department was formed was nearly 8 000 of whom e ^ 
portion were in missionary schools. The Despatch of 1854 ed to mcreased 
efforts on the part of the ft*, which chiefly took the form of a» 
enterprise as in the case of primary schools for boys. 

agency was not entirely neglected. . In 1870-7- more than I4 ,ooo including 



32 



HEPOILT Or THE EDUCATION C03I3USSIOK. [CHAP. II. 

Eurasians and Europeans, were under instruction. But e T en bo, only -op per 
cent of the female population were at schools known to the Department. By 
i88i-8a, the percentage had increased to : 22. The number was then 3 4>59°> °f 
whom 11,660 were in aided primary schools for girls, and more than 14,000 in 
mixed schools In secondary schools there were less than 400 girls under instruc- 
tion, of whom only 26 were in Government institutions. There were 4 Normal 
schools for training mistresses, of which only one with 20 pupils was maintained 
by Government. Considerable progress has therefore been made, but the expen- 
diture from public funds on this branch of education is comparatively small, 
and increased liberality is required to place female education on a sufficiently 
w ide and sound basis. 

54. Madras: Grants-in-aid.— Madras was the Province in which the 
Despatch of 1854 anticipated that the grant-in-aid system would be most 
successful ; and considering the large amount of private educational enterprise 
already in existence, the anticipation was not unreasonable. It was not, however, 
fulfilled at once, and for a time seemed little likely to be fulfilled at all* This 
would seem to have been due in part to the fact that the first step taken by the 
Department on its constitution was to open high schools in important towns not 
yet provided with such institutions, but in which with liberal aid native private 
effort might have been expected to establish them. The opening of Government 
high schools seems to have led to the idea that the inhabitants of places 
unprovided with the means of advanced instruction should look for the supply of 
their educational wants to Government rather than to themselves ; and for some 
time hut little readiness i^as shown by the managers of private schools to 
co-operate with the State. Persevering attempts were, however, made to modify 
the grant-in-aid rules in such a manner as to encourage private managers, and 
in 1865 a Code was published under which rapid progress was at last made* 
This Code was completed in 1868 by the revision of the portion of it which 
applied the system of payment by results to elementary schools ; and the 
number of pupils educated by aided private effort has gone on increasing, from 
^3*000 in 1865* and 51,000 m 1868, to 218,000 in 1B81-82. Private effort 
received indeed a great and sudden check in 1878, to which fuller reference will 
be made in Chapter Vlil ; and from this it has not yet recovered so far as 
secondary education is concerned. But in spite of this and of the great 
delay at first* remarkable progress has been made by aided institutions of all 
kinds. In the highly important matter of self-support the aided institutions 
of Madras stand far above any other class of institutions, whether depart- 
mental or non- departmental, in every Province except Bengal. 

55. Madras: General Summary— The following tabular Statement 

exhibits the progress of education from the formation of the Department to 
JIarch 31, 1882. It shows how the unaided institutions have been gradually 
transferred from the outer circle of independent educational activity to the 
inner circle of departmental control and supervision* It also shows that the 
progress made during the past ten years in Madras has upon the whole been 
remarkable, The increase has been due, not only to the successful efforts of 
the Department, but also to a largely increased demand for education anions 
the people themselves. In spite of the checks which the grant-in-aid principle 
has received during the past five years, the number o! private schools, both 
aided and unaided, has largely increased. But in the matter of advanced 
education the claims of private effort have not received the attention which 
they deserved, Pemale education also requires a larger share of public funds * 
*nd the provision made from local rates for the education of the masses is 
btill inadequate* 



cnAr. II.} 



IIISTOIUCAI/ JIEVIETF OF EDtTCATIOy IK INDIA,, 



33 



Zstimale of (he extent of Education m Madras in the first departmental year 

; ami its subsequent groictk * 





A it* 

Contort, 






Schools 




AlfD 

CLissjti 


| Tout, 






No. 


. * \ 


No 




V'n 






Pa pits. 






\0 






1 




* I AUf4 and Ini]V{t*4 
t it Ira DtpirttnrntiJ 


■» 


*** 


J 


* 


II 




** 
Mil 




*». 


* 


I 


1 „ 




1 In* 






t 




5 


A n W 

49* 


V* 


7 tro 


w$ 






J* , 


— ^ 


tt 






i&7*Ji 


f Ikpartatatftt 
t^itri foparrmralal 


5 

a 


a as 
130 




• 


gj 


■** 


! *s 

** 


&4 4 J»& 


4-rW 


« 
* 


T 












11 








*4 
















'<^745 










7&> 




top] 






V*J 






** 








U 7QS 






M 


9>7 


** 




G05 




*** 








6 
















111 


7*fl' 


7*4 




U 


3*^43 




54 Of 4 


31 


95* 




44i 633 



* CnatUrfirt Biroftitdloiiil schools, mod not lutlnd^ In tin mud toUl 
a. EicltnllB^ ttfl Truj U( ot Httjwhed TTimary i^hooli 

* In^ILnjr dftto ditto (iUt<v 

4 _ . e Slithtic* itielwW urtJor rrtitiirr sehools il ildfi!, and If unaided ihcltfM Iq total 

56, Bombay : Education from 1855-56 to 1881-83.— The Department 

in Bombay succeeded to the labours of the Board of Education, and its first 
Director, 3Jr. C. Erskinc, O.S,, mapped out its future policy. The Directors who 
followed him have built up the present system, upon the foundations nhich he 
laid. The missionary societies had already made some impression upon the 
poople, and were educating nearly 7,000 pupils, of whom 900 were in 
secondly schools. Thcso results, though not insignificant, were small in 
comparison with those recorded in Madras. Native enterprise was also taking 
a part in tho work, but its eiforts were represented by only 19 secondary 
and 84 primary schools in the whole Presidency. Indigenous schools were 
more numerous and were attended by about 70,500 pupils, but their method of 
instruction was declared to be very inefficient; and while in Madras there were 
198,2 ! 7 pupils outside the Department in its first year, there were in Bombav only 
80,846 such pupils. The work which tho Department sot before itself, after a 
careful census, was one of creation rather than of incorporation. 

57, Bombay : Primary Education.— Before the Department was created, 
the claims of the masses in Bombay had been admitted in more than theory; 
but owing to the belief that the indigenous schools were inadequate, the 
primary sjstcm in Bombay has been built up from the very first almost entirely 
ou the departmental foundation and "by the direct instrumentality of Govern- 
ment, in accordance t\ ith one of the principles recommended in the Vespatch of 
1 859. At present less than 5 per cent, of the schools brought within the system 
are aided. The control and supervision of the schools are entrusted to local 
bowls with school committees under them ; but the Department exercises 
great influence through the Inspector, who is a member of the boards 
The numerous Native States, with a population of 6,7^,950 P e ™ ns - 
covering moro than a third of the *ho]e area of the Presidency have also 
voluntarily adopted the departmental system and placed their schools under 
the inspection of tho educational officers. Local rates levied on the land were 
introduced into tho British Districts in .864; but were not placed on a legal 



3A . BErcmT or the education commission. [chap, it, 

basis until 1 86S in Bind, nor until 1869 in the rest of the Presidency. In 
l87 i there we 159,628 children in primary schools recognised by the State, 
la 1881-82 the numbers had risen to nearly 333>°°°; an4 tho Rentage 
of boys in primary schools to the total male population was then larger than in 
any other Province of India with which our Report deals, being slightly in 
excess of the proportion in Bengal when the primary departments of secondary 
schools in that Province are excluded. Particular attention is paid to the 
efficiency of primary schools, to the training of teachers, especially of school- 
mistresses, and to the provision of good school accommodation and apparatus* 
On the other hand, the indigenous schools still remain almost entirely outside the 
pale of the Department, and the encouragement offered to private enterprise 
is inadequate. The proportion of public funds devoted to primary education is 
the largest* in India, 

58* Bombay : Secondary Education —The Department began its oper- 
ations with 23 high and middle schools under its own control, including 7 in 
Native States, and with 7 aided and inspected schools under native manage- 
ment> educating together 3,578 pupils* There were also several missionary 
schools, to which the Local Government long hesitated to extend any help- By 
1870-71 the number of Government schools had risen to 147, including 10 high 
schools, with 9,045 pupils excluding the primary classes. The grant-in-aid 
system was sanctioned in 1864, but not brought into operation until 1866. 
Under it missionary institutions were for the first time admitted to aid* The 
system was declared to be suitable only for schools of secondary instruction, 
and its application was mainly confined to institutions of that class. But the 
people at large manifested hardly any interest in its success ; and in 1 870-7 i f 
after it had been in operation seven years, there were no more than 23 aided 
secondary schools for natives of India, of which the majority were under mis- 
sionary management. Between 1870*71 and 1881-82 the number of Govern- 
ment schools remained stationary at 147, but high schools of this class increased 
from 10 to 19; while aided secondary schools rose from 2310 53* The state of 
the provincial finances in 1875 led to a temporary reduction, which has since 
been made good, in the allotment for result-grants. In 1870-71 there were 
3 middle schools for girls receiving grants-in-aid ; in 1 88 1-82 the number had 
risen to 9, The expenditure from public funds in 1 88 1 -85 upon 1 47 Government 
schools (19 high and 128 middle) , educating 11,170 pupils, was Us. 2,19,657 ; 
the expenditure upon 53 aided schools (14 high and 39 middle) with 5,561 
pupils was Us, 593642, There were also 66 unaided schools (15 high and 51 
middle) educating 6,527 pupils, the majority of these being schools main- 
tained by Native States. 

59. Bomhay : Collegiate Education —The two first grade Arts colleges 

at Bomhay and Poona were affiliated to the University in i860, a third in 1861, 
and three more between 1869 and 1881, In 1881-82 three of the colleges were 
Government, two were aided, and one was an unaided college in the Kohlapur 
Statf\ Between 1860-61 and 1870-71, 244 students had passed the p. A., 116 
the B, A., and 28 theM,A. examinations. During the next eleven years the 
successful candidates at these three stages were respectively 709, 340, and 34. 

60. Bomhay^Temale Education.— The Despatch of 1854 found the 

ground partially occupied by missionary bodies, and to some extent in Poona 
and in Ahmedabad by native effort. In the city of Bombay the natives 
had already organised a number of girls' schools which were independent of 
Government, The number of girls at schools known to the Department in 1854 

* e Gcueral Table 3d at the end of the Iteport 



* 



OIAP. II.] HISTORICAL, HEYIETV Or EDTJCUION IN INDIA. 35 

was rather more than 4,000, or about half tho number at that time in Madras 
The statistics for 1870-71 showed 9, 190 pupils in girV schools, chiefly depart 
f mental institutions. Prom that date the Bombay Government adopted a more 
systematic and liberal policy towards female education. In 1881-83, there were 
nearly 27,000 girls in schools recognised by the Stato; and the percentage of the 
femalo population in schools known to the Department, though small, was 
higher than in any other Province of India. The great bulk of the pupils were 
attending either Government schools in British territory or schools of a similar 
character in Native States. No secondary school for girls was maintained by 
the Department, but there were 555 pupils in the aided schools of this class. 
On the othpr hand, the Department maintained two female Normal^ schools. 
In no other Province is a larger assignment made from public funds to female 
education, but greater encouragement of private enterprise is still required. 

61. Bombay : Grants-in-aid. — Bombay is one of the Provinces in which 

it was important that private effort should be induced, at the outset, to co- 
operate with the State, and where it might hare been expected to do so* 
Though the number of institutions under private management which existed 
in 1854 was far less considerable than the number of those which then existed 
either in Madras or in Bengal, still there were in that year about 230 schools 
with 14,000 pupils under missionary and other private managers. The indige- 
nous schools, though much less numerous than in Madras, were estimated at 
2,300 with 70,500 pupils. In this condition of affairs, the Department began 
to supply the educational wants of the population by originating schools under 
departmental management instead of incorporating the existing schools and 
stimulating the development of private enterprise. Until 1863 no steps had 
been taken to elicit private effort, and even then the rules proposed were not 
acceptable to missionary 1 <nd other school managers. In 1865 a more liberal 
scheme for grants-in-aid was introduced. But in the meanwhile the depart- 
mental system had became so completely established in public favour, that 
private enterprise was placed under difficulties and found the most suitable 
ground already occupie/1. In Chapter TTIX we sfiaff consider the advantages 
and disadvantages of /the grant-in-aid system which prevails in Bombay of 
payments by results. / It is only necessary to observe here that, notwithstand- 
ing the difficulties ryTerred to and the temporary check given in 1876, private 
enterprise has proWd its vitality and done good service especially in higher 
education. In i8?i-82 about 27 percent of the native pupils attending colleges 
and secondary setfobls were in aided institutions, to which the aid given from 
public funds wa/ 19 per cent, of the net cost to the State of the corresponding 
departmental institutions, There is therefore every reason to hope that private 
enterprise, especially under native agencies, will he largely developed, if liberal 
aid is given and more systematic encouragement afforded. 

62. Bomhay: General Summary. -The following tabular Statement 

exhibits the progress of education from the first year of departmental effort 
down to 1881-82. It shows, in marked contrast to Madras, the small vitality 
of extm^departmental institutions ; hut it also shows a large development 
and improvement of primary education, and steady progre ss in higher 
education. Tho increase of primary scholars was checked by the fannne 
in 1877-79, ^t the losses were soon recovered, and the progress of earlier 
years 'L, resumed. The Bombay educational system is m full ue^rd- 
with the instructions contained in the Despatches so far as regards 



ance 



the large proportion oi funds assigned and the *^n <^J»V^ 
education Complaints have, however, been justly made that 
share of the Provincial assignment has heen given to schools m towns, to the 



g 0 KEPOKT OT THE HUT CATION COMMISSION. [cilAT. II. 

disadvantage of the payers of the iuhJ cess. But although the whole primary 
system for male as well as for female education is well 01 gamsed, it lests too 
exclusively on the direct instrumentality of Government VTe have elsewhere 
recommended that the indigenous schools shonld he incorpoiated into the 
system, as was proposed hy the first Director.. Secondary educition is ccono- 
mically and efficiently managed, although the number of schools is small as 
compared with the numher of scholars. But the principles of the grant-in-aid 
system have not received full attention, and in this respect the Department 
took at the outset a direction w Inch was not that indicated hy the Despatch 
of 1854. 

Estimate of the extent of Education in Bombay in the first departmental year, 

1855-56 j and tfs subsequent growth. 





Ahts |] 
COLLEGES J 


it* bCKUOLB 

Jioemaj. 




BCKOOLJ 


&CKOOLB 


Schools 








































No 

I 


Fun Ib 








Pup la. 




Pupili 


No 






Pupils 








f Depurl mental 


1 

1 




7 


an 


ID 




1 

210 


17 Gfiga 


1 




1 

5 


76 


1 

357 


j 1 341 




i Aided utid Intrnected 










7 




36 


a J4» 










43 


3 737 




t Extra Departmental 










12 


3 0?a 


170 


9.425 


s 33; 


70 su 






* S?5 






Total 


3 




7 




41 


S ffoo 




J9 4315 




70 514 


S 




* » 5 


106 040 




/Departmental 


3 




4 




147 












£> 


490 


a 470 


'33 J337 




J A dedand I aspect ed 


•% 


47 


3 




62 




43i 




5 


55 








35 7J3 


\ EitTi I ennrtnuntjil 












Schools 
240 


Pdpil* 
33 1&4 




2 £23 


77 ow 








Si? 184 




Tout 


S 


307 




cm 






1&7 339 






77 05S 


& 


490 


0 134 


sffj 7« 




/Departmental 

] A fled and Inspected 


3 
3 


3" 
1*4 


J? 

E4 


1? 

t{iooi) 


lao 


11 170 


I 454 


343 9Sp 
85 t8i 


73 


3 54* 


6 
3 


433 
UQ 


3PP4 






^ E 1 tra-bep*rtaienUl 










JO 


a 7*5 






4 on 


73 75S 






4 D3S 


S3 470 












; Mil] 


1 






















Torn 


6 

1 


4?5 

f 


1 


t(ioni) 

'l 




1 J J5S 


s 371 

1 


*33I 140 

1 


; 4085 

1 




1 


£53 


EKHI4 


437 745 

1 



* The number* enclosed In tqutrt tattle ta itg for unattached J^titnthms *ud are not Included in ttifl grina total of this tat?le 

t Th*(e pnplli Ltt«nded primary Or nccondiirj echooU as ifcJI m lechntad tnatttatianj, mi H# Included m the totals of the former 
elw» of Khoots Only 

4 Including attached middle tichools, 

h Eiclndlnff thff pupils id ittqrhtd priniftrj school* 

c Including ditto ditto ditto 

63 Bengal: Education from 1854-55 to 1881-82 —The Department 

xecewed charge irom the Council of Education of 151 institutions with 13,163 
pupils, of whom all except 3,279 Trere attending colleges and secondary schools. 
The field ttos, however, largely occupied by native and missionary institutions, 
which then received no assistance from the State, It was helieved that there 
were half a million of children in Bengal and Assam attending indigenous 
schools, besides some in primary schools of a better class and others attend- 
ing primary classes in secondary schooK The Local Government did not for 
some years fulfil its duty towards primary education; but when at last in 1872 
the diffusion of * education among the masses was actively taken up, the vast 
net-work of indigenous schools supplied the basis on which the Department 
w orked. 

64- Bengal : Primary Education*— In Bengal there had always existed a 
very large numher of indigenous schools In 1835 Mr. Adam suggested a defi- 
nite plan of encouraging these institutions, which were even then^estimatcd at 



cnxv n ] ntSTOincAL ucvilw op edticvtion in im>ia 37 

100,000, but for manv years af tor little practical effect wis given to his reeom 
renditions As soon as tho Department v. as constituted, it introduced m iSc6 
the "circle system," which Ind for its immediate nm the improvement of the 
indigenous schools and masters, under the direction of a competent Pandit who 
tiu ght the highest classes in a group of three or four schools By this means 1 7 * 
schools had m i860 6*1 been brought under improvement It this then felt that 
tho means adopted were inadequate to tho great task, ind m 1862 the " Normal 
•mhool system'* was substituted A full account of this and other systems will 
he given m Chiptor IV , and it is unncccssiry hero to do more than to stato that 
m 187071 some a.ooo iillige schools, with an average attendance of 28 
pupils in each, had been taken m hand and supplied with trained teachers In 
1868 tho Government of India had addressed the Governments of Bengal and 
Madras on the subject of extending' primary education and imposing a local 
rate on the lind But while tho Bengal Government accepted the first 
suggestion, it has not yet idopted tho second, and Bengil is now the onh 
Province m which no local rate for education exists In 1872, however, Sir 
George Campbell determined to adopt vigorous measures for extending pri 
mary education, and under tho operation of tho dccentrabsation scheme 
introduced by Lord Mayo in 1870, ho wis enabled to allot a liberal grant 
for that purpose In 1875 part of Sir Geoigc Campbell s scheme was modi 
ficd, and the cxtensivo provision of training schools which he had made 
was reduced to smill proportions Prom tho samo date grants to indige 
nous schools begin to bo distributed under the system of payment by results 
ongmallj set on foot by 3Ir H L Harrison m the Jlidnapur District lie 
chief charictcristics of the Bengal policy lro 0 been tho wide interest taken in the 
indigenous schools, and tho incorporation of tho largest possiblo number of 
them v> ltlun the departmental sj stem , the determination to keep the standard 
of instruction from advancing too rapidly beyond the traditional methods 
of indigenous cducition, and tho gradual improvement of the schools by 
central examinations and by the removal of inefficient teachers Its defects 
have been the inadequacy of tho aid rendered, the want of funds which 
in other Provinces are provided by locil rates, the general abandonment 
of training schools or other means of securing a continuous supply of improved 
teachers , ind the insufficiency of the inspecting staff for so Tast 1 network 
of educational agencies But the numerical results have been remarkable 
In 1870-71, excluding tho primary classes of secondary schools, there were only 
68,$oo pupils in pnmarj <vhooh recognised by tho Department, ivhilcin j88i S2 
there were nearly 900 000 Tho Department has won the confidence of the 
indigenous schools, and thero is yet an outer circle of them awaiting incorpora 
tion into the State system Still tho proportion of public funds— including in 
that term Provincial, Local, and Municipal funds— which is spent on primary 
education is by fir the lowest in any Pwtwcq of India, being 13 per cent less 
than in tho Punjab, and 27 per cent below Bombay It must however, be 
remembered that this comparison is affected by the absence, as above explained 
of any local educational cess in Bengal TVith additional means the Deport 
mcnt thII he enabled fully to carry out its pobcy of improving the system ot pn 
mary education, and tho mdigcnous schools are so numerous that the exten 
tion of the system will offer no practical difficulties 

65 Bengal* Secondary Education -The secondary *f°^^ 

Department, it Us first constitution in January 1855, ^^^J ^ 
cil of Education were 47 Anglo vernacular and 2 ^ernacular so hools As a 
moans of extending education of this chss the gran ^f^^^ 
ed with ulacnty by the people of Benga A smaU grant of :Ks 30 ooo was 
at first argued for aiding private institutions, and in little more than a year 



ss nnronx or the education commission. [cnu\ n. 

the Trholo of it Wt3 taken up by 79 Anglo-vernacular and t 4 ° venawlnr 
schools of all classes. At the very outset, therefore, the aided system had out- 
stripped the departmental system in the field of secondary education. In 1863 
the number of aided secondary schools had risen to 172 Anglo-vernacular 
and 251 middle vernacular schools ; the departmental schools at the same date 
being 46 Anglo-vernacular and 175 middle vernacular. Steady progress eon- 
tinned to he made; and by 187 1 the requirements of tho popple for secondary 
school* had com* to ho very fairly met. The secondary schools maintained by 
the Department were at that date 53 high English, 8 middle English, and 209 
middle vernacular, educating together 22,552 pupils, at a cost to Government 
of Its, 2,79450; the aided system included 80 high English, 551 middle Eng* 
list, and 769 middle vernacular schools, educating in nil 68,593 pupils, at a 
cost to Government of Us. 3,30,687, Assam was scpaiatcd from Bengal in 1874, 
carrying ^vith it 125 secondary schools, Government and aided, w ith 6,779 pupils. 
In subsequent years the progress of secondary education was affected by the 
temporary reduction of the grant-in-aid assignment first in 1871, and again in 
1876 owing to famine and other causes ; by the measures taken to prevent the 
multiplication of inefficient schools ; and by the rcconstitution of all middle 
schools on a vernacular basis. The result of these operations this tho transfer 
of many middle English schools to the vernacular class, and the u ithdrawal 
of grants from others i\hich had failed to justify the aid afforded them. 
The comparative progress of the Government and the aided system of second- 
ary education between 1870-71 and 1S81-82 will be seen from tho following 
statistics, regard being paid to the separation of Assam, and to tho exclusion 
of European schools from the returns of 1881-82. The secondary schools 
maintained by the Department decreased from 270 in 1870-71 to 245 in 
1881-82 ; while their pupd^ increased from 22,552 to 26,910, The expenditure 
on them from public funds also decreased from Its, 2,89,486 to Rs. 2,53,640. 
Aided secondary schools decreased from 1,400 to 1,370 ; their pupils increased 
fiom 68,593 to 83,949 j while the expenditure on them from public funds 
fell from Ks, 3,30,687 to Us. 2,98,506- Tho total recorded increase in the 
secondary system of education between 1871 and 1882 is from 1,670 schools 
irith 91,145 pupils to 1,891 schools with 139,198 pupils; unaided schools being 
however excluded from tho figures of the former and included in those of the 
latter year. The increase has been effected with a reduction in the expenditure 
from public funds from Ks. 6,20,173 to Us. 5,54,819, It must, howcver.be 
remembered that the secondary schools in Bengal and Assam included at the 
later as at the earlier date full primary departments, and that a large propor- 
tion of the pupils returned for 1SS1-83 under secondary, would in other 
Provinces bo included under primary education, 

66 Bengal: Collegiate Education— The English Arts colleges in 

1 854-55 ^ cre 1 1 ba number, viz , 5 Government and 6 private colleges. In the 
met there were 192 students; in the latter the number is \mVnown, By 
1862-63 the Government colleges had increased to 8 with 579 students, the 
private colleges to 7. In 1 8 70-7 1 the colleges of both Unds ore 18 in number. 
In 1881-82 they "were 21, excluding Madrasas, "with about 2,740 students, 
of whom about half were in the Government colleges. The number of students, 
who in 1881-82 passed the FA., B A., and M A. examinations were respect- 
ively 287, 91, and 26, of which totals the Government colleges chimed 
59* an< i 22; the aided and unaided colleges 116, 32, and 4. The 
Calcutta Madras, the earliest of the Indian colleges, still represents in a 
modified form the older oriental colleges, and there are 4 other institutions at 
District centres in which a similar education is given in Arabic literature • 
while the Sanskrit College of Calcutta teaches to a high standard in Sanskrit * 



cnxv n ] historical he view or EDUCATION rs indu 39 

67 Bengal: Female Education —Before the Despatch of i8=u was 

rcccncd m India, tlio Betlmne Girls' School in Calcutta, managed by a Mmmit- 
ico md intended for the education of girls of the higher classes of society had 
obuined considerable reputation In 1854 there were about i |0 oo girls under 
instruction m schools known to tho Department Sixteen years later there 
were 274 girls' schools receiving aid with nearly 6,000 pupils Since 1870 71 
some progress Ins been nndc, but Bengal is still far behind the Western and 
Southern Presidencies in the proportion of girls it school to its female popu- 
lation Less thin 3 per cent of its public educational funds are devoted to 
female education Bengal maintains no Government formal school, but it 
assists two institutions under private management, attended by 4 1 pupils On 
tho other hand, there are more than i.ooo girls in secondary schools (melud 
ing S40 in primary classes), of n horn 300 arc in Government institutions ATore 
than half tho total number of girls at school are in primary mixed schools 
In the Btthuno school and m one of the aided institutions there arc 9 matri* 
ciliated students reading for University degrees The total number of girls at 
school;. Known to the Department exceeds 41,000, while the female population 
of Bengal is 35 millions 

68. Bengal . Grants in aid —The large application of the grant in aid 
system to indigenous schools in Bengal has already been explained In 
•secondary instruction tho Government has liberally aided popular effort from the 
first, and with one temporary exception, in 1871, has continued to manifest an un- 
fading interest in its maintenance Bj 1 870 7 1 , 63 1 aided schools were providing 
secondary instruction through the medium of English, as against 61 English 
secondarj schools directl) managed bj tho Department , whde there were 769 
middle vernacular aided schools against 209 in the hands o£ the Department 
There were thus 1,400 secondary schools maintained by aided private effort and 
onlv 270 provided by tho Department directly By 18S1 82 the separation 
of Assam had reduced the number of both aided and departmental secondary 
schools, hut the relative proportion of the two classes was practically un- 
changed There were then 1,370 aided secondary schools and 245 departmental 
secondary schools, while the unaided secondary schools, which are also under 
private managers and mnv bo regarded as an indirect result of the grant in aid 
system, numlx.red 276 The pupils in schools maintained by private effort 
were about four fifths of the entire number attending schools for secondary 
instruction in the Province With regaid to primary instruction the indi- 
genous schools have been brought in vast numbers into connection with the 
Department, hut the many important questions arising out of this application 
of the sjstem of grants in aid will be fully discussed in Chapter IV In 
collegiate education much Ie*s has been done than in secondary education 
The aided colleges of the Province are not half so numerous as m Maim* 
and their mimlcr has not increased for many years No college indeed has 
come mto existence in Bengal under the gnnt in aid rides The colleges under 
native management are confined with a single exception to Calcutta, and are 
all unaided There has been no withdraw al of departmental institute , hut 
aided effort Ins been «o fostered at all stages below the highest, that by far the 
largest proportion of the means of education is now provided and managed by 
the people for themselves with only aid and supervision from the Stale 

69 Bengal- General Snmmaiy^^^ 

progress of education in Bengal , but it must he remembered that m tbe first 
yea?, as »eU as m 1870 71, the figures for Assam ™ J^^*™^ 
be noted that for the sake of uniform^ the primary departments of secondary 
schools are shown as primary schools The most striking feature in the lable is 



40 



TtEPORT Or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION* 



[CEAP. XL 



the contrast between tlie unaided schools, chiefly primary, in 1870-71 and in 
1881-82- Of the total estimated niimher of pupils in the Province in 1870-71, 
namely, 878401, it was believed that more than 700,000 were in schools outside 
the departmental system. But in 188 1-82, the great hulk of unaided institu- 
tions for primary instruction had been incorporated into the general system. 
The main characteristic of educational progress in Bengal is its ready acceptance 
of the grant-in-aid principle, which in no other Province of India has received bo 
great a development in all stages of education below collegiate- Within the last 
decade primary education recognised by the State has advanced with extra- 
ordinary rapidity, Much, however, remains to he done before the improvement 
in its quality corresponds with its numerical advance. The provision of trained 
teachers is inadequate; and although the Provincial grant to education is 
larger than in any other Province, still the absence of local rates prevents the 
Department from affording such pecuniary aid to primary schools as is given in 
other Provinces, The rapid extension of responsibilities has outstripped the 
capacity of the Inspectors to exercise adequate supervision over the indigenous 
schools. The proportion of public funds spent upon higher education, and 
especially upon departmental colleges, is much larger than in any other Province 
of India, 

Estimate of the extent of Education tn Bengal and Assam at the beginning of 
the first departmental year 9 , and its subsequent grototh. 





i 


*t Schools 

tfOlltAL 


Schools 


Pbimiet 

gO BOOL B 


Schools 


1 

Schools 


Total 






1 

Fo 




No 




1 


PopUa 


No 




So 


Pupil* 


No 


Pupils 




Pupils 




f PtpittroniUl 


A 


OH 


■ 


1 to 








3 a;g 










1.5 J 








































6 


? 














*S dm 


500 ODD 






j 5 117 








M 




t 


iif> 


93 




ids 




CM 


500 ftM 






as 373 


Sa?*73t 










14 


1 177 




IO$5tflW 


J17 






-n 








SS 0S3 


1 




S 


33 * 




*** 






4,007 


"3 ?75f fl ) 






ii 


357 


5 434 


■40*151 






l 


*+ 






¥-4 




357 


9 077 fa) 




700 000 


S 






7»o 




TotAL 


ia 


t S7T 


M 


1 377 


I p Gjo 








3 000 




45 












*B 




ft 1 !! 


t i-itf] 




3 weft) 


373 








IG 










VEiti-t PeptTtrnfuUL 


S 


1 03 
*** 


I "[3 










* 


4 *Sj 


1 57 3&S 


C 




55*57 


1 AO 570 




Tor u, 


>7 










44 $S» 


SJWfl 


J»» 7fl7 


4,aSJ 


S7 3*5 


JJ 


1 048 


59 Boa 


*W7*7 



(4) lac toiling tbe ftipHi la tftutiftl prtmsrj whoolt. 
EidoiliTif ditto 



ditto 



ditto 



* Thtt nanlOTitiic'IoK^ tn M aar e bract el* rplalfl to unattuhoa Initliatluti* 
Mitt mn not tucluJM tu th* pfmi d toiaJ> of UiIb t*Me 



70. North-Western Provinces and Oudh: Education from 1854- 

55 to 1881-82 —The Education Department in the NortVWcstem Provinces 
found the system of talistli and lialkaban&i sclioob, described in Chapter IV, 
in vigorous operation. 'Xheso schools gradually took the place of the indigenous 
institutions, and thus supplied the basis for a system of primary instruction 
through, direct Government agency. The halkobandi schools, commenced in 
1851-52, had proved their usefulness in certain Districts before the creation of 
the Department in 1855, and their success determined the future policy in regard 
to primary education in the North-Western Provinces. That policy °was 
to found departmental primary schools of a better class, rather than to 
develope indigenous or private institutions. At tho end of its first year the 
Education Department of the North-Western Provinces found itself in charge 



CHAT ir] 



HISTORICAL KEVIEW OF EDUCATION IN INDIA 



11 



of S97 Government schools of all classes, with 23,6*88 pupils Outside these 
directly departmental institutions, there were said to be about 3,000 schools, 
with about 29,000 pupils, unaided and uninspected The result of the first 
sixteen years of departmental organisation was very largely to increase the 
number of Government schools, but to do little for the encouragement of aided 
education This tendency was still more marked by the end of the next decade, 
when the pupils in aided institutions had fillen to 19,310, and those in extra' 
departmental schools had increased to 68,305 But it must be observed that m 
no Province of India Iiave changes of classification exercised a more disturbing 
effect upon the statistics , and the annual Reports on Public Instruction present 
such varieties of treatment and such inconsistencies between the figures given in 
different parts of the same Report, that we have found great difficulty m tracin" 
the progress of the educational history of the Province ° 

71. North-Western Provinces and OudJi: Primary Education —The 

North-Western Provinces were the pioneers of the policy of extending primary 
education amongst the masses, and of providing adequate funds by means of 
local rates Mr Thomison's efforts had received the w arm approval of the 
Court of Directors prior to 1854 His system was to encourage indigenous 
schools by careful inspection, and to provide model schools at the head-quarters 
of each tahsil His successors developed the system of the halLabandi schools, 
and abandoned the indigenous agency in favour of the direct instrumentality 
of the Department In 1870-71 there were more than 153,000 children at 
primary schools, of whom all but about 5,000 were m departmental institu- 
tions In 1881-82, the numbers had risen to more than 213000, of whom 
about 16,000 were m aided and inspected schools Of the primary schools 
recognised by the State 95 per cent were departmental , and there were some 
7, 1 20 elementary indigenous schools which received no encouragement or assist- 
ance from the State The Government schools are described as being in then 
own sphere efficient, and theyreceire more than half the total amount expended 
from public funds on education in the North-TVestern Provinces and Oudh But 
the Government schools prove attractive to only one class of the community , 
and with those members of the lower classes of rural society who are both able 
to spare the services of their children and anxious to give them instruction, the 
indigenous schools are said to be more popular The further extension of primary 
instruction seems to depend on the adoption of the measures which Mr Thomason 
suggested, and on the systematic encouragement of indigenous schools AI though 
the Government of these Provinces was the first to recognise the claims of 
primary education, yet the percentage of primary pupils in schools recognised by 
the Department to the whole male population is only 89 per cent In no other 
Province of India is the proportion so low Efforts are therefore clearly needed 
to place primary education on a ^ uler basis , and the recogmtion of the indigenous 
schools, which, despite the competition of the halkabandi schools, have never 
lost their hold on the people, appears to offer a better prospect of success 
than exclusive reliance upon departmental institutions 

72. The North Western Provinces and Oudh : Secondary Educa 

tion.-In 1854 55 o£ secondai r Cdncatl ° n m ^North-Western 

Provinces were provided by the schools at Bareh, Sagar, and Ajmir, mnto 

turn to the school departments of the colleges at Benares 

*or some years no addition was made to the number of 

Additional schools were indeed e«W m the ^5^^ 

more than elementary »^"*^^»™ »l JE£ » 
Education Department was created in 1864, when J™/™, education 
zila schools fn .870-71 the Government schools for secondary education 



i 2 iiEroRT of the education commission. [ciiAr. ii. 

inttvctwoPtO\iticca comprised so high and 35 micldlo English schools, besides 
573 tihsili scliools, in which instruction to n fairly high standard *as given 
in the vernacular exclusively. A Government high school was not set up 
at tho head-quarters of each District, becauso in many cases there already 
existed a school which was thought adequate to tho needs of the locality. There 
were at this time 1S2 English schools for boys and 26 for girls, receiving 
grants-in-aid. The original grant-in-aid rules of 1858 wero modified in a more 
liberal senso in 1864; and by 187 1 tho amount awarded in grants to aided 
schools had reached 3ls- 1,80,000. But tho majority oE thesosccondary schools 
were under missionary bodies, and thcro was comparatively littlo native enter- 
prise. In 1881-82, the departmental system included 25 high and 42 middle 
schools teaching English, and 455 middle vernacular schools; the latter class 
now including about 200 halkabandi schools, in which some of tho pupils had 
reached the middlo standard. In all they educated 6,489 pupils, at a cost to 
public funds of Rs. 3,25,548. Aided schools educated 2,686 pupils, at a cost 
of Its. 53,442 to public funds. Tito number of unaided secondary schools of 
this class was quite insignificant. 

73. Horth-Western Provinces and Oudh : Collegiate Education.— 

0£ the 4 colleges wliich existed in theso Provinces at tho formation of the 
Education Department, one, that at Delhi, perished in tho Mutiny, and when it 
was re-established in 1 864 it had passed under tho Punjab Government. The 3 
remaining were affiliated to tho Calcutta University shortly nftcr its in- 
corporation; and between 1861-62 and 1870-71 they passed 96 candidates at 
tho P.A , 26 at the B.A., and 5 at the M,A. examinations. Besides the 
Government colleges, there were 5 aided English colleges, from which, during 
the same period, 24 candidates had been successful at tho F.A., and 3 at tho 
B A. examinations. Between 1871-73 and 1881-82, the Government and aided 
colleges varied from 6 to 10 ; at the end of each of these years there wero 
9. The total number of students at tho end of tho period in Government, 
aided and unaided colleges, excluding oriental departments, was 349; and 
, during the ten years the successful candidates at the University examinations 
were in the 2?. A. 305, in the J3A. 130, and in f Lo IT. A. 33. 

74. Uorih-Western Provinces and Oudh : Pemale Education.— The 

efforts of Government officers were from an early date directed to tho extension 
of female education. In 1854-55 there were less than 400 girls at school, and 
these were all attending missionary institutions. The Mutiny swept away 
most of the schools which existed bef oro 1 85 7, and the history of f emalo edu- 
cation commenced afresh in 1 S59, By 1 870- 7 1 more than 1 2,000 girls had been 
collected in the various institutions, aided or supported by the Department. 
Three years later the number had increased to 16,500, and then a change of 
policy interrupted further progress. In 18S2 there were about 9,000 girls at 
school, of whom more than 5,000 were in aided primary schools. In no other 
Province of India, except Ooorg, is the proportion of girls in schools recognised 
by the Department to the female population and the expenditure, so small. But 
there are 3 aided Normal schools, and it is believed that tho indigenous schools 
which are^outside the Department have some girls among their pupils. 

75. KortVWestern Provinces and Ondh: Grants-in-aid.— In this 

Province the grant-in-aid system has met with small success. A good beginning 
was made ; and for some years after 1858, when rules which school managers 
considered fair, were put in force, it seemed as if private effort would take a 
highly important place in the work of education. Subsequently its develop- 
ment began to be cheated ; and from 1871-72, after making all allowance for 



CUAP- II.] HISTORIC AL UEYIETT Or EDUCATION IN INDIA. 



43 



the fact that several schools classed as aided in 1870-71 were really under de- 
partmental management, the tendency lias on tho whole been steadily downward. 
There has indeed been a considerable increase in tho number of students at- 
tending aided colleges, and somo increase in the number of pupils attending 
aided primary schools ; but at the same timo there has been a considerable loss 
in aided schools of secondary instruction- Still such grants as are given are 
more liberal in amount tlian in Madras, Bombay, or Bengal. 

76. Horth-WestDrn Provinces and Oudh : General Summary.— The 

following Statement exhibits tho progress of education from the first year of 
departmental effort to 1881*82, It shows that the indigenous schools have 
increased, notwithstanding tho competition of the Government schools and 
the absence of encouragement or assistance. It must be observed that tahsili, 
and halkabandi schools of the higher order, which in 1870*71 were classed 
exclusively as primary schools, are in 1SS1-82 shown as secondary, while their 
primary departments appear as primary schools. As already remarked, 
changes of classification have rendered it difficult to trace the progress of edu- 
cation in this Province. But notwithstanding the attention given to primary 
education and tho money spent on it, tho Government schools have shown hut 
little of that expansion which is to be seen in other Provinces ; while the claims 
of the indigenous schools, so fully recognised by Mr. Thomason, have not 
received the attention tiicy deserve, finally, private enterprise has not received 
due encouragement at any stage. 



Estimate of the extent of Education in the Jfort/i- Western Provinces and Oudh 
in the first departmental year, {£54-55 ; and Us subsequent groicth* 



NiTOil ct Tim 3Iii3TU£t?a 


| Atta 

C0LLBG?!, 


Pi 0 YE 9 

Schools 

NOtfUiL 

Schools 




Bcvoou 


1 


Schools 


1 

Toth 






\* 




No 


Pupils 




Foiti** 


No 






PttpUs 


No, 


Pup Hi. 


No 






f EVpirtnivQUl 


4 


1 910a 




M 




4 063 


Bp 


17000 


** 




1 


EDO 








-t A idol rod [niptctad 
































t E itrvDe pirtanr ntal 




**• 




»** 


ij 


ijOJfl 


74 








M 












4 






i " 


JS 


5**97 


90+ 








I 


IOO 


$930 






f JBepirtmeaUl . 


3* 


7* 


1 


JW I 


S3 
















4rf*$ 








6 






♦* 




10 W7& 


UJ 


^ 






4 




361 






<-» 




*+ 


School) 


paptts 


5*7^ 


5&,&J7 






5 40+ 








9 




3 


J10 




iBj^jo 


S.I73 




■ 3 


IE 


it\l74 




mi 3a 


t ttitnL-DepartmenUL 


4 

S 


*■ 


** 


39] 

ml 


7' 

■WW 




is** 

** 


t07ofio& 


•** 

7,"7 




(3 

HI 


So 


7 "7 


**4 45+ 






9 


90S 


SEsj « j i 


533 


B.«5 


S^4j ! 






AS pS 


IT 


305 







(-) b4hdtD C jmpUt In mm Coll,** iM to itUcM Ug* mfJ JI« ^^i, 

t*> Including tho pnplla bl ittocljcd V^^S » clloolSt 

fc) Eidodlng ditto ditto ditto 

(J) Ihtto ditto wUefftata Bclioola 

1 lQ C Udin ff awondarj cb«e< o( UhrfU **ool* but iJdodius ^ ^hooli m AjmUf wi 

J lud^idlug tha tmpOa ot »«acbed co^Efato Rtoo^ included In ttie (T»nd tot»H of tHw 



44 REPORT OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION [ CII IP II 

77 ThePumab Eduration from 1856 57 to 1881-82 -ho Province 

of Indii entered upon tho task of diffusing education of tlio modem type 
under greater difficulties orl with less assistance from private enterprise than 
the Punjab It is impossible now to statu what number of pupils received 
instruction in tho first year of the Department s history t but it is known that 
there were only 3 secondary schools and 579 primary schools maintained b) 
Government The schools maintamed by Missionaries were also comparatively 
few Indigenous schools existed in \ cry hrgc numbers, hut their course of 
instruction 0 was mainly religious though it is probable thit t as at present the 
elements of secular instruction w?re gncn m some of them There wvtq few 
or no schools of a modern tyie maintained bj natne managers In i86 0 66 
according to the Report of our Frownml Committee the number of schools 
connected with the Department lnd risen to 2 96S mtk 102418 pupils, but 
during the nest lUe years n large number were closed as being inefficient and 
in 1670 71 tlv*w were* 1 915 schools with 84 816 puptU of u bom 24 556 were in 
aided schools At the end of 1SS1 82, the number of departmental and aided 
schools was 2 061 with 109 476 pupils But although this increase had taken 
place in the departmental schools it was small as compared with the progress 
in other parts of India 

78 The Punjab Primary Education —In its earlier years, tho Punjab 
Government accepted the policy of encouraging tho education of the masses 
The downward filtration" theorj never gamed any ascendancy in this part of 
India But the Province had difficulties of its own It w as not annexed to 
the British crown until 1849 The language which was adopted in the Courts 
of law, and which of Lite has become almost exclusively the medium of 
instruction m schools for boys is not the principal vernacular of the people 
There are three large sections of the population, Muhammadans, Hindus and 
Sikhs each with a system of indigenous education so distinct as to require se 
parate treatment and each claiming with more or less reason to represent the 
nationality of the Punjab Following the oxample of the Isorth Western Pro 
vinces the Punjab Government soon abandoned attempts to aid the existing 
indigenous schools and enlisting the most promising of the teachers as Govern 
raent servants took their schools under the management of the Department In 
the Central and Western Districts of tho Punjab tho departmental schools 
were founded upon the basis of the Persian maktab In tho Cis Sutlej Dis 
tncts a large proportion of the schools attende I by Hindus at first used the 
Hindi dialect and character, but of late years its use has been discouraged 
Whatever may have been the advantige of this change one result has certainly 
been that the vernacular of the schools is not that with which educated persons 
of the humbler classes are acquainted In 1859 according to the Report of our 
Provincial Committee the number of primary schools for boys recognised by 
the State uas 2 171, and though most of these hardly differed from the mdi 
venous schools which had existed from time immemorial it is significant that 
in 1871 the number had fallen to 1755 In that year there ^vere some 69 500 
cl lldren in the primary schools recognised by the State In 1881 82 the 
numbers had only increased to 102 867 The Hindus and Sikhs attended these 
schools m larger proportion than the Muhxtmmadans although the medium of 
instruction might seem to favour the latter The percentage of male children in 
primary schools is only slightly higher than in the R orth Western Provinces being 
91 per tent The evidence before the Commission shews that the departmental 
system of village schools is not generally appreciated by the masses nor does it 
offer any reasonable hops of accomplishing the task ttliich the Punjab Govern 
inent accepted in 1854 t 

79 The Punjab Secondary Education —Up to 1861 there were in this 



Oil VP. II.] HISTORICAL REVIEW OF EDUCATION IN INDIA* 



as 



Province comparatively few students learning English. But within the next 
fire years fuller encouragement was given to education of this character. 
The formation of English classes in vernacular schools was assisted by liberal 
grants, and the belief was widely spread that a knowledge of that language 
i\ould lead to Government employment. In 1866 the number of pupUs 
studying English was about 13,000. In the five following years greater en- 
couragement was given to vernacular instruction j and the premature learning 
of English was discouraged. In 1870-71 there were 4 high and 97 middle 
schools under departmental control with 9,404 pupils. At the same date 
there wcro 10 high and 37 middle schools, with 5,408 pupils, receiving grants- 
in-aid. In the following period, up to 1881-82, the development of second- 
ary education was stimulated by the promise of Government to reserve appoint- 
ments for those who had passed through the prescribed course of study. 
In 1881-82 the departmental schools for secondary instruction were 10 high and 
53 middle schools giving education in English, and one high and 1 25 middle 
schools in which the course was purely vernacular. These together educated 
4>974 P u pik ai a cost to public funds of Us 1,99,043. The aided system 
included 12 high and 22 middle English schools for boys and one middle 
school for girls, in which 994 students were educated at a cost to public funds 
of Rs. 31,569. 

80- The Punjab : Collegiate Education.— The Delhi College ceased to 

exist in 1 857, and the building was occupied by troops for many years afterwards. 
In 1864 Government Colleges were established at Lahore and Delhi. The two 
colleges continued to exist till 1877, when the college classes of the former were 
closed, in order that the staff of the latter might be strengthened without further 
expenditure* In addition to these colleges there was from 1S65 to 1869 an aided 
college maintained at Lahore by the American Mission. Between its affiliation 
to the Calcutta University in 1 S64 and its closing in 1877, the Delhi College passed 
61 candidates at tho 3?.A., 18 at the B. A M and 4 at the M.A. examinations During 
tho eighteen years of its existence the Lahore College has passed 84, 25, and 7 
candidates at the same examinations. The Punjab Oriental College, founded 
in 1 870, differs from other oriental colleges in endeavouring to impart instruc- 
tion in the higher branches of European knowledge and science through the 
medium of tho vernaculars, while at the same time cultivating the oriental 
classical languages. 

81. The Punjab: Female Education.— In the year following the 

creation of the Department, there were only 300 girls returned as under instruc- 
tion in schools recognised by the State. Sir B. Montgomery actively interested 
himself in tho cause, and by iS65-d"6 the number had risen to nearly 20,000 
gills in departmental or other schools, Eire years later the numbers had fallen 
to less than 12,000, and in 1881-82 they were still further reduced to less than 
9,500. Of these 5,350 girls « ere attending aided primary institutions Many 
of the best of the existing schools are trader the management of Missionaries or 
Zanana agencies. The cost, however, is not inconsiderable, and nearly 4, per 
cent, of public educational funds are spent on these results, which are very 
small compared either with the population or with the expenditure mvoived. 

82. The Punjab: Grants-in-aid.-It can hardly he- ^^ a \"- e 

for eliciting private educational enterprise has as yet been ^ J^^nt 
Spnlrfog broadly, the only managers who have come forward 
fiUtd system are the Missionaries. The rates of aid seem ^X^ to co 
« hen only a single class of those *^£^J$£££%t££ 
operate with the State, it is not surprising that private ettorc ms ^ 
a very subordinate part in providing the means of education for the rrovmcc. 



46 



HBPOM OP THE EDUCATION COJ1HI35ION 



[CHAP ir 



Still, in 1881-82 there were 35 aided secondary schools TYitli994 pup Js, and 
278 aided primary schools with 14,616 pupils These formed an important 
addition to the educational system* since aided effort was thus educating 
about 1 5 per cent of the whole number tinder instruction ; but it should be 
noticed that in 188 1 82 private agency was supplying a smaller proportion of 
the entire amount of education in the Province than it supplied eleven years 
before Old schools are aided on a liberal scale, but applications for new or 
increased grants are rejected on the ground of want of funds 

83 The Punjab : General Summary— The following tabular Statement 

shows the progress of departmental effort from the formation of the Department 
in 1856 57 There is no Province of India in which the Commission has found 
so much controversy as in the Punjab The differences of opinion which 
prevail are reflected in the evidence and memorials received by us, as well 
as m the statement attaclied to the Beport of oui Provincial Committee 'We 
are far from underrating the special difficulties which surround the questions 
of the choice of a vernacular language, the course of studies best suited for 
the various classes of the population, the encouiagement of indigenous schools 
which are strongly religions, or the relations of the University and of Local 
Boards to the primary and secondary schools But our enquiries lead us to 
the conclusion that primary education has not received the development con- 
templated by the Despatch , that the indigenous schools have been neglected, 
and that the education of the masses has not received that support from provincial 
revenues which has been given in other Provinces of India under the orders of 
187 1 In secondary education the grant m-aid system has been little more 
than introduced, and an inadequate provision of funds has checked the growth 
of aided schools and discouraged native private effort There ha3, it is true, 
been a large increase of expenditure upon departmental schools, but there has 
been no such proportionate increase in the number of scholars 



EUmaie of the extent of Education in the Punjab m the first departmental 

year, 1S56 ,57 , and its suhsequeni growth 



\atuxu. of *3i IfiiirTAiiniia 


Art* 1 

KltflLl H 
Oil 
1FT1L 


QNJLL 
GTHtB T7IUT 


Schools 


Sort 00 t 


riTDIflEHOtH 

Schools ff 


CLASSY 










Pap Lis 




Pop 0 








Ptip 9 


\a 


Pup It 


No 


Pop 19 


No 






< Aid^d tnd Inapcc <?<L 






1 


? 


3 


f 




? 


























3 




lt 




5 «3l 


30 gS 








jo S97 










I 


? 


6 


*7* 








30 96 








4+ ior 




fPep&rlme&til 
-Aided 

t Ej;trm-Dfpi taunti! 


101 






to 
47 


S 408a 
3**4 « 


AW 


ta 547* 
*■ 


I 

4, 33 


Ml 

5»5 t 




30J 

7i 


1 jffo 

111 
430 


160 

Si* 
$4 Mj 




Tout 


> 


103 








9 m 






4 44 






47* 








} Aided 

I f itrt-Drpirt mead! 

TOTIL 

\> 


1 
1 


>0J 
tJ3 

! 




3*Sj 
O 


35 


«4* 




S3 ij a 
14 5 Go 








14? 


a S 


srs 

IS, 50 J 




1 




[* 


3«J 


J 4 




S 7 


103,867 






& 


4* 


B 43J 


tg5 409 



l r th» nmlAn »f ln<U(fa«ii •clwoll roafh tit nik »mjj 



CHAT. II. ] HISTORICAL REVIEW OP EDUCATION IN INDIA. 47 

84. The Central Provinces : Education from 1862-63 to 1881-82 - 

The Education Department in these Provinces was created in 1862. I^m the 
first it adopted the principle of founding no Government schools where private 
enterprise rather existed or could be created. But the institutions founded by 
private enterprise were very few. There were seven missionary secondary schools 
and the numher of indigenous schools was probably less than 700. By various 
means the Department has succeeded in inducing private agencies to open 
primary schools, hut the largest results have been due to direct departmental 
effort. The progress made was considerable up to 1870-71; since that date 
the pupils in Government schools have only slightly increased, while those 
in aided schools hare decreased in a larger proportion. 

85. Central Provinces : Brimary Education.— The Central Provinces 

Administration found the task of diffusing elementary education beset with diffi- 
culties. The bulk of the population are Hindus and aborigines, to the latter of 
whom education is practically unknown. The Department from the first ne- 
glected no agency which could assist in the work of primary education. ILocal 
rates supplied tho bulk of the funds and efforts were made to encourage the econo- 
mical agency of private enterprise. But tho indigenous schools were even fewer 
and more inefficient than in Bombay, and the position of school-master was not* 
sought after. In 1870-71 tho Department had succeeded in attracting to the 
primary schools about 76,400 children, of whom 41,400 were in departmental 
institutions. In i88i-82,the totalnumber in primary schools recognised by the 
State had only risen to 7 7,737. Tho departmental institutions had increased, and 
. formed 66 per cent, of the wholenumber within the State system. There are few 
or no indigenous schools outside that system, for the few institutions which do 
not receive aid are under inspection. Much therefore remains to be done, as the 
proportion of boys in primary schools to the male population is only i "5 per cent. 
Bat if the numerical results are disappointing, the efficiency of the primary 
schools is geuerally satisfactory, and in no other Province of India is tho supply 
of trained teachers relatively so large. Tho aboriginal races are, however, still 
without instruction, and in the absence of private enterprise the direct instru- 
mentality of Government may need to be more largely employed. The propor- 
tion of public funds spent on primary education is liberal, but the funds them- 
selves are still very inadequate for the task of extending elementary education 
in so difficult a field. 

86. Central Provinces : Secondary Education.— On the formation of 

the Department in 1862, the only provision for secondary education was supplied 
by the high school at Jabalpur, and by 3 unaided middle schools. By 1870-71 
another high school and 44 Government middle schools had also been estab- 
lished. Prom its first constitution, the Department had offered aid to effi- 
cient Anglo- vernacular schools; and in 1870-71 there were 2 high and 8 
middle English schools receiving grants-in-aid. By 1881-82 the Government 
schools had been reduced to 1 high school and 38 middle, in which 2,100 
hoys were educated at a cost of Es. 58,947- The aided system had increased 
to 4 high and 10 middle schools, receiving altogether Es, 14,116 frompuhhe 
funds, and educating 67 1 pupils. There are no unaided secondary schools 

87. Central Provinces: Collegiate Educationv-In t^ Jro™ «» 

there is only one Government college, thatat Jabalpur. Though affiliated I to the 
Calcutta University up to the B.A. standard, it has not as yet had a staff Buffi, 
ciently strong to prepare candidates for that examination lis students here- 
fore, after passing the XJL examination, have hitherto joined one ,or o her of 
the colleges of Bombay or the Korth-Westem Provinces, when wishing to pro- 



4g REPORT Or THE EDTJCAllON COMMISSION. [CHAP, n 

ceed to the higher TTniversity degrees. The total number on the rolls in ,8Sn 
82 in the Jahalpur College was 65, and during tho twelve yean between 1870.7 1 
and 1881-82 it passed 90 candidates out of 149 at the V. A. examination, 
Besides the Government college an aided college has been established aOfag. 
pur by the Mission of the Free Church of Scotland since the closo of the year 
1881-82. 

88. Central Provinces : Female Educations—Early efforts wero mndo 

to overcome the great difficulties incidental to female education in the Central 
Provinces, In 1870-71 there were nearly 4,500 girls attending departmental 
institutions, and about 230 in aided or inspected schools. There were also 3 
Normal schools for female teachers. But in the course of the next decade 
there was a general filling off. In 1881-82, there were only some 3,200 pupils 
in schools of all classes, and hut one Kormal school with 17 pupils, which, 
although it ia a well-managed institution, cannot suffice for tUo wants of the 
whole Central Provinces* 

89. Central Provinces : Grants-in-aid — Tha late formation of the 

partment, which did not commence operations until 1 862, gave an opportunity 
4 for profiting by tho experience gained elsewhere, and there is no Province in 
which the principles laid down in the Despatch of 1854 have been more fully 
acted on within a limited sphere. The success of eliciting private effort has not 
indeed been proportionate to the endeavour, but this may be accounted for by 
the extremely backward condition of tho Province when educational effoiU 
were begun, and the consequently small number of persons willing and able to 
co-operate with the State. There is, however, reason to hope that if the present* 
policy be continued, aided effort will in due time take the place in the education- 
al system of the Province which the Despatch of 1854 desired it to hold in 
every Province- The Department has largely confined its direct efforts to primary 
education, and no departmental institutions o£ an advanced character have been 
set up where there has been a reasonable prospect that piivate effort could with 
liberal aid he made adequate to local wants. Of the five high schools of the 
Province only one is departmental. Of the entire number of pupils under 
instruction, 19,457, or about 24 per cent*, were in 1881-82 in aided institutions. 

90, Central Provinces : General Summary —The following Table ex- 
hibits the growth of education in the Central Provinces between 1862-63 
1881-82, In estimating the modest results which it exhibits, it is necessary to 
hear in mind the weakness of private enterprise, the poverty of the adminis- 
tration, and the backward state of society, The schools are comparatively few, 
but their condition is satisfactory, and the endeavours made to promote the 
development of aided institutions deserve favourable notice. 



Estimate of the extent of Education in th Central Provinces m the first 

departmental year 1862-63 i ,an & lts subsequent growth. 





Aetb 

£«0L1GH 1JD 


PjtOF* EBJ fTTT4 L 
01 HI* TIE4X 

Schools 




Schools 




1 Bfl30QLB 


Toxit 






PapQ& 




Pupate 


bo 


Fnpile, 




Papils 


No 


PupCa 


bo 


Pupili 


Wo 


Pupil* 


f Departmental 










S 


1,3350 












130 






iPSj-Cj < Aided and Inspected 










7 






** 


ms 


7 En 










^Eitra Departmental 












Betumo not available 














=* 








iff 




409 


HpOS4 




7*811 


e 









(a) Including the pupvlg in attGihed primary rahnols 

(ft) TLlb Fr&YiUCiai Committor regard* IIiIh number &tf an tiflgKerated eEtlmatB 



CHAP. IT.] 



HISTORICAL KEVIEW Or EDUCATION IN ISDJA, 



Estimate of the extent of Education in the Central Provinces in the first 
departmental year, 1862-63; and tfs subsequent groioth— (contd.) 



lecher 


Am 

FftflLItf* **T) 


&CROOLH 
OTIC EH TR1JT 
IV O VITAL 


$g&oolv 


Sokools 










No, 


PopllS 




PttptlB 


^0 


Pupil a 






Mo 


PupUa 


So 








tS?5-7t < Aided Inspected 




** 
»* 






[ 

4<S 
10 


5 347* 


735 
1 ogt 

■j- 


4t4^& 


I 




7 


■ 


M 
f 101 




To*** , 


** 








S3 




1,836 








7 








f Departmental , 
rf$t-£? A AH&d bid Inflated 
(^Eitra-t^Tttrt menial 


t 


05 

■-■ 


*4 

[** 


45ft 
■*] 




i ioia 


«P4 


5*745* 


M 


I 


♦ 

>* 


139 




5^54* 


Total J 

= : <— 


I 


as 


*4 
[1* 


43^ 1 
>4] 


3* ' 


3771 




1 






A 




1 KF> 


St m 



{9} Including tli* popH« In attached piimflrj schools. 
(«) Etdatfiijr <mto ditto (tltto 

* Thft flares b winarfl bnu^cU relate to unattached technical hcIiqoIs, ana &tb Dot luduM fo th e gratia totals t>t thU table 

91* Assam : Education from 1854 to 1883 —The educational statis- 
tics of Assam were included in those of Bengal up to the year 1874, when the 
separation of the two Provinces took place* From that date Assam has 
developed its own system more on the general lines laid down by Sir George 
Campbell than on those of his successor, Sir It, Temple, The Province consists of 
three divisions, — the Surma Valley* comprising the Districts of Sylhet and 
Cachar ; tho Brahmaputra Valley, containing about half the area and half the 
population of the entire Province ; and the Hall Tracts, wluch include the wild and 
sparsely populated Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, and Naga Hills. The chief languages 
are Assamese, Bengali, and Cachan ; but there 1$ also a great variety of hill 
dialects- In the Surma Valley, schools have flourished from a very early 
period and are under regular inspection notwithstanding the difficulties in the 
way of communication especially during the rainy season. Here the indige- 
nous schools, Hindu and Jlnhammadan, have been largely improved on the 
Bengal pathsala system* which is said to have been eminently successful in the 
development of primary education — the Sylhet primary schools being the bsst 
in the Province, In the Brahmaputra Valley* wheie there is much recent re- 
clamation from jungle throughout the older Districts constituted on the Bengal 
regulation model, indigenous schools hardly existed at all, and the Department 
found a fresh field for its operations. The Hill Tiacts are specially mentioned 
in the Despatch of 1854, as one of the Districts where education to most 
indebted to missionary agency; and the administration of the grants in-aidm 
those tiacts is stiU m the hands of the different missionary bodies. In these 
tracts also, owing to the persevering efforts of missionary agency, female 
education has been more successful than elsewhere m Assam, and the girls' 
school have to some extent been provided with trained female teachers who 
are natives of the country. The net result of all the agencies at work was 
shewn in 1881-82 to be, in the schools recognised by the Department, 46,750 
childien, of whom 38,182 were in primary and 331 in Konnal schools. 

92. Assam: Mnwy Educatiotu-After 1874, ttefttmnoo V**^ 

in th« pohcylaid down by Sir George Campbell, and maintained its own method 
of en TO ura S ing indigenous schools. This method resembles that of J?engaJ 10 



B0 . uEPCmT 01 THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. [CHAP. IL 

being built entirely upon private agency, which is as fur as possible that of the 
LdAnous schools. But its later development is in marked contrast with that 
which Sir George Campbell's policy received at the hands of his successors. In 
the first place, the necessity for training schools has been steadily kept m 
view The Inspector of Schools reports to tho Commission that it is much 
"better not to start a primary school at all than to start one with a bad teacher 
» who brings discredit on our system. Until a much larger supply of qualified 
" teachers is available the progress of primary education must ho slow. In the 
second place, the grants given to aided schools are very liberal, and the Inspector 
writes that " the system of granting aid by payments for results has never been 
,f tried in Assam Proper, and except under a modified form would, I believe, Tesult 
<' in closing a great many of tho bad and struggling primary schools." Lastly, 
the sanction which the Secretary of State gave in 1870 to tho introduction of a 
local rate for educational purposes in bengal was given the force of law in 
1879, and primary education is now, under Regulation III of that year, wholly 
supplied by local rates. Great attention is paid to the improvement of schools ; 
and the extension of primary education is only limited by the funds available 
for the payment of liberal grants to schoolmasters and for the maintenance of 
training schools for teachers. In 1881-82 the children attending the primary 
schools recognised by the State formed the same proportion of the male popula- 
tion at school as in the Central Provinces. But unlike the Central Provinces, 
there is in Assam an outer circle of indigenous schools gradually qualifying 
for State assistance, aud these contain nearly 10,000 children. The percentage 
alike of public funds and of provincial educational funds devoted to primary 
education is, however, small. 

93. Assam: Secondary Education. — Assam, when separated from 
Bengal, carried with it 9 higb. and 116 middle schools, English and ver- 
nacular, with 6,779 pupils. A number of middle vernacular schools which had 
not proved successful were reduced to the lower vernacular stage, with greater 
promise of efficiency. In 1881-82 the total number of secondary schools had 
accordingly fallen to 92, but the pupils had increased to 8,177, including the 
pupils of attached primary departments. The Government system included 9 
bigh, 2 middle English^ and 18 middle vernacular schools, educating 3,403 
pupils at a cost of Us. 39,827 to the Government ; while under the grant-in-aid 
rules there were 1 high, 28 middle English, and 25 middle vernacular schools, 
educating 4,085 pupils at a coat of lis. 18,833, There were also \ high and 
8 middle schools which received no grants-in-aid. 

94. Assam : Female Education 1 Special Classes.— female education 

has since the separation of Assam from Bengal received considerable attention, 
and in 1 88 1 -82 there were nearly 1,700 girls at schools known to the Depart- 
ment. There is, however, no Normal school for female teachers, though a class 
for women is attached to the Cherra Punji Normal School. All the institu- 
tions for girls are primary schools, which are liberally aided. In Assam the 
education of the large aboriginal population is receiving attention. In the 
Khasi and Jaintia Hills a gratuitous education is given to the children of 
aborigines, and it is partly paid for by mission funds and partly by the State. 

95. Assam: Grants-in-aid. — In Assam encouragement has steadily 
been given to private enterprise, though, at present, except in the case of pri- 
mary schools, htUe progress has been made; but, as already noticed, the rates of 
aid to primary schools are far more liberal in Assam than m tho Lower Pro- 
vinces. 



CHAX. It.] HISTOMOAIi EEVIETV OP EDffCAnoiT Br INDIA, 5X 

^ 96. Assam : General Summary.— The follows Table affords a suffi. 

cipnt summary of tlie facts which have been stated above Ofte statistics of 
education for 1870,71, cannot bo obtained, as the records of miny Districts liave 
been destroyed by fire. 



Education in Assam, in 1881-82. 



1 


Schools, 

_Stnoota* 


1 " " 


Schools 


I 

Schools 




1 

Total, 






Pupils 


\ 

M) 




No 






Pupils 


No- 






Pupils* 


yDtj*flrt mental t 


1 


(So 






7 




i 






220 




3 87*> 


iSSt-Sa \ Airfwiauct Inspected 


cfi 


: ia] 


ft 


4 77* e 












lit 






^ Xitra Departmental 


* 












497 






.* 




£V735 






60 
ta] 


92 


'8.177 






497 : 


9733 


9 


33 » 







Jnchrfing tbo himiTj Departments cf Secondary School* 
t&) Excluding ditto ditto ditto. 

Th»i^r^laBqn*^bi^ttUTcUUUaii*tUchrflwM BtWla «4 «fc TWt infludad tu \te totila tit tins tatl* 



97. Coorg;Educatioiifcoml857 to 1881-1882.— Prior to 187071 the 

returns of some of tho educational institutions in Coorg were include*] in those 
for Mysore* In that year* there were 1,601 pupils in schools known to the 
Department, of whom only 108 were in aided primary schools. The Govern- 
ment institutions consisted o£ one secondary school ^vrith 60 pnpils and 32 
primary schools. In 1881-82, tho secondary Government schools had increased 
totwowitb 157 pupils, and the primary schools were 57 with 5,978 pnpils. The 
Department provided or assisted in providing education for 3*233 children in 
schools of all classes and stages. Thero were only three aided primary schools 
and 41 indigenous schools receiving no aid from the State. 

98. Coorg : Primary Education. — Primary education in Cootg during 

the seventeen yean down to i860 was represented by 20 village schools maintain- 
ed by Government, on a monthly allowance to each master of Us* 2-8. As an edu- 
cational agency their value was proportionately small. In 1S60 it was resolved 
to put the masters under training and to give those who qualified Es 7 a month. 
The scheme was carried out in 1864, In 1870-71 there were 1,541 children 
at primary schools, of whom about 108 were in aided schools. The depart- 
mental agency has since that date been exclusively developed, and in rSSi-Ss, 
there were nearly 3,100 children in primary schools, of whom not 100 were 
in aided institutions. The indigenous schools Lave about 500 pupils, hut 
they receive no assistance from the State* A local rate was introduced in 1871, 
and to it is attributed the improvement which has betjn made in tiie quality of 
the schools as well as their increase in numbers. Three per cent of the male 
population are at school, which is the highest proportion recorded in any 
of the Provinces with which our Eeport deals A few girls attend the village 
schools for hoys. There is also a school at Yuajpet established by the nuns 
for native converts* 

99. Coorg: Secondary Education.— The Merkara Government School 
was established on the formation of the Department in 1S57, and was placed 
under the charge of the Basel MUswiu Tbis was the only secondary school 
existing in Coorg in 1870^71, when it had 60 pupils In the high and 



_ 2 BEPOM Or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. [CHAP. n. 

auddle departments of this school instructed 157 pupils at an annual cost to the 
State of Bs. 7,518. There irere no secondary schools under private managers 

100, Coorg: General Summary -The following Table exhibits the 

crowth o! education in Coorg since the statistics ol its ed^atvoBal history were 
separated from those of .Mysore. Beyond the evidence which these statistics 
furnish in regard to the little aid rendered to private enterprise, the Table calls 
for no remark, 

Great k of Education in Coorg between 1870-71 and 1881-82. 



_ — : . =r=z — Z=Z= — =r 


Schools 


School* 


SCHOOLS 




ToTiL 






Pupils 




Pupils 


No 




No 


Pupils 






/Depart mental 


1 


60 




M33 






I 


P 


34 


M93 








3 


iqS 




• * 






3 


10S 


\ Eitra Departmental , 


* 




















TOTAi 




| 60 


| 35 


1.541 


J 


1 


1 


; ? 


37 


i,6ot 


/Departmental 


1 

2 


1 


57 






1 


I 


7 
























5 




\ Extra*Uepartrotfltal 










41 


470 






4i 


470 




2 


>S7 


Co 


3069 


4t 


470 


X 


7 


104 


3 TO 



101* Haidaraliad Assigned Districts; Education, from 1866 to 

1881*1882* — The position of this Province, which is generally known as Berar, 
is exceptionally favourable to the extension of primary education. The popu- 
lation is prosperous and wealthy, consisting of 90 per cent Hindus, and the 
rest Muhammadans and aborigines, The Education Department w as organised 
in 1 866, and its main object was declared to be the extension of elementary 
education In pursuance of this ohject a cess of one per cent on the Jnnd* 
revenue was introduced in iS68 t and its proceeds were devoted to the multi- 
plication of cess schools entirely under departmental management. Indigenous 
schools were few in number and inferior in quality, but an attempt 1ms been 
midc since 1870-71 to bring them within the departmental system* The present 
Iicrar system of primary instruction is the result of tlveso two modes of action, 
no other development of the grant-in-aid agency for vernacular instruction 
having been found practicable- In 1 88 1-82 the pupils in departmental primary 
schools had increased to nearly 28,000. and there were about 7,000 pupils in 
schools cither aided or inspected by the Department The defects of the system are 
the absence of any attempt to educate the aborigines ; the want of any ade- 
quate educational machinery such as school committees and Local Boards ; the 
% cry marked insufficiency of properly- trained teachers who are natives of the 
Province; and the ah^enco^ of aided instztuEions other than the indigenous 
schools. 



102. Haidarabad Assigned Districts : Secondary Education.— In 

1666 two English schools at Alob and Amraoti were raised to the btatus of 



CHA* II ] 



niSTOMCAL REVIEW OP EDUCATION IS IVDU 



C3 



high schools Tlie bulk of tbeir cost is paid by Government, and a largo num- 
ber of their pupils come from other Provinces There Trere also m that year 
23 English schools oE the middle standard In 187 1 the middle schools liad 
risen to 44, and they subsequently increased to 52 , but it was found that their 
number was m excess of the requirements of the people, and 30 were reduced 
to the primary class In 1881-82 the two high schools contained 6 r pupils > 
while in the middle schools, now 29, the number of pupils was 972 The cost 
of all these schools to the State was Us 53,197. There were no schools under 
private management* 

103. Haidarahad Assigned Districts: Pemale Education.— Although 

liberal funds are available, female education in Berar has been a failure The 
Department has relied upon the earlier .views espiessed by the Government of 
India, in which a gradual and cautious development was advocated In 1871 
there were 671 girls at schools known to the Department, and in 1881-82 there 
were only 269 attending Government institutions and 99 in aided institutions 
There is no Kormal school or class in the Province, and when the state of female 
education in the adjoining division of tho Bombay Presidency is considered, its 
failure here seems to be due to indifference to the subject The proportion of 
the female population at school is only one half of the proportion at school in 
the Central Provinces, where the difficulties of finance and administration are 
far greater 

104. Haidarabad Assigned Districts: General Summary —The fol- 
lowing Statement exhibits the growth of education in these districts since the 
formation of the Department m 1866 TFe have summarised the chief features 
of the Berar system in paragraph 101 

E&ltmate of the extent of Education tn the Saidarahad Assigned Districts tn 
the first departmental year 1866+67 * end its subsequent growth 



1 

Mini o? m jlAofiinriya Aowtr 


St COM P AIT 




lit* aivo era 


1 Stmoou 


Tetit* 




Fnpibi* 






No 








so 


Per • 


f Departmental 
C^itra Departmental 

TOTAt 

f Departmental 
(87071 -?Aldod 

C^itm Departmental 
Total 

^Departmental 
lSSi-6* < A 4cJ and Inspected 

QEitra Departmental 

1 




2 2Q a 


1 2 




IOO 


"000 






»4 

100 


6644 

2fioa 


35 




122 


4,44- 


100 


2,000 






ito 


^644 






' 297 




no 


"3oS 


1 


64 


U '33 




3S4G 


*91 




hp 


23*$ 


1 


64 


454 


iM4l 


! 


1 0334 1 


467 
416 








t 




W| 
4i&| 


e,£&4 


3> 


1,033 

1 




34J S 

1 








*9 





it) ¥1 Wff the pop t lo 1 t*M>*4 r/nmuj #cb(* *. 

105. Education in Ajmir-Mhairwara ^^^^^i 

Comnmsmnerslup under tho r«*gtt Department, the Goremor b. ncoli 
Agent for It-ypuWi Lang ex officio Cbicf Commoner of Vjnm ' « 
«St the Common Ins not been able to n«t tin. m *Z°**r^& s" 
territory Trom the Ajmir-Mlrurxnim Administrate Keport for .88. S. iro 



51 EEFOUT OF THE EDUCATION COHHISSIOtf. [CEAP. Il 

find that on the 31st March 1882, there were, including the Ajmir Government 
College, 130 educational institutions at work, with an attendance of 5400 
pupils. In many respects, as in its tahsili and halkabandi schools, the system 
of education in Ajmir rests on the same basis as in the North-Western Pro* 
vinces, to which it was formerly attached. Education has made steady progress 
in Ajmir- JMhairwara ; the number of pupils in Government institutions having 
more than trebled during the past decade from 1,049 ™ 1871-72 to 3,391 in 
1881-82, The progress, so far as the Department is concerned, has, however, 
been made almost exclusively by direct Government agency. Only two mission 
schools, with 238 pupils, receive grants-in-aid, while the returns shew 57 
unaided mission schools with 2^09 pupils in 1881-82. The Ajmir College 
will be again mentioned in Chapter VI; and an account of the Mayo 
College, founded for sons of nobles in memory of the Earl of Mayo, will be 
found in Chapter IX of this Report. We regret that we have not been able to 
include the figures for Ajmir in our statistical Tables, but, where possible, 
the information available has been included in foot-notes to the Tables. All 
totals, therefore, in those Statements are subject to an addition of 73 Gov- 
ernment and aided schools with 3,391 pupils, and o£ 57 unaided mission 
schools with 2,009 pupils ; or a total of 130 schools with 5*400 pupils for Ajmir- 
Mhairwara. 



BEPOKT Or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION* 



[chap, n 



find that on the 31st March 1882, there were, including the Ajmir Government 
College, 130 educational institutions at work* with an attendance of 5400 
pupils* In many respects, as in its tahsili and halkabandi schools* the system 
of education in Ajmir rests on the same basis as in the North-Western Pro- 
vinces, to which it was formerly attached- Education has made steady progress 
in Ajmir-Mhairwara ; the number of pupils in Government institutions having 
more than trebled during the past decade from 1,049 ^ J 87 1-72 to 3,391 i n 
1SS1-82. The progress, so far as the Department is concerned, has, however, 
been made almost exclusively by direct Government agency. Only frtvo mission 
schools, with 538 pupils, receive grants-in-aid, while the returns shew 57 
unaided mission schools with 2,009 pupils in 1881-82. The Ajmir College 
will he again mentioned in Chapter VI ; and an account of the Mayo 
College, founded for sons of nobles in memory of the Earl of Mayo, will be 
found in Chapter IX of this Beport We regret that we have not been able to 
include the figures for Ajmir in our statistical Tables, but, whers possible, 
the information available has been included in foot-notes to the Tables* All 
totals, therefore, in those Statements are subject to an addition ot 73 Gov- 
ernment and aided schools with 3,391 pupils, and of 57 unaided mission 
schools with 2,009 Pupils ; or a total of 130 schools with 5,400 pupils for Ajmir- 
Mhainvara. 



CHAPTER m. 

INDIGENOUS SCHOOLS. 



106. Survey of indigenous Education in India.— The Despatch of tlie 

Court of Directors in 1854 recognised tlie fact that " throughout all ages learned 
" Hindus and Muhammadans have devoted themselves to teaching -with little 

3hools w 

it was Deucveu, iuiu caasLeu xiuixi uiuo , ■■ *-ight hy 

encouragement, such as had heen given by Mr. Thomason in the North-West- 
ern Provinces, he made capable of imparting correct elementary knowledge to 
the masses of the people. The Despatch of 1859, whilst noticing the obvious 
fact that no general schome of popular education could he framed which 
would he suitable to all parts of India, re-affirmed the necessity of making the 
greatest possible use of existing schools, and of the masters to whom, however 
inefficient as teachers, the people had been accustomed to look np with respect. 
But it expressed a doubt whether the grantfn-aid system, as up to that time 
in force, was suited to the supply of vernacular education and suggested 
that the means of elementary education should be provided by the direct instru- 
mentality of the officers of Government; either according 0 some one of the 
plans in operation in Bengal and the Northwestern Provmces whi h were 
Led upon or recognised the importance of encouraging the indigenous schools, 
or byTny modifications of those schemes which might commend 
to the Local Governments. Without attempting 

tion of the diif erent religious classes winch make up the 254 ™£°™Z 
India, it may be generally affirmed that the indige ^ V*" 
tion is confined to the Hindus, Muhammadans, and Sikhs. The a ^<=^ 
population, numbering, according to the ^f^^v^^ 
census, nearly 6\ millions, are sunk in ignorance, and <«J^™ ^SS 
such as the Ka^mptis) what education they have Government 
to missionary enterprise - * indi- 
They have no system of their own, J^J^^^J^ of these backward 
genous schools are incapable of P^^ 3 iiSto h entirely con- 

races. The Buddhist population, numbering 34 ™° ' m ^ . mainly 

fined to Burma, ^^^^^^^^ Thes^ 
a narrative of the improvement of the ™<^*™ ' _ TCrv ma ] 0 all d female 
schools have succeeded in giving ^^J^^SJ^^ Burma 
in the country, but further reference to ^"^^torftadta. 
is excluded from the Commission's enquiries. The ™isz V I ^ 

numbering UKtf*. owes its «^ t t^S^« English 
interested effort aided by State-grants ; but its sysre ;ndi(rcn0U3 cducation . 
principles, and is therefore excluded from a ran ^ ^ ^ Jn _ 

The Parsi community, which only T^J^but also by its recognition of 
dian society not only by its commercial enterprise j confab to the 

the value of education. This community is, no* e > ^ ^ from 
Bombay Presidency, and it is has borrowed ™fW tltestatcof cducation in 
European models. It will be noticed when we cons chief attcntioT1 , 
that Province. The Hindu community, wliose 0 f whom more 



6C nrrouT or inn education commission. [mi tr. m. 

than 23 millions are found in Bengal and Assam, nnd millions in the 
Punjab, The Sikh potation numbers 1 ,850*°°°* of whom more than t ,700,000 
aro to be found in the Punjab. These three clashes of the community, aggre- 
gating nearly 240 millions, form 95 per cent, of the entire population of India 
outside Burma; and it is with their indigenous system of education, so faras 
it has not been incorporated into the scheme of public instruction organised by 
the State, that the present Chapter deals, 

107. General Uniformity of the indigenous System.— The diversities 

of race, character, and history, which have so variously affected the material and 
moral condition of the nine Provinces with which our Report is concerned, 
have stamped their educational systems with less variety than might have been 
expected. A general uniformity of character may be traced throughout the 
Empire in the several indigenous schools of the Hindus and Muhammadnns* 
The educational organisation is not different, but only less complete and suc- 
cessful, in some parts of India than in others. Where the Government was 
strong enough to preserve order and maintain the public peace* every large 
Hindu Tillage possessed a school of its own, and the foundation of a system of 
national education had, long previous to British rule, been bid by the sponta- 
neous efforts of Hindu and Muhammadan society* Thus in Bengal it is be* 
lieved that the sustained exertions of the Department of Public Instructionliave 
contributed but little addition to the network of primary schools, which liavc 
existed from time immemorial ; and there still remains an outer circle of 
indigenous institutions not greatly inferior to those which have already been 
absorbed into the State system of primary instruction. On the other hand, it 
has been contended that the vast armies of banditti, which pillaged the vil- 
lages of the Deccan and Central India, made the social history of tliat part 
of the Empire one long narrative of invasion and anarchy ; and that the 
schoolmaster's occupation shared the fate which overtook other peaceful arts 
and industries. In 1858, according to a census taken by the Educational 
officers Tinder the orders of Government, no less than 90 per cent* of the villages 
in the Bombay Presidency were found to be without any indigenous schools 
whatsoever* Accordingly, the tost imposed upon the Department in Bombay 
was one of creation rather than of adoption, and the poverty of the indigenous 
system in "Western India afforded a marked contrast to its variety and richness 
in Bengal, Porty years ago, according to an estimate made by the revenue 
officers, there were only 1,421 indigenous schools in Bombay. There arc now 
5*333 primary institutions under departmental supervision, and 3,954 indigen- 
ous primary unaided schools Still, Hinduism has preserved with considerable 
uniformity its distinctive features, notwithstanding the vicissitudes that Hindus 
have encountered in the various Provinces of India, In short, a Bengal 
pathsala is ority another type of similar institutions in Madras or Bombay, 
The Muhammadans have also preserved their system intact ; and although they 
are distributed in very small communities outside the three Provinces of Bengal, 
the Punjab, and the North-Western Provinces, a mosquc*school, or maktab, 
in Bind differs little from ono in Behar. Tinally, as regards the Gunnukhi 
Schools of the Sikhs, it has already been observed that the balk of these 
democratic protestants against prevailing creeds axe concentrated in tbe Punjab, 
where their institutions are naturally moulded in one form. But in the Bom- 
bay Presidency, chiefly in Sind, and in the Deccan Haidarabadf sjnall colonies 
of Sikhs are to be found, who have carried with them their indigenous system 
and have jealously preserved the special character of their schools. ' 

108. Distinctive Features of the indigenous Systems.— define an 

indigent school as an educational institution established or conducted by 



chap, in*] 



INDIGENOUS SCHOOUS 



57 



natives of India on native methods. Such institutions are either of an ad* 
yanced character or purely elementary. The elementary are further divided 
into the village school and the bazar school. The high class institutions 
have remained, for the most part, outside the influence of the educational 
system ; the elementary have been largely utilised in building up the depart- 
* mental system of primary education, Those Trliich have been thus absorbed 
have altered their method and character more or less according to the pains 
and the systematic attention bestowed upon them by departmental officers. 
Their example has indirectly affected others which have remained outside 
the circle of State supervision. In this part of our Eeport we are dealing 
exclusively with those indigenous schools which have not been absorbed or 
adopted by the Department. Those which have been so incorporated will be con- 
sidered in the Chapter on primary instruction* With this explanation, it may 
he accepted as a general rule that some religious character attaches to all 
indigenous schools of the old type that teach the classical languages of the 
East, as well as to a large number of ordinary vernacular village-schools. The 
vernacular indigenous schools which have sprung up in Bombay in response to 
the demand for primary education stimulated by the departmental, or cess, 
schools, as well as the ordinary pathsala of Bengal, of which a great number 
are conducted and taught by Kayasths, are essentially secular* But the old 
Indigenous schools of the Muhammadans and Sikhs in all parts of India, and 
of the Hindus in some Provinces, are more or less religious in character. Even 
in the special artizan-schools opened in Madras religious hooks are taught. 
The religious element is, however s more marked in the high class schools 
whether it be the Hindu tol or the Muhammadan inadrasa, than in the 
elementary school. It is, again, more marked in the ITuhammadan elementary 
maktab, or the Sikh Gurmukhi school, than in the patlisala or elementary 
school of the Hindu village community. The distinctive principle of Hindu 
social life— caste — has stamped its impress on all Hindu educational institutions- 
The higher schools are practically closed against all but Brahmans, and the 
Brahman scholars are treated as the children of their master. In the pri- 
mary schools all Hindu classes that are admitted to a defined position in the 
village community receive instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic ; 
while the elements of a liberal education, though not entirely wanting, arc 
confined to the acquisition of those versified Puranic legends which preserve 
and maintain the religious character of Hindu society in every grade of life. 
The principles of the Sikh faith were inconsistent with such monopoly of 
instruction. The instruction given in all classes of Hindu indigenous schools 
is so far practical that the Brahmans and other high or literary castes are 
taught the subjects which will qualify them either for the service of their 
relig,cm or for their future civil position. The lower classes obtain such an 
instruction in elementary subjects of practical utility as is designed to qualify 
them for their several occupations in life, and serves also to protect them against 
unfair dealing. In particular, the study of mental arithmetic is carried to a 
high pitch of excellence. TVhere there are no separate bazar schook, pupds 
belonging to the trading classes are exercised in native accounts and ^£fP- 
tag. and in some Provinces they 

which their others have adopted from time immemorial. 

schools, on the other hand, give little attention to ^^1.^^^ U 

teach the Ko^ but neglect 

more universal!' marked than that of Hmdu sciioois, me i i 
***** masted scholar,*) stronfy fel t s, £ 

able. These general remarks will b ; /^^iJi^StattoM i*hi«iU faUoi™. 
examination of the various classes of indigenous institutions 



5S nEfOUT Or TTIE XOTOWIOX COMMISSION [ttUV. Ill, 

It has already teen noticed that the advanced indigenous schools havo been 
least influenced by the Department Their condition will ho first examined; 
and the enquiry will then proceed to a general survey of the elementary indi* 
venous schools of India which havo not yet been incorporated into the Slate 
system, and which will he considered under the two divisions of the ordinary 
elementary village schools rmd the special Imar schools. 

109, High class indigenous Schools : Their religious character —The 

Punjab provincial Report contains little notice of the Sikh schools, though we 
have received a good deal of evidence on the subject from tho -witnesses of that 
Province, Tho literature of GurmuUii— the character in which w ere written 
the words that flowed from " the mouth of the guru" Nanak— is said to he 
m mnwisCTipte on *cicn£Q and religion* hut there is no account before 
the Commission of any advanced Gurmukhl schools. Our review of high class 
indigenous schools or colleges is, therefore, confined to tho Hindu tols and to 
the Muhanimadan Arabic or Persian schooK The theocratic principle, which 
lies at the root of Asiatic civilisation, necessarily moulded the character of 
the high schools in which the upper classes of Hindu and Muhammadan 
society educated their children, Amongst tho Hindus, higher education was 
regarded in theory as the right utul duty of tho twicc-born castes. lu 
practice the pupils as well as the teachers belong almost exclusively to the 
Biahman caste- The relation between teacher and pupil is much more 
paternal in the Hindu than in the Muhimmadan college. The Hindu law 
enjoined it as a religious duty on the Brahman that he should teach; and, in 
order that his undivided attention might be devoted to education, the sacred 
obligation of making provision for his temporal wants was imposed both on 
the sovereign and on the community. The Bengal tols aro often liberally 
endowed, and on the occasion of Hindu festnals presents arc ghen to their 
masters and pupils. As a consequence, the teacher is bound to make a free 
gift of his learning, and not merely is he prohibited from charging fees for his 
tuition, hut ho is expected to give free boird and lodging to his pupils, and as 
a rule, at least in Bengal, he docs so. Under a system in which the pupils 
were not only taught hut maintained, the relation of the master to his pupil 
became almost paternal. The Hindu Ivlw enjoined on the scholar not only 
obedience, but a veneration for his teacher. Religions endowments were a 
meritorious act, and? as noticed in the Despatch of 1854, "munificent be- 
" quests have not unfrequcntly been made for the permanent endowment of 
(t educational institutions,'* It can readily he understood how this system pro- 
duced a public sentiment wrhich has not yet been effaced by the widely 
different aims and policy of the Despatch of 1854. So far from a gratuitous 
education involving any notion of discredit, its provision \i as regarded as a 
sicred obligation on the State. 

In the case of the Muhammadan raadrasa the personal attachment 
between the teacher and his pupils is not so marked This difference may be 
attributed to the distinct characteristics of the two religious systems. The 
Brahman commands more personal veneration than the Maulavi, The diverse 
character of Hindu and Muhammadan endowments reflects the distinction. 
A Muhammadan educational endowment, whether of landed or other property t 
is made in favour of some institution founded by n pious Maulavi ; whereas 
the Hindu endowment, though it carries with ( it the solemn obligation of 
teaching, is made in favour of a great Pandit and his perspnal heirs. The 
Muhammadan pupil, who is educated or even supported by the endowment, 
does not feel personally bound to his teacher in the same way as tiie Hindu 
pupil does to his spiritual guide from whom he derives botli instruction and 



chap m] INDIGENOUS SCHOOLS 59 

maintenance Tho character of the instruction, however, in hoth institutions 
whether Hindu or Muhatnmadan, is essentially, though not exclusively, rch 
gwus, is will appear from a detailed survey of higher indigenous institutions 
in tho various Provinces of India 

110 Madras High indigenous Schools — Trom tho evidence hearing 

on the subject of Muhammadan education in Madras, and from the absence of 
an) mention of them in the Provincial Eeport, it may be assumed that there ajv* 
no Muhammadan colleges or schools of the higher class in the Southern Presi 
dency Out of i population exceeding 3 1 millions, there are not two millions of 
Muhammadans and their indigenous schools are of a very elementary character 
But the Report of our Provincial Committee givps some account of the Hindu 
advanced indigenous institutions In every large town con taming Brahman 
residents, and m every Hindu mattam, or monastery, instruction through Sans 
krit in the Vedas, TJpanishads, the Indian system of logic and philosophy 
the grammar of Pamni rlietonc, the Hindu epic poems and dramas and Hindu 
ror, has been given from the earliest period In Tamil, also tho high priests 
of the mattatns are accustomed to give lectures m the classical works both 
literary and ethical, of the Madura Sangam or college and m the system 
of the Saiva religion An association in Madras has undertaken the patron 
age of some of these schools, and besides supporting two Sanskrit high 
schools, gives annual rewards to the Pandits and pupils after an examination 
The trustees of Pacini) appa s chanties also support a small Sanskrit class at 
Chillamharam Thus, m the Madras Presidency, a few Sanskrit schools have 
received the lecogmtion of prominent bodies although none of them appeal 
to have either solicited or obtained aid from the Department of Public In 
struction 

111 Bombay High indigenous Schools— In Bombay there are 48 

Hindu Vedashalas and Sanskrit schools , 6 Muhammadan madrasas for youths of 
the Borah classes— converts from Hinduism to the Muhammadan religion 
and 4 Parsi high schools for the sons of Parsi priests The Hindu schools are 
exclusively attended by Brahmans The Veda schools are purely religious 
and are held either m the verandah of the guiu's house or in the temple In 
struction is given gratuitously The Sanskrit schools are partly secular, and 
the teachers take no fees Some years ago a small allowance was made to 
some of these schools from the Dakshina Fund which is administered by the 
Education Department The Muhammadan madrasas are supported by sub 
bcnptions from the well to do Borahs, but one at least of them is not 
unwilling to receive State aid The 4 Parsi high class schools of which 3 arc 
in Bombaj , are well endowed The methods and subjects of instruction given 
m those several schools are fully described at page 71 of the Provincial Keport 
It is sufficient to mention that the main object of the Veda schools is to teach 
Brahmans to recite mantras and to fit them for the exercise of sacerdotal 
functions The teaching of the Muhammadan schools is chicBy directed to ti ie 
interpretation of the Koran but Arabic grammar is incidentally taught in 
the Parsi schools the writings of Zoroaster are taught in the original Zend, 
and in the later Pehlvi and Pazcnd versions Instruction is also given in 
Persian SansW, and English In the Hindu Sanskrit schools gmninar 
logic, medicine, and philosophy are also taught, while the , partly secular 
Muhammadan schools of a high order teach readmg writing, and noMw m 
Persian and m Hindustan! or A^hic Sindhi Prom this 
gathered that, .bile an object _ to all these 
degree is to import religious instruction, the Pirsi school ^ica 1 
advanced comse, and tint the Sanskrit institutions educate Brahman bojs ui 



60 



REPORT OF TnE EDUCATION C0M3tIS310>\ 



[chat, in. 



some higher subjects which, although of little practical utility, if judged by 
European standards, are still partly secular- The Muhammndan schools, 
however, teach little besido the Koran. The Arahic college of Surat, founded 
in 1 809 by the Borah community, had hecomo famous in 1824, when it wn* 
attended by 1 25 students, of whom many were hoarders from distant Districts, 
But secular studies formed only a nominal part ol tho course ; and tho institu- 
tion having failed to keep abreast of modern wants has now fallen into decay. 

112, Bengal : High indigenous Schools —The Muhammndan population 
of Bengal exceeds 2 1£ millions. The Calcutta Madrasa is maintained from pro* 
vincial revenues, and fire other madrasas, teaching to the same high standard, 
are supported from the income of tho Mobsin Endowment Fund. In Bchar, 
and in the south-western Districts of Bengal and Orissa, large and successful 
institutions of the same general character, founded by private liberality, arc 
not uncommon. But in the rest of Bengal tho unaided institutions of this 
order are generally neither numerous nor well attended. One of them, situated 
at Sitapur, with three teachers attached to it, lias only 21 students on the 
rolls. On the other hand, there arc no fewer than 1,010 Hindu high class 
tols which educate 7,680 pupils. The medium of instruction is Sanskrit, and 
the subjects taught arc grammar, synonyms, poetry, rhetoric, astronomy, 
and to a less extent logic, philosophy, law, and medicine. The master is a 
Brahman t except in tho schools of medicine which are taught by Yaitlyas* It is 
said that the popularity of tho tols has declined with the growing neglect of 
Sanskrit, But except in the Punjab, where tho Lahore Oriental College has 
endeavoured to cope with the difficulty, Bengal, alone of the Provinces of 
India, has attempted to counteract the natural decline of higher indi- 
genous education. For many years the tols of Nuddea have received a grant 
from Government of Us. 100 a month* In another direction assistance of 
a different character has been given. It was tho practice of the tol Pandits to 
confer titles on their most proficient pupils. Becently the Bengal Department 
has instituted examinations and conferred such titles* with a view to stimulating 
the vitality of the Sanskrit schools. The popularity of tho experiment 
is attests according to the report of the Director not only by £he number of 
candidates* but by the enthusiasm that the scheme lias aroused among the leaders 
of the Hindu community. In the four years during which tho examinations 
have been held, 232 candidates, chiefly Brahmans, have presented them* 
selves from tols in Bengal and other Provinces, and 1 1 o have passed. The industry 
of the candidates and of their teachers has hern stimulated by the liberality of 
men of wealth and mflwnco in Bengal. Last year twenty prizes of the value 
of Rs, 1,100 were awarded from private endowments created since these cxami* 
nations were instituted in 1878, in addition to prizes to the value of Ps. 450 
given by Government, The branches in which the successful candidates passed 
will throw some light on the subjects of study in those schools. Of the 110 
who passed, 46 took up literature, 37 law, and 27 various branches of Dai-sana 
or philosophy. An association of Pandits has also been formed at Dacca, with 
the similar object of bestowing titles after examination on the pupils of tols 
in Eastern Bengal, It receives a grant from Government of Its. BOO, 

113. The Borth-Western Provinces and Oudh : High indigenous 

Schools, — In the Provincial Report for the North-Western Provinces and Oudh 
the lluliammadan high class schools are noticed at length . It is there pointed out 
that the first object of education amongst the Muhammadans is religion, and 
the second culture. An intimate knowledge of the language in which the 
Koran is written and of the commentaries upon it is first acquired. Some ac 
* quamtaiice with Persian is gained in studying Arabic, and thus the literature 



chap, nr.] UraiGEjrcms SCIIIOOLS. C1 

of these two languages is opened to the Mnharoraadan student. He may 
select for himself any subject which he fancies, whether historv, literature 
grammar, logic, or law. The following testimony of the Honourable Sayvid 
Ahmad, Khan Bihadnr, may he quoted in farour of the efficiency of theso 
schools in the North-Western Provinces : « They have mainly contributed 
« to the preservation and maintenance of oriental literature and scienco in 
"this country. Even at the present time those who havo acquired any 
"degree of fame for proficiency in oriental science and literature will ho 
"found to owe their celebrity to these schools." The Hindu Sanskrit scliools 
of; which nearly one-half are in the city of Benares, are in character similar 
to those which exist in Bengal. It is estimated that there are in the North- 
"Western Provinces and Oudh 235 advanced Hindu schools with 4,100 scholars, 
and 180 advanced Muhammadan schools, with 3,571 scholars. The distinction 
between theso two chsses of schools, is marked by the fact that, wlicreas nearly 
half of the Muhammadan scholars pay fees, 82 per cent, of the Hindu 
scholars contribute nothing to the cost of their education. So far, however, as 
their relations to the Department are concerned, both classes of schools are 
entirely independent, and their system has not been influenced in any way by 
the action of the British Government. 

114. Punjab : High indigenous Schools.— The Muhammadan popula- 
tion of the Punjab exceeds in numbers all other classes of tiie community. Tlieir 
advanced indigenous schools are popular and numerous. The charitable charac- 
ter of the Muhammadan Arabic schools is illustrated by the circumstance that 
itinerant students go from place to place begging a living, and often acquire 
a respectable amount of scholarship in indigenous schools. Tho system of 
instruction pursued in a Persian school is admitted to be fairly efficient, and 
students who attend for a sufficient time obtain a considerable knowledge of 
Persian literature. In caligraphy and accurate scholarship they are said to be 
superior to the boys trained in the Government schools. Tho popularity of 
these Persian schools is attested by the fact that Hindus attend them in large 
numbers. The Sanskrit schools are similar to those found in other parts of 
India. Most of the pupils are studying for religious orders, and they aro edu- 
cated gratuitously. Very full accounts of tho indigenous system in the Punjab 
are contained in the evidence of the witnesses who appeared boforo tho Com- 
mission. The higher Hindu schools teach rhetoric, logic, philosophy, and 
grammar, whilst the Muhammadan madrasas give a complete course of in- 
struction in the Arabic grammar and literature, law, logic, and theology. 
The information given in the annual Reports of tho Department is acknow- 
ledged to be very incomplete. There are, however, grounds for supposing that 
the Muhammadan advanced institutions in the Punjab arc not fewer or less 
efficient than in the neighbouring 2forth-Western Provinces Xono of them 
arc aided or recognised by the Department ; but it is one of the main functions 
of the Punjab University to encourage indigenous learning, and it has attempt- ^ 
cd to do this by maintaining an Oriental College at Lahore, and by liberally 
rewarding proficiency in Arabic, Sanskrit, and the literature of the Sikhs. 

115. Other Provinces : High indigenous Schools.-It is notprotoblc 

that any indigenous schools of an advanced order have escaped notice in the 
other Provinces of India, excluding Burma. For Assam '83 toh are return- 
ed, but they are stated by the local authorities to be of an elementary 
character. In the Central Provinces there were in 1861, when the Admin istra- 
tion was constituted, a few indifferent madrasas and Sanskrit schools. But the 
constant political disorders, to which theso and the adjoining Hauhrabad Dis- 
tricts were in old times subject, must have checked education, and the omunon 



62 



UErORT or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION 



[cn\r. m. 



from the reports of any mention of high indigenous schools is easily under* 
stood, 

116. High indigenous Schools : Summary The history of the Arabic 

college of Surat proves that, even in an outlying District, far removed from the 
centres of Muhammadan influence, it was possible for an indigenous Jluham- 
madan coUege to retain a high reputation and attract students. The decline ot 
such institutions is not wholly duo to the exclusion of sound Fccuhr instruction 
from their course. The Muhammadans still deeply prize the classical education 
which is given in their special madn^as. They recognise the importance of 
religious training, and value that cultivation of the minds and manners of their 
children which results from an acquaintance w ith Arabic and Persian litera- 
ture. They undoubtedly feel that the piactical utility of such an educa- 
tion has been undermined by the circumstance that English lias taken the 
place of Muhammadan law, and that the Persian language has \yoon displaced 
by English, But the vitality of the religion of Islam and the tastes of the 
cultivated classes which profess it, have not been weakened ; and the indigenous 
system o£ education, which gave practical expression to the sentiments of the 
community, is as much cherished in the hearts of the upper classes of Jluham- 
madan society as ever. If their system exhibits signs of decay, that result is 
due as much, if not more, to the widespread poverty and comparative collapse 
of their society, as to any appreciation of tho fact that the rising generation 
must adapt themselves to the altered circumstances of modern life. With the 
Hindus, however, the decline of their higher institutions is due in a great 
measure to the natural quickness and practical instincts of tho Brahmans, who 
have realised the altered circumstances which surround them, and have volun* 
tarily abandoned a classical education for one more suited to modern conditions 
of success. The tols are deserted because the college Professor's lectures have 
become the road to advancement. In short, the unprogressivc character of 
higher indigenous education in India is simply the result of natural laws, 

117. Attitude of the Department towards such Schools.— This consi- 
deration, which suggests the difficulty of protecting archaic institutions against 
processes oi natural iecay, \m undotfrAcfiiy influence! the department in 
generally holding aloof from higher indigenous schools. Tho principle of 
religious neutrality, accepted by the State, has also in most Provinces interposed 
difficulties in the way of assisting schools which arc there sometimes exclusively 
religious. The exigencies of finance have added further arguments in favour of 
a policy of inactivity. The educational funds in each Province are already 
unequal to the task imposed upon them* lladrasas and tols represent higher 
and classical education — an education which is now common] y regarded as 
having less claim upon the funds of the State than education of a more element- 
ary or a more practical character* In these daysj new wants have arisen, and 
the State has endeavoured to meet them by establishing a new order of coUeges 
- and high schools, and by encouraging the growth of English education among 
all classes of the community. It has been shown that ozdy in Bengal and 
the Punjab has any public attempt been made to recognise and encourage 
Sanskrit schools by a monthly subsidy, by the offer of prizes, and by the intro- 
duction of title examinations or by other means. The success of the experi- 
ment of title examinations recently introduced in Bengal has not yet been so 
thoroughly v established as to justify us in recommending the system for general 
adoption TVe are, however, agreed in recommending that alt indigenous schools, 
whether high or loio, should be recognised mid encouraged > ifihey serve any pur- 
pose of seculm education whatsoever. This condition of aid is necessitated alike 
by the policy of religious neutiality, and by financial considerations. In what 



CHAT- III.] 



INDIGENOUS SCHOOLS. 



G3 



form encouragement should bo rendered is a question which cannot he so easily 



4, -- r- »■ — t-r — 

English civilisation bare operated \rith 
different degrees of force upon native society in the various Provinces of India. 
TCe can, therefore, only recommend that the best practicable method ofenconrttgl 
ing indigenous schools of a high order, which desire recognition^ be ascertained 
by the local Education Department in communication with the Matdavis and 
3?amlit$ and others interested in the subject ; and it is possible that the Univer- 
sities may be willing to co-operate with the officers of the Department in consi- 
dering the question. The testimony of the Honourable Sayyid Ahmad, Khan 
Bahadur, has already been quoted in favour of the high culture which is given in 
the jJIuhammadan madrasas. The Sanskrit tols are also the only institutions 
left in which the study of Sansbit literature and philosophy is cultivated ac- 
cording to tho old traditional method. The Bombay Provincial Committee* 
have suggested measures for rescuing the classical study of Sanskrit from 
decay, and their proposals involve the liberal co-operation of native society. 
The best remedy which financial considerations will admit can be determined 
only by the local authorities; and wo do not think that any detailed sugges- 
tions on our part would be useful or desirable. The question is complicated 
not merely by general considerations of the relative value of a modern and a 
classical education, but also by local circumstances which can only he ascer- 
tained and appreciated by the provincial authorities. 

118, Extent of Elementary indigenous Schools.— The annexed Table 

shows the number of elementary indigenous schools known to the Department, 
which have not yet been incorporated into the departmental systems of the 
various Provinces of India. 





Elmevllbt Schools 


Schools 


1 

Tor ax. 




Number of 
schools. 


Sumbw of 
scholar** 


Nuiriber of 
schools 


Number of 
scholars 


Namber of 


NamW of 
scholar? 




2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Madias 

Bombay . • * * . 

Seagal 

Nortlj-TVestern Provinces audi 
Oudk J 

Punjab 

Central Provinces * 

Assam 

Hatdarabad Assigned Districts . 


2,8*8 

3*954 
3> 26 $ 

6,712 


54> o6 4 
78,205 

61,634 


* « # 

1,018 
415 


* « # 

55° 
8,067 

6,6 7 1 


2,828 
4>012 

4*283 

7,127 


54,064 

78755 
57*305 

68,305 


• m * 

[83] 

497 

4» 
[207] 


[3/M8] 

9,733 
470 

[2,672] 


* * • 

*• • 

* I* 

* * * 


tmm 

* • * 

* » • 


6.362! 
[83] 
497 
41 
[207] 


86,023t 

,9*733 
470 
[2,672]* 


Total toz India 


> 7,297 


253,344 


1,491 

: 


I5,28S 

1 


25*150 


354,655 



According to this statement, there are now 253,344 sciioiara in indigenous 
elementary sehools Trhich He outside the influence of the Department. The 
statistics supplied from the Punjab are defective ; hut assuming that there are 
70,000 pupils in elementary schools in that Province, there youM be nearly 
210,000 pupih, in such schools in the three Provinces of Bombay, the Korth- 
Western Provinces, and the Punjab, who remain unaffected by the operations 

• l*»se 1 46 of the Bombay Pro™*.*! Report- b ^ WM Tnlten M j ^ 

v t Tb e8e italal.w .« admitted to be m«*>p ete f A «*» ' » ttaftwiA 1 

I The numUrj ln .quare WkoU w^t* t» amiSei wh^w ««'"' '"V™ 0 ' 

«a the Tables of italati« for Primary Kfcoola 



^ rxTOUT <vf the education coinirssioN* [ cnAI? nr, 

of the Despatch of 1S54, It can readily be understood that indigenous schools 
have not offered any uniform basis on which the Department could build 
Owin^ to the strong religious tendency of the maktabs and the GurmukK 
schools, they have less readily lent themselves to the influence of the Depnrt- 
ments than the Hindu schools. The pathsalas have accordingly been largely 
incorporated into the State systems, while the Muhammadan and &Mkh schools 
hare remained outside them. In Bengal it is upon the elementary indigenous 
schools that the entire system of primary education has been almost exclusively 
built, and under tint head, therefore the chancter and progress of these adopted 
schools will be considered- In Madras, and in the Central Provinces, the 
indigenous agency has been very largely employed* In Bombay, on the other 
hand, the preference has been given to departmental, or cess, schools, which 
have been created by Government in conspquence of the alleged poverty and 
inefficiency of the indigenous system. In the North-TFestem Provinces and 
in the Punjab, where the Muhammadnn and Sikh schools are moat numerous, 
little notice has been taken of the indigenous schools The number of unaided 
schools m these last Provinces is therefore larger m proportion to the number 
of public primary schools than elsewhere. 

119, Democratic character of elementary indigenous Schools,— There 

is a certain degree of family likeness between elementary indigenous schools s 
whether Hindu or Muhaminadan, throughout the country* Por the present \% e 
reserve notice of the bazar schools which are found in many Provinces of India 
These schools arc in some respects institutions of a special kmd and differ from 
the ordinary indigenous yillage*school. They are regarded by some as seces- 
sions from the patbsala on the part of the trading communities, who required 
something better suited to their needs than the regular course of instruction 
given m the village-school To the ordinary indigenous school of an element- 
ary type a partially religious character frequently attaches. This is univer- 
sally the case with the maktabs of the jMuhammadans, and with the Gurmukhi 
schools of the Sikhs But ui the ordinary Hindu patbsala religious instruction 
may or may not find a place. In the indigenous schools of Bengal, many of 
which are taught by Kayasths, no religious instruction is glven> but in 
"Western and Southern India a short prayer or the recitation of sacred verses 
often forms part of the school course. Still, even where religion is taught in 
Hindu elementary schools, secular subjects are the chief part of the course 
The prominent feature of these schools is their democratic character. The 
Hindu system, so jealous of the rights of the sacerdotal class, did not forget 
the interests of the whole village community. All except outcasts, and the 
lower castes whose touch was pollution, were admitted to the patbsala. With 
the admission of non-Brahman castes in large numbers to the school the in- 
struction necessarily ceased to be free. While, therefore! education in the 
bigh school or tol was gratuitous, the master of the village school was sup- 
ported by fees from his pupils, who paid either in cash or kind, or in both, 
But the national sentiment m favour of gratuitous education was not wholly 
absent even from the Hindu elementary school. Generally speaking, a wealthy 
Hindu, who supported a school for his own children^ permitted his poorer 
neighbours to send their sons for gratuitous instruction- Occasionally villas 
teachers would admit poor children without charge, The relations between 
parents and master were thoroughly fnendly, and the latter was admitted into 
the houses of the former on terms of perfect confidence. The character of the 
instruction given was extremely elementary, as will be shown below. 

The llnliammadan elementary maktab was naturally even more demo, 
cratic than the Hindu school, and excluded no class of the ITuhammadan com- 



CHAT. Ill,] INDIGENOUS SCHOOLS, q 5 

munity . It ro tit the samo time essentially religions. « Government and rcli 
gion are twins," is a common saying of the Muhammadans; and their school's 
for the masses are hardly less religious than their madrasas. This religious tend- 
ency has stood m tho way of tho incorporation of ma&abs into the departmental 
system. Their course of instruction in secular subjects is very limited Arith- 
metic, grammar, and geography are almost neglected. Another disadvantage 
under which Muhammadan elementary schools have laboured baa been their 
neglect of tbe vernacular. Urdu and a little Persian are exclusively taught, 
even where the community have adopted, as they havo in Bengal proper and in 
the Gujarathi Districts of Bombay and elsewhere, the vernacular lan«ua*e of 
the Hindus. ° ° 

The Sikh school is pre-eminently democratic. All Sikhs are equal, and no 
class is excluded from tho GurmuVhi school. The language of tho Granth 
or scriptures taught in tho Sikh school, though regarded as vernacular, is an 
antiquated dialect, and quite unintelligible to the children who recite it. In 
the Western Districts of the Punjab, Hindus of the trading classes have very 
generally adopted the moral and spiritual teaching of the Siklis without £heir 
rites and customs. 

ISO, The System of indigenous School Instruction-— The comparative 

efficiency of indigenous and departmental schools varies in different parts of 
India; nor arc the fees charged and tho status of the unaided elementary school- 
master more uniform, Thcso matters will be considered when we examine in 
greater detail the indigenous schools found to exist in each Province. But the 
following description of a Hindu mdigenous school, which has preserved its 
character intact, in spite of the various educational agencies at work around 
it, is taken from one* of the Provincial Reports, and is generally true in 
essential particulars of all elementary indigenous schools: "The ordinary 
"daily routine of a Hindu' indigenous school is nearly the same in all parts 
"of the Presidency. Each morning at about 6 o'clock the Pantoji, who 
"is in some cases a Brahman and the priest of many of the families whose 
V children attend the school, goes round the village and collects his pupils. 
" This process usually occupies somo time. At one house, the pupil has to be 
persuaded to come to school ; at another, the parents have some special instruc- 
tions to give the master regarding the refractoriness of their son ; at a third, 
he is asked to administer chastisement on the spot. As soon as ho has collected 
"a sufficient number of his pupils, he takes them to the school. For the first 
" half hour a Bhupali, or invocation to the Sun, Saraswati, Ganpati, or some 
"other deity, is chanted by the whole school. After this the boys who can 
" write, trace the letters of their kittos, or copy-slips, with a dry pen, the object 
of this exerciso being to give free play to the fingers and wrist, and to accustom 
them to the sweep of the letters. When the tracing-Iesson is over, the boys 
" begin to write copies ; and the, youngest children, who have been hitherto 
" merely looking on, are taken in hand cither by the master's son or by one of 
" the elder pupils. The master himself generally confines Ins attention fo one 
" or two of the oldest pupils and to those whose instruction he has stipulated to 
"finish within a given time. All tho pupils are seated in one small room or 
" verandah, and the confusion of sounds, which arises from three or four sets 
" of boys reading and shouting out their tables all at the same moment, almost 
" baffles description." 

The following extracts from the Bengal Provincial Report will suffice to 
show tho character of the .induction given in the indigenous schools , of 
Bengal: "Generally speaking, the subjects of mdigenous jHttoto instruction 

• Pas* 73, Bombay Provincial report. 



ft 

if 



17 



'51 

" or 



tt 
ff 
ti 



tt 
cc 



6Q KLPOPT 01 TIIE LUtJCVTlON COMJtlSSIOV. [cilXV 111 

« me writing, reidmg, inthmetic mid accounts zamindan pipers nnd letter- 
« writing together with tcisificd Purnmo tales, and in Bchar versified heroic 
« leauids as well The direct teaching of the children is conducted liy monitors 
^pupJ teachers, and compact divisions of classes fire not made » . . 
On entering i patbsab, a boy writes the letters of the alphabet with a piece 
«o£ chalk on the ground, repeating the names of the letters as he writes them 
« After the letters ha\o been thus learnt, piim-leavcs arc used as matemls for 
" writing on with pen and ink, the first attempt being only to ink off the letters 
" as they are traced by the guru with a pointed uon stylus The pupils go on 
with the pilm leaves till they learn to write the compound letters, committing 
to memory at this stage the multiplication table and ^anous fractional tables, 
and being constantly pnctised one after another in the scleral tables of money, 
<f weights and measures Every evening before the pathsala breaks up, all the 
» children stand together and repeat the tables simultaneous^ m chorus or 
"sometimes they follow a monitors lead Prom 1 palm leaf* promotion is 
given to the ' plantain leaf/ in which native arithmetic is taught In most of 
the pathsalas slates, and in Eehir taltts or boards, aio also being used The 
"scholar 1a now at liberty to take up paper He is taught htter-v?itwg f 
"zamindan ind malnjnni accounts, forms of documents, and the versified 
** Puranic tales and lastly i little Sanskrit grammar and abhtdhan The age at 
( * which it is customary for pupds to enter pnthsalas is the jcars, on some 
* tf auspicious day fixed by the priest The stay of the pupds at school is about 
cf five or sis years, comprising two full stages of instruction ,f In mnktabs 
the pupils learn by rote parts of the Koran and other religious books ; they 
ilso read a little Persian and Urdu, and in a few cases learn to write Persian 
There is the same shouting and confusion m teaching a class of Muhammadan 
hoys as are found m the Hindu school and these form part of the pecubar 
charm winch parents appreciate m the indigenous system 

1B1. TKadras : Elementary indigenous Sthwils —In \w% u ote on Xdn* ' 

<( cation m British India prior to 1854 and in 1870 71/* Mr Howell remarked on 
the absence of any statistics of indigenous schools from the Hadns report But 
prior to Act IV of 1871* the Local Punds Act of Madras, the encouragement 
and assistance of indigenous elementary schools had been actively commenced 
After 1871 the fuller prosecution of the task beeime the first charge upon 
the funds created hy statute It must not be forgotten, however, that in 
Madras a vast educational machinery of European missionary societies Ind 
long been acting upon native society and affording a model to indigenous 
institutions In 1871 there were 1,129 mission vernacular schools for boys m 
that Presidency The efforts of a single Department consisting of a few 
European Inspectors were necessarily email m comparison with such a force 
as the numerous societies oi Madras were able to exert The indigenous 
schools of Madras exhibited under these influences an alacrity in adopting advice 
and accepting improvements which has been Wanting m most other parts of India 
The Department working through the local boards soon induced the indigenous 
schoolmasteis to accept inspection on condition of receiving grants on the result 
system, or on the combined system of salary and result grants A steady 
improvement was effected in then method and subjects of instruction Readme 
books were freely introduced , exclusive reliance upon memory yielded to 1 
more sensible system of explanation and learning with intelligence, mental 
arithmetic and the elaborate multiplication tables were not superseded, hut 
were supplemented hy the method of working out arithmetical sums on the 
slate f even history ami geography were gradually accepted as part of the school 
course Without anticipating the account which will be given of the improved 
indigenous schools m the nest Chapter,it may he observed that in 1S81 82 there 



CHAP. IH J INDJGEJ, OVS SCU0013. Qf 

wcie 1,263 Government or hoard primary schools in Madras, as against 7 4U 
sided and 5,809 inspected institutions of the same class. Tho duty of aiding in- 
digenous schools is entrusted to the boards, vrho are thus able to compare their 
efficiency with that of their own schools ; and it is tho rule of the boards not to 
establish fresh schools of their own where there are any suitable indigenous 
schools willing to receive aid and supervision. It is estimated that abouig^oo 
indigenous schools have been brought under the organised system ; and the 2^828 
schools, which stilt Kc outside the circle of State supervision, are expected in 
due course of timo to become qualified for grants-in-aid. Meanwhile, although 
they do not receive aid, they are largely affected by the example of their 
neighbours and by the influence of the Department. In short, the indigenous 
machinery of elementary education is in Madras working as a highly important 
part of tho whole educational machinery of the Province, and the signal success 
achieved there in developing the indigenous schools has suggested most of our 
Recommendations for improving and aiding such schools throughout India. 

122. Bombay: Elementary indigenous Sc3iools.~In Bombay there are 

3,954 elementary indigenous schools with 78,205 pupils, which still lie outside 
the State system, but 19,720 of these pupils are in the Native States, whose 
educational machinery is supervised by the Department. There are only 73 
such institutions receiving aid from the State, while the board schools for 
boys alone number 3,630. The exclusion of so laTge a number of indigenous 
schools from the State system, when similar institutions form an important part 
of the Madras system, demands some explanation. Partly owing to the dis- 
organisation of the country for many years before the establishment of British 
rule, and partly because the secular school had never taken root in the village- 
system as it had in Bengal, it was considered necessary by the Government, 
when it entered upon its task of educating the masses, to create new schools 
rather than to work upon the basis of improving the indigenous schools. There 
is evidence that the Board of Education twice in tho course of their administration, 
in 184s and 1847, seriously considered and abandoned the notion of working 
upon the indigenous system. In 1847 they found that the total number of 
indigenous schools of all sorts in the Presidency was only 1,751 ; and even at 
a still later date go per cent, of the villages had no school at all. In 1852 they 
introduced the system of offering small grants-in-aid to indigenous schools. 
In 1855, in 1863, and again in 1875, a census was taken, and a steady growth 
in the number of indigenous primary schools was recorded. In the last of the 
three years just mentioned there were 3,330 such schools teaching nearly 

79,000 pupils. 

The most important step in the direction of assisting these schools was 
taken by Mr. Peile in 1870. He assimilated the standard of instruction in 
the two lowest classes of the cess-school to the indigenous school course, the 
immediate effect of which was to place the indigenous schools in organic _ rela- 
tion with the Department as ancillary institutions, and to ensure their stability. 
The indigenous schoolmaster has gradually accepted the position and has in 
^ mason responded by extending his course along the lines of the depart, 
mental svstem. Mr. Peilc also framed special rules for acting 
schools, which will he noticed in Chapter VIII. It » jto thcref ™> t]u *^ 
backwardness of the indigenous schools in Bombay, and their practical exclu- 
sion from the State system, have not been due to any want of m «J 
inference of the Department. The subject of their 

smeral times since ,854 and in no Province of India has ^ ^J™^™; 
tion regarding their condition been obtained. ^ 

competition and success oi the cesss chools. ^1*1^ ™™*™ inefficient 
considered the indisrenous schools not merely inefficient, hut wholly insufficient. 



gg • JlErORT or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. [(OTA*. Tit, 

As soon as it created Us own schools* it appeared that the poverty of the native 
schools andnot the opposition of the masses to education, was the cause of the 
general absence of education, Ulic American war, which gave an enormous 
stimulus to the cultivation of cotton and so enriched the peasant proprietors 
in Bombay, led them to appreciate the advantages of education for their 
children. As fast as schools were opened they were filled- Notwithstanding 
the interruptions caused by famine, ten thousand scholars hare been added 
year by year to the attendance in cess schools. With so strong a demand for 
instruction it was possible to raise the standard rapidly and to improve the 
character of the primary schools. In a very few years the cess schools had 
entirely left the indigenous schools behind. The imposition of a local rate, 
which was for fire years collected on a voluntary basis created a permanent 
fund for primary education ; and the local boards at once took an active part in 
the management of the departmental or cess schools* The several committees 
identified themselves with the improvement of their local schools, and their 
popularity was still further increased. Every addition to the popularity or 
the efficiency of the cess schools thus left the indigenous schools further and 
further in the background. Moreover, with the largo attendance at the cess 
school the cost of its maintenance decreased, so that, while education at the 
cess school was more thorough than at the indigenous school, it became also 
cheaper. The result has been that time has only widened the gulf between 
the cess and the indigenous school. Tho masses value the education given in 
the former, and merely put up with the latter when they cannot obtain the 
former The local hoards, as trustees for the cess-payers, have spent the cess 
on the class of schools which the cess- payers prefer. In no part of India has 
the standard of primary instruction advanced higher than in Bombay, and tho 
fear, which has found expression in Bengal and in the North-Western Pro- 
vinces, that education above the traditional standard will either empty the 
schools or unsettle the minds of cultivators, is not put forward m Bombay* The 
low condition of the indigenous schools is therefore due to their inability, 
without more regular aid and encouragement than they have yet received, to 
keep pace with the cess schools* 

The policy of inactivity in regard to the practical encouragement of 
indigenous schools in the Bombay Presidency has been so deliberate, that 
we have given at length the arguments which have induced the -Department 
to adopt it. Admitting, however, the comparative inferiority of indigen- 
ous institutions, we consider that efforts should now be made to encourage 
them. They have survived a severe competition, and bave thus proved that 
they possess both vitality and popularity. Numerous examples furnished 
by the history of education in Madras, as well as in Bengal, prove the 
possibility of adapting the indigenous system to modern requirements, and 
while the cess schools of Bombay will supply a valuable model, the indigenous 
schools, if recognised and assisted as we shall presently propose, may be 
expected to improve their method and fill a useful position in the State system 
of national education. The introduction of a wider scheme of self-government 
offers a favourable opportunity for a new departure in the treatment of the 
elementary indigenous schools of Bombay, 

123. Bengal : Elementary linfligenons Schools,— The history of the 

several systems under which the indigenous schools oi Bengal have been 
brought under the influence of the Department, will be traced at length in the 
next Chapter of this Beport, which deals with primary education. It is there- 
fore unnecessary in this place to describe in any detail the character of tho 
institutions that have not yet been incorporated into ,the ktate system 
TVhilo 48,834 indigenous schools in Bengal have been so incorporated, there are 



ciiap m ] rrorGEws schools 69 

3 265 such schools gmng uistruchoa to 49 23S pupils, which are known to 
the Department as lying outside the inner circle of State supervision Of these 
nearly two thirds are elementary Hindu schools Ihe Bengal system of pri- 
mary instruction is almost exclusively a system of indigenous schools more 
or less brought under the influence of the Department Any schools therefore 
which he outside the aided system are probably cither extremely elementan ' 
or clso schools which -ire mainly religious Ho information is given as to the 
proportion of unaided schools which belong to each of these tiro classes 
But it is hardly necessary to pursue the enquiry further, is there is no 
question that in Bengal the claims of the indigenous schoolmasters, if they 
are not adequately met, arc still fully admitted as a matter of principle 

124 Berth- Western Provinces and Ondh : Elementary indigenous 

Schools — Iho number of unaided indigenous schools in these Provinces, namely, 
6,712, giving instruction to 61,654 pupils, is larger than that returned for any 
other Province of Northern India But in an interesting account of the mdi 
genous system, which will he found in the Report of the Provincial Com- 
mittee, reasons are adduced for considering that the return under estimates the 
facts On the other hand, it must be observed that, whereas the average 
attendance in each indigenous school in Bombay is 19, it is only 9 in similar 
schools m the North "West An efficient and popular schoolmaster usually 
attracts a huge attendance, and there must therefore he many classes in the 
North Western Provinces which hardly deserve the title of schools In 1874 1 
census wis taken, which showed that out of 563 maktabs, no less than 543 were 
simply classes of 4 boys under a family tutor Out of 91 Kaitlu or bazar schools, 
41 were of a similar character As regards the character of their instruction, 
very depreciatory opinions are entertained by some officials But it is a re 
markahle fact that very many of the subordinate native officials of the Pro 
vinceare said to have been almost exclusively educated m schools of this 
sort This circumstance would seem to justify a favourable opinion of their 
merits In the first instance endeavours were made to extend elementary 
education by improving the indigenous schools, but the original plan was 
eventually exchanged for that of maintaining schools under the direct control 
of the Department f and although from time to time renew ed attempts have 
been made to foster indigenous education, they were not, in the opinion of tiie 
Provincial Committee, prosecuted with sufficient earnestness to attain such success 
as might reasonably have been expected Besides, the gratuitous education given 
to the bulk of the pupils in the halkabandi schools has placed the indigenous m 
shtutions at a disadvantage Yet the indigenous schools retain their populantj , 
and they have even been persuaded to follow the example of the departmental 
schools in extending their course and improving their text-books and methods of 
instruction The Committee are of opinion that while the cfficicncv of the hal 
kahandi schools should be maintained, the importance of the indigenous schools 
should also be recognised We entirely concur m this opinion, and hope that, 
if our Recommendations be systematically applied, the mdigenous system in 
these Provinces will be treated is an integral part of the general svstero of 
education A large number of the unaided institutions will then be placed on 
the aided list, and a fresh stimulus afforded to the extension of schools which at 
present compete success fully with the halkabandi schools for popular fatour, 
notw ithstdndinr* the heavy disadvantages against which they Ime to contend 
Among these disadvantages may be reckoned the orders of Government dis 
carding the popular character, kaitlu, in favour of >agari, as that m which 
the village records should bo kept The indigenous schools, in which Kaitlu 
continuedto be used, were thus heavily wetghted m comparison with thehalka 
bandi schools whero Nagan was exclusively employed 



?2 ItxrDTtT OT THE FJrtJCVTCOV COMMISSION [CfllMn. 

mcnts is taught. Tho Hind us learn versos out of the Itamny ana ; the Lingajats 
Icam hooU V^Uar to their sect, reciting the ^crbCs in chorus after their 
masters without understanding tho meaning; uliito the Muliammndans learn 
toxis of tho Koran in tho same wa>\ Tho immbw ot schools has sh 5 hUy 
increased in the List ten jcars. The feo for each pupil varies from 4 annas to 
lie, 1 * a month. Money payments arc supplemental by payments in kind, 
with presents of food and clothes at festival seasons. The general characteristic 
of the indigenous sjstcm of Korthcrn India are therefore preserved utth 
singular fidelity in this isolated region of the south. Tho instruction is partly 
religions, and the secular part of tho course is \cry elementary. The vitality 
of these schools is, however, an argument for their encouragement. 

129. The Status of indigenous Schoolmasters —It has been seen that 

in the advanced indigenous school, fees are rarely charged for instruction* The 
character of Ilindu and Muhnmmadan religious endowments has been traced, 
and the paternal relation of tho Brahman teacher to his pupils explained. It 
a\ ill presently he seen that all traces of gratuitous education arc lost in the 
bazar school?, which arc essentially commercial undertakings The Maulavi or 
Pandit of the high school is respected, if not venerated, by lift pupils, and is 
held in high estimation hy their parents* The bazar school master, on the 
other hand, is the paid servant of the community, and holds no such position* 
The teacher of tho ordinary elementary school stands midway between these 
two classes of schoolmasters, and his position in society rests to some extent 
on the adequacy of the income he derives from fees. If the school is of a 
decidedly religious character* the master receives the respect u Inch is naturally 
paid to a teacher of religion. If it is wholly secular and ln*ed upon the depart- 
mental model, he is judged by the standard of tho departmental schoolmaster; 
and not possessing the prestige of a Government servant, his social position is 
inferior to that of the subordinate of tho Education Department Thus, in 
Bombay, where the masters of the cess school and of the secular indigenous 
school exist side by side, the influence of the former is as a rule far greater 
than that of the latter, On the other hand, jd Bonga] and northern Indh t 
the schoolmaster of an old-fashioned indigenous school is much respected, 
and his position is not improved by his connection with tho Department, It 
has even been held that tho receipt of assistance from Government injures 
rather than improves the position of tho Bengal pathsala guru, so long as ho 
confines himself to the traditional subjects of instruction. The monS he depends 
upon the State, the less can he rely upon the maintenance of his fees, since 
the village community, while acknowledging the obligation of maintaining 
the guru, have no objection to transfer that obligation wholly or in part 
to the State. In Madras the indigenous schoolmaster of the old hereditary 
type is reported to be fast losing bis influence through competition with* tho 
trained and certificated teacher of the new type. The average* emoluments 
of the latter are said to be only lis, 3^ a month, exclusive of payments in 
kind and periodical presents on festive and ceremonial occasions. In Bombay 
the fee-receipts rarely escetid lis, 8 a month in tho larger, and Us. 5 in tho 
smaller, villages, while in cities an indigenous school headmaster occasionally 
earns Its. 50 a month. On the whole, it may be assumed that, where the 
indigenous system has been little influenced by the spirit of modern education, 
the schoolmaster is respected. Where the new spirit prevails, respect is 
superseded by reputation, and reputation will be proportioned to the capacity 
of the master- But in the transition stage, the influence of the indigenous 
master is decreasing, and his claims upon the consideration of the villagers 
or townspeople can be but slowly re-established, 0 



cit*p in] 



IVEIGE\OrS SCHOOLS 



73 



130, ThB Bazar Schools —Our renew of the indigenous system mil be 
completed by a brief notice of the bazar schools, which arc found in several 
Provinces of India, and which springing from the practical wants of the people 
hive accepted any useful change consistent with those wants The ordinary 
Hindu pitksala endeavoured to -give a useful education to ill classes including 
the trading classes But if the cultivating classes predominated, the chief 
share of the master's attention was necessarily devoted to tl cm, while he could 
not neglect the claims of the few pupils, who were preparing to enter a tol 
Meanwhile the children of the trading classes were not satisfied with the atten- 
tion which they received, inasmuch as they required a more practical cduca 
tion than that which sufficed for the simple wants of the other members of the 
village community Accordingly, in large towns, where the merchants and 
tradesmen were strong enough to supply their own demand, they established a 
special class of schools, called bazar schools These schools ire also called 
Lande, Sarafi, Hindu Sindhi, or Malnjoni schools, according to the peculiar 
character which they teach, and which the particular clas* employs m its busi- 
ness transactions Their subjects of instruction are accounts, the u utmg out 
of bills and drafts, book-keeping, and menial arithmetic Bazar schools are 
essentially a commercial speculation, and not only is the master usuillj 
paid in money, but he is generally paid on the contract system, receiving a 
fixed grant on the completion of a certain course of special instruction As 
the servant of the parents, he has never commanded the respect winch the 
religious Pandit of the high school, or the guru of the village school, obtains 
The masters have no objection to receiving aid from the State, but they natur- 
ally are slow to adopt any changes opposed to the conservatism of the com- 
mercial castes who ngidy adhere to traditional habits of business and systems 
of account 

131. Recommendations — It only remains for us to state our suggestions 
for mating use of the material for education lying more or less neglected in the 
se\cnl Provinces of India, and for incorporating* where possible, in the scheme 
of national instruction the indigenous schools which according to the statistics 
furnished to the Commission are attended by 354*655 pupds and at present 
receive no recognition from the Departments Our Recommendations deal 
with four matters — 

I — The schools to he assisted 

II — The character of the assistance 
III — The conditions of assistance 
I\ r — The channel of distributing assistance 

But before discussing them wo would briefly refer to the neirs cuter 
tamed by one of our Punjab colleagues who is unable to concur m the 
concluc ons at which a majority of us, including our colleague Mr Uaji 
GJ^am Hasan (who together with Mr Pearson represented the Punjab), 
^ve arrived Mr Pearson approves of the policy of aiding and encourag 
ius indigenous schools 10 the manner proposed by us, where* cr it may be po^ibtc 
to do so, but he believe* that the experiment has alreadj received a fair 
trial in northern India, and tliat the schools have there been found unsuited 
for this kind of treatment In the JTorth T\ estern Provinces the original scheme 
of popular education devised by Mr Tliomason pronded for the entailment 
of a small number of central Government School* to <erve as models to the 
indigenous schools m their neighbourhood, and, m the opinion of Mr Pearson, 
it was onH when the paucitv and ephemeral character of the<e *chook had been 
asccrtmnw, and the" inability of making any permanent irnpre^ion 
upon them had been realised, that the halkabandi system was ad 0I ted in 



74 



HEP OUT OF THE EDUCATION COlIiriSSION, 



[chap, in 



preference. Similarly in the Punjab, when the Education Department was 
first established, the alternative of aiding the indigenous teachers or of taking 
them into Government employ, was carefully considered; and although the 
latter plan was adopted, it was not until some years afterwards that the separa- 
tion of the village school from the mosque was determined upon as a necwary 
measure of reform. But if the departmental school ultimately superseded other 
plans for the extension of popular education, the idea of an outer circle of aided 
indigenous schools has newer been lost sight of, but has been taken up from 
time to time by zealous officers of all grades, and has been the subject of nume- 
rous orders of Government, The uniform failure of these efforts can only he 
explained, in Mr. Pearson's opinion, by the absence of any real system of secular 
indigenous instruction for the masses in Northern Ind ia. The vast majority of 
schools enumerated in the returns are, he maintains, useful only for the recita- 
tion of texts and for other religious exercises, while the secular schools which 
have something in common with schools for general education are of an almost 
exclusively special character. The bazar school is usually kept by a man who 
knows how to teach the mere rudiments of shop accounts, and nothing else. 
The Persian maktab is not a vernacular school at all, and the opinion that it is 
above the requirements of the working classes has found expression in a 
favourite* pTOverb quoted by several of the Punjab witnesses. In Bengal it 
may be possible to improve a pathsala without any violent innovation, but 
according to the view which our colleague represents, littttf or nothing of this 
kind can be done m the North- Western Provinces and the Punjab without in- 
troducing strange and unacceptable studies for a purpose foreign to that which 
has called the school into existence. 

132- The Schools to be assisted* — Three classes of indigenous agency 
have been considered, — the advanced Echonls and colleges, which are generally 
of a religious character; the ordinary elementary village schools, which are 
more or less democratic , and the technical bazar schools, We have included 
under the term "indigenous" all schools, without reference to the class of 
instruction afforded in them, which are established or conducted by natives of 
India on native methods This definition mil cover a larger area of educa- 
tional agency than it may be practicable or desirable for the State, maintaining 
a policy of strict religious neutrality, to assist, or even to encourage in a less 
direct manner, We therefore consider it sufficient to recommend that all indi- 
genous schools* whether high or low, be recognised and encouraged* if they serve 
any purpose of secular education tohatsoever* The success which has attended 
the introduction of secular teaching mto religious and monastic schools in 
Burma and in the neighbouring district of Chittagong, justifies the hope that 
in other parts of India a sympathetic treatment of schools, which are chiefly 
religious, may yet induce the managers to devote some part of their attention 
to secular instruction , and thus turn to advantage the influence which these 
institutions undoubtedly exert over native society* We would, therefore, ex- 
clude no class of schools from the privilege of connection with the State, or 
from the right to claim assistance, provided that they satisfy the secular tests 
imposed, and fulfil the conditions which will he noticed presently, 

133. The Character of the Assistance-— Opinions naturally differ as 

to the best form of rendering assistance to indigenous schoolmasters. It is 
necessary at the outset to draw a line between higher and primary education, 
Wc have fully discussed in the course of our deliberations the difficulty of find^ 

* Tlit proverb may be tlms translated — 
Reads Persian and then sell J oil , 
See the freaks of fortune 1 



CHAT. III.] INTIGEXOUS SCHOOIS. 

ing funds and of selecting the best method for encouraging advanced Hindu 
ana Muhammadan schools or colleges. Wo recommend that the best practi- 
cable method of encouraging indigenous education of a high order, desiring 
recog?iilion, be ascertained by the several Departments in communication with 
Pandits, Maulams, antf others interested in the subject. As regards the secu- 
lar elementary schools, it has been alleged that in some Provinces f lie aid ren- 
dered by Government ia at Once accepted by the parents of pupils os on indica- 
tion that tlieir own contributions may be pro tanio diminished. The aid does 
not reach its object, and the natural objection, which a conservative school- 
master feels to innovation or improvement is not overcome by the prospect of 
personal advantage, except in those cases in which the villagers miy bo induced 
to attach value to the new subjects of instruction. It has therefore been 
suggested that the best form of aiding an indigenous schoolmaster would be 
for the State to pay the fees of all boys who aro too poor to contribute towards 
the cost of their education. There are, however, practical difficulties in a sys- 
tem which would entail much trouble on tho Inspector, and involve an enquiry 
into the circumstances of the village population that could neither be conducted 
with satisfaction to the people, nor with sufficient guarantee to the State. 
"We therefore recommend that the system of aid adopted be that which regu- 
lates the aid given matnlg according to the results of examination. The gra- 
dual improvement of the teaching power in the indigenous system is, howerer, 
in our opinion, a matter of such primary importance, that we recommend that 
speciil rules # be made to meet the case. The co-operation and influence of the 
indigenous schoolmasters will alone enable the Department to raise the level 
of village sdhools conducted on native methods, without extinguishing th^m by 
well-meant, but injudicious, interference. Accordingly we recommend that 
special encouragement be afforded (a indigenous schoolmasters to undergo 
training, and to bring their relatives and probable successors under regu- 
lar training. In a subsequent paragraph wo shall also suggest the bestowal 
of special grants in certain cases, on account of low-caste boys educated in 
indigenous schools 

134. The Conditions Of Assistance— K the State affords liberal grants 
for the results of examination, and organises Normal schools for the training of 
indigenous schoolmasters, it may expect that they on their part will accept 
the conditions imposed on them, and thus justify the Department in applying 
public revenues to their encouragement. Vc regard as tho best policy that 
u hich proceeds with caution, and docs not tinder the came of improvement 
destroy the distinctive methods and traditions to vfhich bazar or villago schools 
owe their vitality and popularity. "We recommend therefore that a steady and 
gradual improvement be aimed at, ictth as little immediate interference icilh 
the personnel and curriculum of indigenous schools as possible. In order to 
carry out this policy and to re-assure the village schoolmasters, we recommend 
that (he standards of examination be arranged to suit each Trounce, tcith 
the view of preserving all that is valued by the people in the indigenous systems 
«nd of encouraging by fecial grants the gradual introduction of useful 
snbjJs of instruction. Uy .uch special grants the masters wUl he more 



objects which should be added to mo scj,™ — ~7' ~" m „ . 
principle of gradual improvement must be left to the Local Govcrnmcn , 
ibo can ascertain the locality, class and condition of 
and slnpc their help and advice in tho mould ^best su, ted to 
Iti S) llever,e S ,cntiaUhataided schools should 

recommend that indigent** schools receiving aid be peeled m ««iu, and thai, 



70 



KEFOttT Of TnC EDTJCVTIOtf COMMISSION 



[CHAP III 



as far as possibly the examinations for their grants tn+axd be conducted m 
situ TVe were not entirely unanimous m adopting this Recommendation It 
was suggested tint the system of local inspection, but of central examination 
which Stains in Bengal, was preferable to local cxami nations The advantages 
claimed for tho Bengal system were the economy of the Inspector's time, the 
necessity of entrusting tho examinations for regards to officers of a higher 
grade than those who ordinarily inspected tho pathsalas, and the stimulus and 
competition created hy bringing several schools together to a central examination 
On the other hand, tho majority of tho Commission considered that central 
examinations encounged fraud, involved expense to tho students and masters, 
and unless supplemented by systematic inspection prevented n thorough examin 
ationof the system of instruction Tho following extract* puts in a clear 
form the arguments against central examinations u hen not supplemented by 
adequate inspection %n situ *' As a practical educationist, I am compelled to 
"say that examinations held o\er such gatherings for the very short time that 
"they must necessarily last, fail to afford clear ideas of the schools as they are 
u A school seen in its own abode is knoun to bo ^hat it is at tho first glance 
'Besides the dirty *)r clean appearance of the school house, tht neatness and 
' orderliness of the children or the reverse, as they sit to take their lessons, the 
"bearing of the teacher towards his pupils, his voice, attitude, patience Tilth 
the dull, and a thousand other things, rcmnn unseen by the Inspector under 
* present arrangements " Besides the conditions of improvement, and of sub 
mission to inspection, one further condition of assistance remains Wo refer to 
the right of all classes of the commumtj to participate in any education 
for which the State pays directly or indirectly The evidence given 
before the Commission shows that in many Provinces of India fears are enter 
tamed that the transfer of control to local bodies will arrest the progress which 
depressed castes arc successfully making to emancipate and improve themselves 
It is admitted to be true that in some parts of India nidul schools give no place 
either to the low caste Hindu boy or to the backward aboriginal races Tor 
instance the Mahar and Dher castes alono m the Bombay Presidency number 
i 2oo ooq and are said ta be £ tactically excluded f com ixLdtge&auA ttlwk If 
the departmental schools should be very largely superseded by indigenous 
or aided pumary schools under the general control of local boards, it is antici- 
pated that the upward progress of the lower ranks of Hindu society would 
be effectually barred lo meet the case of such classes, wc recommend that 
aided indigenous schools, not registered as Rectal schools f be understood lo 
be open to all castes and classes of tie commumtj, special aid betng t if neces- 
sary* assemble on account of low caste pupils In order that our object may 
not be defeated hy the registration of all schools as ' special," we recommend 
that such aproportim between special and other elemental v indigenous schools 
be maintained in each town or District as to ensure a projiortionate provision for 
the education of all classes 

135 The Channel of distributing Aid —The agency for assisting indi 
genous schools will necessarily be the agency of control We attach great im 
portance to the connection of all agencies of primary education with the various 
scliemes of self government now under consideration Local boards, whether 
municipal or rural are likely to sympathise with the indigenous system 
where it is valued by the people In their hands improvement will not involve 
destruction They will know what vernacular the village or town population 
prefer, and what subjects of instruction are practically useful These board* 

l^s*/^°4 ODTll,la * ltClO0T3 D ^ ^ 0rtllWesteT11 Frornce* atJ d I^a* ly BAoo Ehud* Uoahq» 



CEiP HI.] INTJIGEiiOTJS SCHOOLS 77 

will generally bo entrusted with tie control of elementary education m depart- 
mental schools, and their atUtude towards indigenous schools may be expected to 
cast light on the vexed question of the relate e popularity of the two systems 
TFe therefore recommend that, where municipal and local hoards exist the 
registration supervision and encouragement of indigenous elementary schools 
whether aided or unaided, he entrusted to them, provided that such boards shall 
not interfere tn any toatj with any schools which do not desire to receive aid or 
to he subject to the supervision of the boards This will not only secure the 
public recognition of such indigenous schools by local bodies entrusted with 
power, but will also enable the boards themselves to take a -wide survey of tho 
field of indigenous agency. The pressure of public opinion, as well as their 
natural instincts, will, it may be hoped, lead local boards in the direction of 
popular sentiment If such boards are entrusted with the control of primary 
education as well as with the funds to supply it, they will doubtless give indige- 
nous schools fair play , and, when they become efficient, a preference over the 
more expensive institutions maintained wholly by municipal or rural boards 
"We therefore recommend that the aid given to indigenous elementary schools 
be a charge against the funds at the disposal of municipal and local hoards, 
where such exist, and that every indigenous school, tchich is registered for atd, 
receive from such hoards the grants to which tl ts entitled under the rides 
A discretion would, it is true, be left to the boards to register or to refuse to 
register an appbcation for aid But the considerations o£ economy and local 
popularity (where sueb. exist), to u Inch we hire referred, would incline the 
boards to enter schools on their list of aided institutions as far as funds permit 
The amount of aid to bo received would of course depend on the efficiency of the 
school as gauged by the Inspector But the increase of demands on the school 
fund administered by the board would correspond with the increasing efficiency 
of the indigenous schools, and even af a municipal or rural board school had to 
be closed m order to me°t the growing demands of aided schools, the result 
would be a satisfactory proof of the extension of primary education In some 
parts of India, however, it may happen that the indigenous schools have fallen 
out of repute, owing m some cases to neglect , more frequently to a com- 
petition with the departmental school hy which they could not hut suffer, and 
occasionally to the real superiority of departmental schools and the preference 
of the people for them, We should therefore supplement our last Recommend 
ahoir by the following that local and municipal boards he required to give 
elementary indigenous schools free play and development, and only establish 
fresh schools of their oicn when the preferable alf"rttattce of aidtng suitable 
indigenous schools cannot be adopted It is not desirable to interfere with the 
discretion of boards in the exercise of the large powers which have been, or 
are about to be, conferred on them At the same time it is necessary to pro- 
vide a sufficient check upon then proceedings m order to ensure a proper 
observance of the conditions of aid and of the principles of administration 
*hich have been suggested We therefore recommend that one of the local 
w»pecU»g officers be an ex officio member of the muncipal or district focal 
hoard TVhere there are several inspecting officers at the same station, it mil 
rest with the Local Government to decide who -hall sit on the board The 
.ssoenhon of the inspecting officer with the local board has not only been 
advocated by several native witnesses whose opinion is cnbtled to consideration, 
hut it also seems to be the be,t mode of minimising inter* 
outside, wlule gmng the hoards timely and su, table advice in the ^charg* = of 
their responsible functions In order that the educational offi « J» 
cientlv acquainted with the facts to enable them to # ^^£^ 
recommend that the officers of the Education Department leep a list of all 



f g fl^rORT OF TnE EDUCATION COMMISSION* [CIUP, III, 

elementary indigenom whwl* and auUt the boards in selecting the school* tole 
registered for aidand in securing a proportionate provision of education for 
alt classes of the community. By tlicso measures, if there should enst any- 
where either a tendency to ignore the rights of the lower castes or or backward 
races or a desire to Keep any class of indigenous schools in the background, 
a remedy can promptly bo provided. In nil probability the experienced 
advice of the Inspector would he sufficient, hut, should this fail, the matter 
would he brought to the notice of higher authority. 

136. Eecommendationa recapitnlatei— Our Recommendations there* 
fore stand as follows : — 

Defining an indigenous school as one established or conducted by natives 
of India on native methods, we recommend that— 

(1) all indigenous schools, whether high or low, bo recognised and 

encouraged, if they servo any purpose of secular education what- 
soever : 

(2) the best practicable method of encouraging indigenous schools of a 

high order, and desiring recognition, bo ascertained by thcEdu- 
catlon Departments in communication with Pandits, Slaulavn, 
and others interested in the subject ; 

(3) prcferenco be given to that system which regulates the aid given 

mainly according to the results of examinations : 
{4) special encouragement bo afforded to indigenous schoolmasters to 
undergo training, and to bring their relatives and probable suc- 
cessors under regular training: 
(G) a steady and graduil improvement in indigenous schools bo aimed 
at, with as little immediate interference with their person net 
or curriculum as possible : 
(C) the standards of examination bo arranged to suit each province, 
with the view of preserving all that is valued by the people in 
the indigenous systems, and of encouraging by special grants the 
gradual introduction of useful subjects of instruction ; 

(7) indigenous schools receiving aid bo inspected in situ t and, as far as 

possible, the examinations for their grants-in-aid be conducted 
in situ : 

(8) aided indigenous schools, not registered as special schools, be under- 

stood to be open to all classes and castes of the community, 
special aid being, if necessary, assignable on account of low* 
caste pupils : 

(9) such a proportion between special and other elementary indigenous 

schools be maintained in each tow n and District, as to ensure 
a proportionate provision for the education of all classes : 

(10) where Municipal and Local Boards exist, the registration, super- 

vision, and encouragement of indigenous elementary schools, 
whether aided or unaided, be entrusted to such boards ; provided 
that the boards shall not interfere in any way with such schools as 
do not desire to receive aid or to be subject to the supervision of 
tlm boards : 

(11) the aid given to elementary indigenous schools be a charge against 

the funds at the disposal of Local and Municipal Boards where 
such exist ; and every indigenous school, which is registered for 
aid, receive from such boards the aid to which it is entitled under 
the rules : 



.nr.] 



INDIGENOUS SCHOOLS- 



79 



(12) such boards bo required to give elementary indigenous schools free 

play and development, and to establish fresh schools of their own 
only where the preferable alternative of aiding suitable indi- 
genous schools cannot be adopted : 

(13) the local inspecting officers be ez-offlcio members of Municipal or 

District school-boards : 

(14) the officers of the Education Department keep lists of all element- 

ary indigenous schools, and assist the boards in selecting schools 
to be registered for aid, and in securing a proportionate provision 
of education for all classes of the community. 



CHAPTER TV. 

PRIMARY EDUCATION. 

137* Public primary Schools .—Before proceeding to a definition of what 
is to be uaderstood by primary education in Indn, it is necessary to state at the 
outset in what sense the term "public" is used in this and the following 
Chapters. By tho term " public n wo do not mean merely Government schools 
which axe wholly supported at the expense of public funds, whether those 
funds be provincial, local, or municipal, but any schools which receive aid 
in any form from the State, even when that aid is confined to the bene- 
fits of inspection and supervision, as well as those -which regularly fiend their 
pupils to the examinations held by the Department Wo also include those 
primary schools supported or aided from the revenues of Nativo States which, 
having no educational Department of their own, arc glad to make use ol that 
of the British Government. The definition of primary education rests uUi* 
mately upon the Despatch of 1854, Its scope was there defined as consisting 
of so much knowledge, at least of reading and writing, and of the simple rules 
of arithmetic and of land measurement, as would enable each man to look after 
tus on a rights Reference was made to the revenue settlements in the North- 
Western Provinces, in Madras, and Bombay, and to the* "solid advantages 
"attending elementary knowledge which can bo plainly and practically made 
f< apparent to the understandings and interests oE the lower classes in Bengal*" 
From the various references made to the subject, it is apparent that the char- 
acter of primary education as understood by the Court of Directors ^as to he 
determined by the practical needs both ol an agricultural and of an urban com- 
munity, and that the course was to include reading and writing with elementary 
arithmetic and mensuration. The history of primary education in India shows 
tliat various systems, whether based upon the indigenous schools or created 
by the direct instrumentality of Government liavo been set on foot in the 
different Provinces. Each system was developed along its own independ- 
ent lines; and as time went on every one of them tended more or less to 
go beyond the simple standard indicated in the Despatch, In some Provinces 
where the advance was most marked, the departure was justified by the argu- 
ment that the wants of rural society had been enlarged, and that the 
standard was not above the requirements of th© masses. In Bengal, on the 
other hand, the standard was again in 1872 brought sharply back to the limits 
set by the Despatch. In dealing with the standards of instruction we shall 
notice the diversities which now exist, and in tracing the history of primary 
education in each Province, we shall explain its gradual development. We ■ 
shall show that each system being the outcome of long experience has neces- 
sarily varied with local circumstances and local requirements. An attempt 
at securing uniformity was made in 1879, when the Government of India 
for the first time promulgated a definition of primary education for the 
whole Empira Primary schools were defined as those f ( in which pupils are 
" under instruction from the earliest stage up to the standard at which second- 
" ary instruction begins ; this standard being marked by an examination to bo 
" called the upper primary examination." The standard of the upper primary 
examination was then given in detail. These orders not only presupposed and 
prescribed a uniform, or nearly uniform, standard of primary instruction 



CHAP. IV.] K«SIA3,Y EDUCATION. gl 

throughout India, but they also tended to identify that instruction with the 
lower section of a course ending in, and determined by, the Matriculation exam- 
ination. In Bombay and Bengal the orders were received with great reluct- 
ance, and detailed objections to them, on the ground that they overlooked the 
special characteristics of the educational systems of those Provinces, were 
brought to the notice of the Supreme Government. The force of these repre- 
sentations was admitted. The Government of India disclaimed any intention 
of dislocating existing systems or of seeking uniformity merely as an incident 
to the revision of the educational Tables. Local Governments were therefore 
permitted to select from their own scheme of examinations those which most 
nearly corresponded to the primary standards as now defined, and to embody the 
results in the forms of return prescribed for the whole of India. Thus while 
compliance with the uniform standards laid down has been apparently secured, 
there is still nothing approaching to uniformity in the primary systems of 
tho rations Trorinces Saving regard to these circumstances, we are of opinion 
that no advantage is to be gained by any attempt to secure uniformity through- 
out India, and we have recommended that the upper and lower primary exam- 
inations be not made compulsory in any Province. Each Province will thus 
be enabled to develope and improve its primary course according to the needs 
and growth of rural society ; and it will be free to test the progress made by 
standards adapted to local wants, As regards the second point suggested by 
the definition of primary instruction given in the order of 1879, we are of opin- 
ion that it sbould not be regarded as a section cut off from a scheme of educa- 
tion leading to the University, but rather as complete in itself, and as intended 
to impart such knowledge as will meet all the reasonable and progressive wants 
of those numerous classes of the community who cannot afford to prosecute 
their studies in secondary schools. We therefore recommend that primary edu- 
cation he regarded as the instruction of the masses through the tentacular in 
such subjects as toill best jit them for thetr position in life, and be not neces- 
sarily regarded as a portion of instruction leading up to the University. 

138. Different Classes of Tnbiic primary Schools.^ Under ™ dc 

definition given of public primary schools will be found ranged in very differ- 
ent proportions several classes of departmental and aided or inspected schools. 
In some Provinces village schools for the masses have to a large extent been 
originated by Government, while a few of the most promising indigenous schools 
have been incorporated into the State system by a direct process of conver- 
sion/ Under this process the indigenous school lias partially or wholly lost its 
distinctive characteristics, and become in reality a departmental school. Or 
again the influence of the Department has been less severe and rigid, and the 
indigenous school has received aid without sacrificing its peculiar method and 
course of instruction. The indigenous institutions have in this case been developed 
rather than converted. In one Province the whole system of the primary instruc- 
tion of the masses— as distinguished from the instruction of pupils preparing 
for secondary schools— Tests upon an indigenous foundation; and the super- 
structure has corresponded more or less fully to the ideal laid down in the 
Despatch, of 1854 and in subsequent orders, in proportion to the endeavours 
that have been made to provide better qualified teachers and to raise the stand- 
ard of efficiency & the country schools. It may also be observed that, in some 
Provinces of India, there have been interruptions and changes of JW. ™- 
sating between the several processes which have been described. Other differ- 
ences of system will be noticed. In some Provinces con! ^1 over^ the great 
mass of primary schools called cess schools has been entrusted to local boards, 
so far as finance and general supervision is concerned; wh do 
school has lad a local committee, whose duty it has been to encourage 



S2 



EEF0HT OP TEE EDUCATION COJIHISSION. 



[CEAP IT, 



attendance, and to report any remissness on tlic part of the master. In other 
Provinces there have been school committees, hut no local boards, and the 
officers of the Education Department have exercised an almost unlimited con- 
trol. Sometimes the revenue officers have been made entirely responsihle 
for the care and development of primary instruction, while in other cases these 
officers have contented themselves with offering such advice as has suggested 
itself from their independent inspection. Ihus a great diversity of prac- 
tice exists, which is the result not only of the local development of indigenous 
education, hut also of the reflex action of general administrative progress. 
These differences will appear more clearly from the review which will he given 
of primary education in each Province. 

139* Divisions of the Subject. — It will be convenient to preface the de- 
tailed consideration of each provincial system hy exhibiting in a tabular statement 
the distribution of the 82,916 primary schools scattered over India, and hy show- 
ing the classes of the population which attend them. Premising that the term 
" departmental" is used in a wide senso as embracing municipal and local board 
schools as well as purely Government institutions and dividing public schools 
into the three great classes of departmental* aided, and unaided but inspected in- 
stitutions, we shall find that 16 per cent, of the public primary schools in India 
belong to the first class, 69 per cent, to the second, and 14 per cent, to the last* 
But the extraordinary diversity of systems may be illustrated from the follow- 
ing Table which shows the percentage of each class of school in each Province : — 

Proportion of departmental, aided, and other primary Schools, 



Province 


Depaetmevtu, 

SCHOOLS 


Aided schools 


OstltpED SCHOOLS 
UN»FB IXSPBCT!0\. 


Proportion per cent 


Proportion per cent 


Proportion per cent 


Madras 






40*1 


Eomtiy 




36 


25* 


Bengal 


•05 


91*50 


S'45 


North -Western Provinces , 


95 1 


4*2 


*7 


Punjab 


84*8 


15-2 


None 


Central Provinces * 


66*3 


27 3 


6*4 




°'5 


93 


65 


Coorg 


95 


5 


None 


Hnid&rabad Assigned Districts 


52 9 


23*7 


234 



* Jloat ot these K&oola ace r«ally d^irttteiiUli schools in Kabie Sutes 

It will be seen at a glance that in sis of the nine Provinces of India 
vrilk whoso system this Chapter deals, the departmental schools are ttie most 
important part of the machinery for diffusing elementary instruction. But it 
cannot be precisely ascertained what proportion of these departmental institu 
tions xrerc originally indigenous schools. In the Punjab a large number of 
naUrc schools were thus converted, irhUe in Bombay the bulk of ttv cess schools 
Mere the ongmal creation 0 f the Department. In Ajmir also the primary 



fi3 



cuap. rv.j runiAUY education-. 

schools, TvTiich arc classified in accordance with the system adopted in the 
Norih.Westcrn Provinces are chiefly departmental institutions, but we have 
explained m Chapter II the reasons which have prevented us from incorpor- 
ating its statistics in our Report. The total numher of pupils in the vernacu- 
lar tahsili and halkabandi schools of Ajmir and Hhairwarra was 2,10a in 
1880-S1. ' J y 

After considering in full detail the system of primary education which exists 
in each Province, and the methods of registering attendance with a view to the 
pm cntion of fraud, we shall examine the quality and character of the instruction, 
whether intellectual, physical, or moral, and the measures taken to improve the 
efficiency of the teachers. The fees charged and the prizes and scholarships given 
to the pupils will also he considered. Any special attempts made to extend ele- 
mentary instruction in backward places such as the highlands of India or the 
forest tracts of the Central Provinces, and to educate particular classes of society 
will be noticed. Tho progress of female education will he briefly reviewed 
without anticipating a 'subsequent Chapter of this Report. We shall then 
consider tho important subject of the relations of local hoards, whether 
municipal or rural, to primary schools ; and we shall conclude this review by 
an examination of the cost of primary education in each Province and the 
proportion of public expenditure devoted to the instruction of those classes 
which are least able to help themselves. 

140- Two Theories of extending primary Education.— The tabular 

Statement which lias just been given affords a convenient opportunity for pre- 
facing the detailed account of each provincial system by a few general observa- 
tions upon the opposite policies which have been pursued in different parts of 
India. In attempting to cope with the ignorance of the vast masses of the 
Indian populations whose density varies from 50 to the square mile in Sind to 
637 in the Patna Division of Bengal, two different systems suggested them- 
selrcs to tho local authorities. There was no difference of opinion as to the 
ultimate object to be attained, namely, the widest possible extension of a good 
elementary education suited to the wants of society. Opinions differed only 
as to tho most suitable means. On the one hand, the indigenous schools of the 
country, however inefficient, offered a ready material to wort on ; and by extend- 
ing to them help, however small, their returns could be gathered into the statistics 
of primary education, and evidence could be thus afforded that the wants of the 
people were not being neglected. But while the indigenous schoolmasters were 
very ready to accept help, if it n as not saddled with inconvenient conditions, they 
were extremely slow in many parts of India to alter their methods or to raise 
their standard of instruction. Tho older schoolmasters were unwilling to admit 
the advantages of an improvement which seemed to threaten them with extinc- 
tion ; while the younger generation were partly on conservative principles 
opposed to any change and partly unwilling to undergo the expense and (rouble 
of a systematic training. Indian rural society moves slowly, and the demand on 
its part for a more thorough instruction was not likely to be effective until the 
whole feeling of the people and their standard of comfort were raised. It was 
therefore urged that, although education might be most readily and widely ex- 
tended by building on the indigenous foundation, it could not he adapted to the 
progressive wants of society, unless for a generation or two the whole system of 
primary education was lifted out of the conventional rat and its level raised by 
the direct instrumentality of Government. It was argued that departmental 
schools, if opened in every large village of the country and so organised as to 
afford a thorough education under the direction of departmental inspectors and 
through the agency of good teachers, would not only create a natronal deimnd 



liETPOUT OT THE EMJOAllON COMMISSION, [CHAP. IV* 



for "better teaching, frit also raise the indigenous system without even any 
direct aid from the State, To attain the ends proposed by the State, regarding 
which no serious conHict o£ opinion has arisen, it was necessary to diffuse not 
merely elementary instruction, but such an instruction as wild protect the 
poor against injustice, and promote a spirit of self-help and self-reliance. The 
departmental system could claim to have succeeded when it had raised the in- 
digenous institutions pari passu with its own schools, and, while infusing fresh 
vigour into the former > had brought about their extension as well as their im- 
provement. The system of incorporating the indigenous schools of the country 
could claim for itself the advantage not merely of rapid extension, hut also of 
the recognition of the progressive wants of a society no longer stationary, 
provided that the method and course of instruction in indigenous schools had been 
sensibly improved. One further aspect of the case demands consideration. It 
was urged in favour of working upon the indigenous schools that it would 
develope self-help and promote private enterprise- Substantial assistance 
rendered to indigenous schoolmasters would encourage the profession of 
teachers, while their existence would not be endangered by competition with 
departmental schools. On the other hand, the advocates of the departmental 
method replied that indigenous schools had no existence amongst the aboriginal 
races, and did not generally admit the lowest castes of Hindu society ; and 
therefore that exclusive reliance upon such schools would doom to perpetual 
ignorance large sections of the community who were incapable of helping 
themselves. 

141* Both Systems sanctioned in the Despatches,— Both systems could 

claim the sanction of higher authority* The Despatch of 1 854 contemplated 
the wise encouragement of indigenous schools, and in vietv of the compa- 
ratively insignificant number of those who were receiving school instruction 
referred to "the almost insuperable difficulties which would attend such 
"an extension of the present system of education by means of colleges and 
" schools entirely supported at the cost of Government, as might ho hoped 
" to supply, in any reasonable time, so gigantic a deficiency, and to provide ade- 
" quate means for setting on foot such a system as we have described and desire 
"to see established/' In the Despatch of 1859 it was remarked that the mode 
of extending vernacular education adopted in the several Provinces naturally 
exhibited considerable diversity* The systems in force in tho North-Western 
Provinces, in Bengal, and in Bombay were reviewed at length, and in paragraph 
50 it was observed as follows ; " On the whole, Her Kajesty*s Government can 
" entertain little doubt that the grant-in-aid system, as hitherto in force, is un- 
,( suited to tho supply of vernacular education to the masses of the population; and 
it appears to them, so far as they have been able to form an opinion, that the 
means of elementary education should be provided by the direct instrument- 
"ality of the officers of Government, according to some one of the plans in 
* l operation in Bengal and the North-Western Provinces, or by such modification 
" of those schemes as may commend itself to the several Local Governments as 
* ( best suited to the circumstances of different localities." These instructions 
confirmed the principle of incorporating and improving the exiting indigenous 
schools, rather than of inducing the people to set up new schools under the 
grant-in-aid systems then in force ; but they also sanctioned the establishment 
of new schools by direct departmental agency. Accordingly the Local Gov- 
ernments considered themselves free to adopt whichever system seemed to 
be most suited to local circumstances. Speaking generally, it mav be said that 
the Governments of Bombay, the Northwestern Provinces, the Punjab, Central 
Provinces, Coorg, and the Haidarahad Assigned Districts have liitherto' worked 
mainly on the departmental system. The total population of these Provinces 



CHU\ IV.] PRIMARY KDUCYTION. §5 

amounts to raoro than 99 millions, or mot far short of one-half the whole popula- 
tion whose educational systems aro under the consideration of the Commission. 
But it mwi not be supposed that, even under the same system, very wido diver- 
sities of practice and methods are not .included. In the Central Provinces 
unceasing efforts have been made to expand the indigenous system Jn Bombay 
very few indigenous schools aro aided, but the neglect to give them pecuniary 
ftisistanco has not prevented them from taking advantage in many cases of 
the increasing demand for education -which the departmentil system has created, 
and from improving their own method. The Provinces, 011 the other hand, in 
which primary education has heen largely if not exclusively built upon the 
indigenous or aided schools, aro Madras, Bengal, and Assam, with their 
population numbering 105^ millions. But here again tho Madras system differs 
widely from the Bengal system. The indigenous schools of Madras have before 
them the model of a fair sprinkling of departmental schools, and the nume- 
rous and well-managed institutions supported and directed by the efforts of mis- 
sionary bodies. About one-half the whole number of primary schools |are im- 
proved indigenous schools, and of the remainder the most efficient are not 
always the departmental but generally the private aided schools. In Bengal 
the pre-existing indigenous schools have been induced by the offer of small 
grants to come in vast numbers within tho departmental system : while in 
Assam tho efforts of the Department havo been chiefly directed to the estab- 
lishment of new viliago schools under private management but assisted by 
much moro liberal grants. These differences -will be traced in greater detail 
hereafter. It is only here necessary to repeat that the phrase " public schools " 
includes departmental, aided, as well as unaided but inspected schools, while the 
phrase "departmental*' is applied to schools supported by local fund commit- 
tees and municipalities, as well as to those which are exclusively managed by 
the officers of the Department. 

142. Public primary Schools and Pupils.— We give below, at the 

threshold of our detailed enquiry into the various departmental systems, two 
cotttfiaraiivfi statements,, of which the first exhibits the number of jmblic pri- 
mary schools in India on 31st March 1882 as contrasted with the number exist- 
ing in 187 1 ; -while the second classifies the pupils by race and creed. These 
statements will frequently be referred to in the course of this Chapter. 



TABLE l—Cmpamthe Statement showing the number of Primary Schools existing tn 
x Aimu r ^ ^ end q j th0 0 jfi cia i years j87o-7i and 1881-82. 



PK0VJNCE5 



Class of School 



Gcratmmtnt, Lotal Fund and 

Aided Schools , * ■ 

Ucaided Schools under inspection 

Primary classes m Hi^li an3 IxliMle 
Schools and in Coffey 

Total 



Bom bav 



Gtmtr&mtTit Lcral Fund School 
Aided Scfioofs . 

Unaided Schools under inspection 

Total 



Ben-gal 



Government Schools 
AidfctJ Schools , 

Unaided Schools o tide r inspection 

Primary elates m High and Middle 
Schools > 

Total 



Number 
of 

schools,* 



17 




T 



Number 

of 
pupils 



741 



6&,*37 

1 23^53 

2*945 
27,030 



159,628 



North \Vest£r\ Pro 

AND OuDfJ 



tf[i,Siz] 



Government Local Fund and Mum 
apaJ School 

Aided Schools 

Un&jJed Schools under inspection 

Total 



+4,307 



Punjab 



Government, Local Fund and Mum 
c pa) Schools ♦ 

Atded Schools , fl 

UTiiidtd Schools under inspection 

Total 



4*450 



499 
a [$57,945] 



63,543 



5* J2 * 



1,354 
501 



J53 252 



Central Provinces 



Government, Local Fund and Mum 
pa] Schools . 

Aided Schools * , - 

Unaidtd Scbwls under inspection 

Total 



50*547 







Average 
number of 

each 
school. 


Number 

oi 

schools.* 


f 

Number 

of 
pupils 


I 

Average 
number of 
fjfjptte 1a 

each 
gfhool 




6 


7 


S 


44 


> f 303 


4^i37S 


37 


24 


7*4M 


£04,140 


57 




J,8o0 




19 

i 

*• 


a Fill 




1 

• 


T 


mm ^ 




24 


5* 


3*Su 


2 43i955 


64 




rgo" 










74,8a; 






5,333 


_ —V mm. 

332,683 


02 


34 


7S 




33 


27 


47.374 


8 35,435 




T 9 


4^76 


^3*033 


'4 


■lad 




*[94 3iS] 


fl [49] 


27 


5^*73 


898,380 


J 7 1 


34 


5/55i 


»97*otfo 


35 


35 


*43 




61 











w 1 


5345 






40 


1*54!? 




57 1 



t 



s 



H 



37 



»*37S 



1.755 



Government Schools . , 
Aided Schools . , t 

Unaided Schools under inspect on 

Total 



755 

433 

66S 



39 



X,B36 



4M&4 

20,752 

14,503 



7**399 



S3 
51 

31 



102,867 



40 



Tta statistics far Ass^tn arc 
included in those for 



Coo«o 



H A District* 



Govecomeat Schools * 
Aided Sttocte , , , 
Unaided Schpob under inspection 

Total 



Goverflmetrtand LocaJ Fund Schools 
Aided Sdioats 

Unajded Schools under inspection 

Total 

TOTAL FOR INDIA ft 



3* 
3 



35 



297 



*>413 
IOS 



in>223 



297 



*M73 



607,320 



46 

3<5 



$94 
36S 

86 



7 

cs 



r i35i 

57 
3 



53 



56 




iSj 
35*643 



38,rB2 



9" 



44 




3,069 


Si 


34 


407 


37*^44 


59 




209 


4,512 


20 










34 


f E83 


34i7S3 


39 


3tf 


fc,9tfi 


2 ^^54i 


34 



€1 

Si 
57 



S7 



£6 

26 



23 
30 



* Including both'Boys* and GirV Schools. 

ft Eicludift? CntisS Hunna ind all Natjve States tba? admiflister their own sysUm of eduCaUoi 



IT.] 



PKiaiABX EDUCATION. 



^7 



v %— Classification of Pupils tn Primary Schools * by Race or Creed for the official year iS8/.$2. 



SCES 



Clas* of InitttoHong 



Government, Local Fond and Municipal 1 Boyi 
Sehf»U. 1 Tlrls 

Itoya 



Al dcd Schools 
Unaided Schools tinder Inspection 



Grt 
fjirls 



J Boys 



perrcntaec of pup 1* to total mil* And female I Bo> I 
populat on teifpectlrc y of each ia« or creed 1 Girls 



Government and Local Fund School* 
Aided School* 

Unaided School* tinder Inspection 



i 



Total 



cOeon 



Boya 
C rla 
/Boya 
I Girl* 

ICItJs 

iBovt 



Percentage of |mpU* to total male and fema « f Bops 
population rtsptftiTtly of each tact of creed t G rla 



GoYCTntnctH School i t # 
Aided School* , 
Loalded Schools under intpectloft 



Total 



Bovi 



J Boys 
*0 rla 



\ 

Percentage of popUa to total male, and female J Boya 
population retpcci ve y c£ each nee or creed* \ Glrla 



Government, Loul Fund and MunldpalJ Boyd 
School* 



Aided School* 

Unaided Schools under Inspection 



Total 



{ G in 
\ Boys 
1 Q rl* 

Grla 

f Boya 
\0 U 



t^rcentajje of pap la to total male and female JBoys; 
population respectively of each race or creed \Q rla 



Government, Local Fund and Municipal J 
School*. 

Adcd*khooli , * 

Unaided Schoolv under Infpectlo a * 



Boys 
J Bow 



10 



Percentage of pupils to total mole iod female j Boya 
popnlit onrefpectirelyoE each race or creed | Qlr a 



Government Local Fund and Municipal J Boya 

JBoji 



School** 
Aided Bthoo a 



Unaided Schools under Inspection 



Total 



{Boys 
G rla 

fBovi 



Percentage of pupl a to total ma e and female f Boya 
pepnlai on respectively of each race or creed \ G rla 



Gurcmmcnt Schools 
A ded School* 

Unaided Schools nnder Entpeetion 



f Boyj 




Percentage of pup la to total male and female f Boys 
pcpulat on respectively of each race or creed \0 la 



Government School* * , 
Aided Schools 

Unaided Schools under (ntpcetlon 



Total 



J Hoys 
1 torts 
I Boya 

{EC 

f Bov* 
j 0 rla 



Percentage of pupHa to total male and female f Eots 
population respectively trt each race or creed tG iia 



Govemmeiit and Local Fund Schools 
Ajd d Ekhooli 

Unaided SJioola natter Inspection 



Total 



Boj?s 
Glrl4 
Bjv* 
G la 
Boys 
GLrl* 



fBo>a 



Percentage cf pupils to total mile and female f Bny a 
population reapecti vely of each rat* or creed \ C rla 



TOTAL FOR INDIA 



J Boyt 
\ Girls 

1 cranage of pup l» to total male and female J Boyt 
population TetpccUvclyoE each race ot creed 1 G rla 



Hindus 



to? 
^9 

199.140 
9 807 
*07* 
1 043 



Muham 
mad an a. 



^410 



*4i»0S 
4*7 



0+ 



a!} at j 
J 117 
l 132 

P J17 



ia 4 

13 



I oj 

oS 



14 S^o 



Ma»o 



*or 



a S&o 
C907 

6oj 
*17 

4 668 



S3 
03 



t ?J4 



1*7 

00 



>*54J 
3 



l 77 
07 



JOO 

)i5i 1 
5 U 

53 



57* 



7* 
03 



tin 



filth* 



Pan 1 5 



Christiana 
o 



1043 

150 
t 3+3 

161 



a 7 3 6 
1 570 




117 atfi 




a 03 
01 




30 JJ7 

I '10 

I 891 

-Aft 

iq3 


«• 

** 
r* 


* 85a 




03 




4 J34 

3 &>3 


K7 
T 3 7 




'r4V* 


14 

o3 


I iS 

30 


4.0 4 

8* 
I aaj 
4« 

i+a 

IS 


H 


"47 




10 




7 




4S4 fi 
t 

S» 




5 475 
a 




Si 








1 


Tt 
** 
m* 


«7 


j 



9 JS 
*34 



3 17 



3i$3l 
^4 



30461 



137 
03 



54 >4* 



4 04 

07 



I 10 



3*945 
54 

J9J 



45°' 
aj 

4^* 
09 



^ 3 tat 

1 57 
05 



J5#* 
1*400 

lotf 
^7 



rg 



"9 



u o 



goy 
5 a^S 



■3 



o"8o 



«57 
37 
SOS 
047 
59 

3 



1*74 
" *3 



3.4*7 
j 181 



3 4*7 



$07 
1 36 



01 
1 

1 393 
J OJ 

9 



i*03 
1 180 



4 73 
7 >7 



37 



*o4 

*53 



1 I? 
30a 



rl 
T 

333 
149 
9 



13 



5 03 
3 Jfl 



a 

9 



650 
•73 



Jti 04 
9 <5 



sfi 

34 



77 
•4 



43S 
* 74 



34 

a 
rj 



39 
*4 



S^os 
3 4S 

3IS&4 
l^34« 

30J 



Others 



S 



Total 



4^3 



44 853 
* 

I9J 43o 

tr 66g 
J02 944 

e 533 



33 35 



S5 
14* 
9J 

4 



•5*0*78 



Rm Attn 



3 33 
13 



>3l 6Cj 
It 154 

9 SD4 
4.3^3 

70 5*4 
4 A$3 



■«4 
Q4 



77* 
f*9 9*7 



c tncltid ng Nat e 
Cfuatians and Euro 
peans and Eurasia 
attending sen™ a for 
Natives of India. 

*»4 1 16 of thtseaje^ 3 
T453 of these are b&yu 



igff of these ape gujj 
n$#of tftese ate neys 



18^40 


SS°937 


tio 


17 «3 


11,843 




iao 


ti7 45* 


17* 




01 


os 


Jt>7 


53 373 


3 63? 


33 


10 313 


*s 


* 707 


6 






343 


'S 


■04 s« 




34 


89 


•07 


04 








3*57 


7»3 


9 IKS 


til 


5 350 




03,660 



*io 744 of these are g]Tla 
Tiy5 of these are bqys, 



IK 



J 045 
40 
I MS 

43 



4" 



35 



*ot 
0 



S3 0(59 

13,373 
5 4 
3,188 
t3 



74-5*0 



1 50 
00 



i c« Include chd 
d*ttt or" fWKpal cfia 
nuus, fitt., who are 
ret rned In the cQneua 
a* H ndus. 



*Idc|hb veof Gonda Hots 
and other abor glnal 
tribes also Df PartB 
and S the 



73 

3 700 
3 0 
17 * 
10 



a,9$* 
— 
4 9 



t87 

34^ ' 
I 3a 
3 7S 
77 



*3*.973 
T 1 "9 



I 47 

05 



3 9fd 

65 
30 



*i*43 
id 

30J 



*4 3 of theffi are p Is 
tiJ* of these are ooy% 



•305 of theie are t rU* 



sS 153 
333 
4*to3 
104 
160 
Ji 



•35,011 
437 

01 



^ t*^547 



nch^o^ «hch tanm>t 

rctiiros. 
A lti« toUi male popnU 

t on wit j only 
* 3& S?4 the** are (if j 
t7T4al thc*c are boy*. 




gg REPORT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION [CBAP IV, 

143 Hadras: primary System -Tlio «rly history of pnmao education 
in Alidras offers a marked contrast to its later development The present system, 
winch rests mainly onprnatc enterprise, u itliout altogether neglecting the direct 
instrumentality of the Department, u as founded in i868 ( consolidated in 1871, 
and has been systematically persevered in nnd improved from that date until 
now It differs from that of IJomhaj in the large support uhich it gains 
from private enterprise and in its liberal patronage of indigenous schools, 
ngam it diffLrs from that of Bengal in its more practical nnd successful 
insistence upon implement and upon rnsing aided schools out of their truh- 
tional indifference to a level with the progress e wants of society The policy 
laid down from the first has been stcadilj adhered to without interruption 
Prior to the jeir lS63 Madras could not boast tint success had attended 
its early efforts Neatly forty >cars before that date, Sir Thomas Monro had 
devised a scheme of establishing District and hluha schools based upon the 
indigenous schools of the country but his plan was abandoned m 1836 Apart 
from the check which this abandonment mvol\cd t other influences ncre at 
work to retard the progress of primary education Trom Bengal b) its 
example, and from England by direct! instructions, pressure t\as brought 
to bear on Madras in favour of extending higher education The theory 
of "downward filtration" obtained complete ascendancy, and even in 1841 
the President of the University Board, in an address to Lord Elph ins tone, 
gave expression to the popular view when bo remarked that "the light must 
"touch the mountain tops before it could pierce to the levels and depths" 
Mr Thomas, who was a few years later Chief Secretary and Mcml)tr of the 
Council of Education, entirely disapproved of these sentiments, and argued 
m favour of the broader basis of solid education through Jhe native languages 
No action was, however, taken to carry out these views, and when the Despatch 
of 1854 reached Madras, a few elementary schools in the Hill tracts of Ganjam 
and m Rajam&hendri, and a paltry expenditure in Chingleput, Ncllore, and 
Tanjore, represented the attention winch the State had paid to the instruction of 
the masses Ten years later, when Mr Monteath*s noto of 1S65 66 was written, 
primary State education still lagged behind But about this period the grant- 
in aid rules were under revision, and a new scheme for result-grants sanc- 
tioned m the following year came into force on 1st January 1868 Trom this 
date primary education made rapid and continuous progress In the first year 
494 schools were aided on the system of payment by results, m the next 1,065, 
and in the third 1,606 In 1871 there were only 17 Government pnmnrv 
schools chiefly in the hill tracts of Ganjam, attended by 741 pupils The 
aided and inspected schools were 2,783 with 67^496 pupils, while the high and 
middle schools had 2 1 ,465 pupils in their primary classes Thus there were 
89 702 children under primary instruction m Madras 

144 Madras Progress of primary Education —These results, though 

showing a considerable advance, offered an unfavourable contrast to Bombay 
Anth its 160,000 pupils, and even to the backward Central Provinces with 
more than 76,000 But measures had already been taken which enabled 
Madras to effect a change that is almost without example in its extent and 
thoroughness The Government of India had instituted enquiries, which were 
suggested by a Note on the state of education m India for 1866 67, prepared by 
Mr A P Howell Of that Note the Government of India remarked, on the 30th 
April 1868, that its clear exposition of the educational systems, as introduced 
and worked under the different Governments, enabled the Supreme Government 
to judge of the comparative merits of the several methods adopted in differ 
ent parts of the country In forwarding a copy of the Note to the Madris 
Government, the Governor General in Council on 27th May 1868 called the 



CHAP- IV,] FUlMAItT EDUCATION fit) 

attention of the local Government to the necessity, already insisted upon in the 
Despatch of 1859, of providing from local rates for the means of extending 
elementary education amongst the agricultural classes. Tho cesses levied in 
Bombay and in the North-Western Provinces were held up as a model, the 
failure of tho Madras Act VI of 1863 was distinctly recorded, and the Local 
Government was called on to initiate measures for the attainment of tho object 
in view. That Government complied, and Act IV of 187 1 provided the local 
rates by which alono the f all development of the grant-in-aid system could 
be secured- It may also be mentioned that in the samo year the Municipal 
Act III of 187 1 gave urban committees power to expend municipal funds on 
education* Provision was also made for associating local boards with the Dis- 
trict officers in the administration of the school funds thch created. The effect 
was almost magical. "With sufficient ways and means not merely to mate a 
start but to carry out a policy, it was at once discovered that Ifadras had 
not so much to create an educational system as to incorporate into its system 
a network of indigenous schools, and to turn to account a wealth of mission- 
ary, and in duo course of time of native, enterpiise not surpassed in any other 
part of India, The development was continuous and the conditions of aid were 
steadily maintained. The annual returns mark a regular improvement, which 
though interrupted by the occurrence of severe famine was not ultimately 
checked. The local boards yielding to the advice of the Inspectors of schools, 
adopted the system which had been successfully introduced in 1868, and aided 
private schools in preference to opening schools of their own. Hut where 
private enterprise was backward, they did not neglect the other alternative. 
By these means, the pupils in the public primary system had risen in 1881-82 
to 360,643 pupils, nearly 87 per cent of whom were in aided or inspected 
schools, whilst the rest were being instructed in 1,263 departmental schools. 
Thus had the attendance in primary schools been quadrupled in eleven years 
by the combined effects of an adequate fund supplied by local rates and of 
the grant-in-aid system working under favourable conditions. The indigenous 
schools brought under control, and estimated by one witness as constituting one- 
half of the whole number of primary school^ readily conformed to the rules of 
the Department. Printed books were generally used, and arithmetic was taught 
according to the system in force in departmental schools. Although the old tra- 
ditional method of teaching has not been superseded, the division of pupils into 
classes, and other European methods, were introduced, A dditional subjects, such 
as geography, history, sanitation, and agricultuie, were taught ; and instruction 
was sensibly raised above the traditional indigenous course to a standard more 
calculated to secure the peasant classes in the possession of their proprietary 
rights. Above all, the qualifications of the ^teachers were greatly improved 
and trained men took the places of the inefficient indigenous schoolmasters. 
The history of the progress thus glanced at is given at length in the Madras 
Provincial Beport, from which the following extract is taken: " It is a note- 
worthy fact, and one which cannot he ignored or explained away, the 
' Districts whose towns in the aggregate have more than 5 per cent of their 

< population, or roughly one child in three-or if girls are excluded, about 
<Uo boys in thrce-under induction, are Distncts the education of whose 
*to™ population has been mainly left to private effort In the tain of 
'Coimbatore, where the Government have never established a ^ there 

< are probably at least four hoys in every fire reading in school. J 
' velly, in Palamcotta, Masulipatam, and Nellore the proportion is higher. 

length iu theTroviacial Report. There, as in Madras, the downward filtration 



qq RErORT OP THE EDUCATION COinilSSIOJ:. [CHAP, IV. 

theory" was at first strongly held hy the Board of Education over uhich Sir 
Erskine Perry presided for nine years up to 1852 + His view was that it was 
» better to concentrate on the higher education of a few tho strength of a pant 
*■ that was quite inadequate to make any impression on tho masses/ 1 But even 
during bis direction of the Board's proceedings, tho claims of the uneducated 
masses found powerful advocates. Protests against the neglect of those claims 
were emphatically renewed after his retirement; and Government, while increas- 
ing its general grant to the Board by Us* 50,000, announced its policy of organising 
thioughout the Presidency a general scheme of village education. Besides 
general considerations of the duty of tho State to provide education for the 
masses, there were in Bombay, as in tho North-Western Provinces, special 
reasons arising out of the liberal policy of Government in the matter of revenue 
administration which induced the local Government to be anxious to improve as 
well as to extend elementary education amongst the peasant proprietary of the 
Presidency. Their efforts were from the firt successful- Tims on tho constitu- - 
tion of the State Department 011855, while in Madras the few elementary schools 
u ere confined to a small tract of country, there were in the Bombay Presidency 
upwards of 240 vernacular schools managed by the State and educating more than 
ig t ooo children, Tor some years the village schools were maintained on the par* 
tially self-supporting system, which continued until 1 858, Under this system 
the State paid half the master's salary, and the people the other half , as well as 
all the contingent expenses of the school. In 185S the Government of India 
raised objections to the plan adopted, and a further extension of the system was 
forbidden. At this period the indigenous schools in the whole Presidency were 
said to number 2,386 with 70,500 pupils. After careful consideration, both of 
the objections raised in 1858 to the partially self-supporting system, and of tho 
insufficient number of tho indigenous schools, the Local Government laid the 
foundation of the present departmental system which has been steadily main- 
tained without interruption up to the present time. There is now no other 
Province of India with so largo a proportion of tho male population under 
instruction in primary schools, strictly so called, which are maintained, aided, 
or inspected hy the State. One of tho distinctive features of the Bombay 
system is its almost exclusive reliance on departmental schools, managed 
under official direction by local committees, and maintained chiofly at tho cost 
o£ local rates supplemented hy grants from provincial revenues. Another feature 
is the systematic and successful attempt mado to raise the standaid of ins t ruc- 
tion, instead of limiting it more closely hy the traditional wants of the people, 
according to the plan so strongly insisted upon elsewhere. Tins elevation of 
standard has teen effected by two methods, which are in marked contrast with the 
Bengal plan. It will he shown that in Bengal the primary education of the 
middle and educated classes of society in towns is chiefly conducted in secondary 
schools, while in Bombay every class of society attending the public schools passes 
through the ordinary primary school. If the higher castes can give a tone 
to society, and if the example of the educated can stimulate the backward 
classes, then in the "Bombay system tliis stimulus is provided hy associating 
every section of the community in the class-rooms of the primary school. It 
must not, however, be supposed that the peasantry form a small minority; on 
tire contrary theie were nearly 132,000 children of the cultivating classes in 
the cess schools alone in 1 88 1-82, It follows from the double function thus 
imposed on the primary schools that they have been organically connected with 
secondary schools, in order that the boys who proceed to higher education may 
he properly grounded. In this there was an obvious danger of sacrificing the 
interests of those whose education was to terminate in the primary school, but 
against this danger the necessary precautions were taken. 



CHAP. IV.] PKiaiAEY EDUCATION. 91 

The primary school ought according to the Bombay system to he the 
village school as well as the preparatory school for secondary education. It ou^ht 
to be an end in. itself as well as a means to an end, TVhile, therefore, the coarse 
of the primary school was arranged so as to lead in one direction to the hi»h 
school.it was extended in another so as to afford the most thorough elementary 
education. Accordingly, to the course of the primary school, at the point where 
it joined on to that of the secondary school, two standards were added, and the 
highest of these was adopted as a test of admission to the lower grades of the 
public service. The number of pupils who go up for examination in standards 
V and "VI is increasing every year. Their popularity has never been ques- 
tioned, and throughout tho evidence given to the Commission by Bombay 
witnesses there is an entire absence of those complaints about teaching over 
tho heads of tho people which have been loudly expressed in some otherparts 
of India. One witness, the present Prime Minister of Baroda, has even recom- 
mended that in tho Northern Division, which is remarkable for its commercial 
activity, the standards should again be raised. 

146. Bombay : financial Provision for primary Education.— The 

successful maintenance of the present standards involves two conditions : first, 
that the course of instruction should not go beyond the wants of the people ; 
and secondly, that there should be a permanent and sufficient financial provi- 
sion. To the latter point early attention was directed. In 1862 the appro- 
priation of municipal funds to education was legalised ; and in 1864 an edu- 
cation cess was levied on the land, which produced in the first year about 
Es. 2,80,000. Under these influences the number of primary schools in 
1865 was raised to 925 with 61,729 pupils. The cess was at first collected 
on a voluntary basis, and nothing can better illustrate the popularity of 
the educational system than tho readiness with which the contribution was 
paid. In Sind the collections were legalised by Act VIII of 1865, but it 
was not until 1 869 that they received the sanction of law in the rest of 
the Presidency. Since that date the educational portion of local fund income 
has been administered by local committees, and as far as possible the precise 
amount raised in each taluka is expended in that taluka. The Government 
contributes liberally from provincial revenues towards the cost of the urban 
schools, and adds to the local income administered by tho committees whatever 
assignment it can spare. As Hr. Chatficld, the Director of Public Instruction, 
lately reported, " the local fund schools in Bombay are financially less dependent 
" upon Government than board-schools in England. In En gland the Government 
" grant for results is larger than the rate collections, whilst the fixed Government 
" grant in Bombay is only one-third of the rate or cess collections." The main 
distinction between the administration of the Jocal rates in Bombay and in 
Northern India is that in Bombay the rates are paid direct to the credit of the 
local committees, not only without any deduction, but with the addition of the 
provincial contribution. Any unexpended balance also lapses to the local fund 
In the North- Western Provinces and the Punjab the local rates are first credited 
to provincial revenues, from which an assignment isjmade to the local commit- 
tees, but if the assignment is not spent, it, lapses to the provincial treasury. 
Moreover, in some pai ts of Northern India no provincial assignment, other than 
that from local rates, is made for elementary vernacular education in rural tracts. 
In Bombay, therefore, the school f und is inviolable, and cannot be diverted from 
elementary education. It may be spent in towns or in villages at the discre- 
tion of the committees, hut it must be spent on primary schools. Owing to 
the advantages which a secure income afforded, Bombay gained a great start on 
the Southern Presidency, into which a similar measure was not introduced until 
many years later. In 1B71 there were 159^8 children under instruction m 



g2 BEPORT OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. [CHAR IV* 

2 7^8 primary schools in Bomhiy, while in Madras there wcro only 89,702 
pupils in primary schools including the primary classes of high and middle 
schools, 

147. Bombay : Progress of primary 'Educations In thcne^t ten yam 

the two "Presidencies wcro to compete 011 equal terms so far as finance was 
concerned. But the Bombay Government adhered to its original policy, while 
in Jladras education w as extended by stimulating private enterprise and by 
incorporating and improving the existing indigenous schools* The result was 
that by the beginning of 18S2 the relative position of tho two Presidencies was 
reversed. The Bombay system was still instructing a larger proportion of the 
male population, but whilo its numbers had rather more than doubled since 
1871, those in Madras had been quadrupled. The difference in tbeir relative 
progress it as not merely numerical ■ 87 per cent, of the 360,643 primary scholars 
in Madras were in aided or inspected schools, while 73 per cent of tho 332,688 
pupils in Bombay were attending departmental schools, exclusive of a large 
number of pupils in inspected schools, chiefly departmental schools in Native 
States The annual reports bear constant testimony to the fact that the de- 
mand for cess schools has far outstripped tho ability of tho Department to 
supply them. IE only for this reason, it is desirable that greater encouragement 
should be given to the indigenous schools. But it must bo noticed that the 
Bombay indigenous institutions have repeatedly declined to submit to inspec- 
tion on tho terms hitherto offcied to them unless substantial aid is ghen to 
them* It must not thercfoie be assumed that the incorporation of indigenous 
schools into the departmental system will he as economical an arrangement 
as that in Bengal will presently bo shown to have been. It is unnecessary 
here to anticipate the course of this history by describing the progress made in 
providtng trained teachers and laying down definite standards of examination, 
measures which have done so much to keep up the efficiency of the State 
schools. But in one lespect the development of primary instruction in Bom- 
bay has tended m a direction wbich has been observed wifli regret. Tho local 
fund cess is contributed mainly by the rural community, and the municipal- 
ities have not availed themselves, so far as was hoped, of the permission which 
the law allows them of assigning municipal funds for the support of primary 
schools. The result has been that the greater share of the provincial assign- 
ment, which ought to be distributed between the towns and villages rateably 
in proportion to local resources, has been somewhat unfairly spent on the town 
schools. This result was anticipated in 1870, when the Director of^PubUc In- 
struction, Mr. Peile, warmly advocated the imposition of a compulsory iate for 
education on the town population. But the Local Government was unwilling, 
in view of the income tax nnd of the license tax subsequently imposed, to 
increase the burden o£ taxation. The inequabty has therefore not yet been 
redtessed. But the subject demands notice hcie, because it is the only complaint 
against the Bombay system, other than the alleged neglect of the indigenous 
schools and of private effort in primary education, which has been pressed by 
witnesses upon the attention of the Commission 

148, Bengal : System of primary Schools and primary Classes,— 

At the very outset it is necessary to explain a feature^ in the Bengal system of 
education which renders difficult a comparison of its results under any* class of 
education ovith those of Bombay, or of any other Province that has not 
adopted the same plan. In Bengal each class of school is in theory shaped to 
meet the wants of a different section of the population Thus the high and 
middle schools are intended to be complete in themselves, and they Contain 
boys in their lower classes veh.0 are only recmiag de^aluy ^duration. In 



CHAI?. IV.] fUIMAET EDUCATION. 93 

these schools, which arc in no sense of the word schools for the masses, the 
instruction given in the lower or primary classes is merely the elementary 
stage of an education which advances to the standard of a high school. It f s 
also more expensive than that given in strictly primary schools. Tor whereas 
the averago annual cost to tho State of educating each pupil in the ordinary 
Tillage school is only 10 annas per annum, the cost in the primary class of 
a secondary school is three times as high. Each description of school, in fact, 
is intended to provide for the complete education of a different class of 
society, and the standard consequently differs with the requirements of the 
stratum of society using tho school. In Bombay the town as well as the 
village primary school is devised to give the best possible primary educa- 
tion to all classes of society. Tho son of the cultivator, ttIio has no pros- 
pect of ever going to a secondary school, reads in the same class with the 
Brahman hoy who is destined to go up for the Matriculation examination. 
In Bengal the former would he content with the Tillage school and a much 
less ambitions course, while the latter would in places where a high school ex- 
isted learn his lessons in a different class-room of the same school in which 
he would continue to prosecute his studies up to the University Entrance ex- 
amination. Unless this fundamental difference of system is constantly borne in 
mind, a comparison between the statistics of primary and of secondary educa- 
tion in Bengal and those of other Provinces will b© very misleading. For 
instance, tho quality of the instruction conveyed in a Bengal indigenous 
school must not he judged by the standard required by the well-to-do classes of 
urban society who attend a cess school in Bombay, but who in Bengal would 
be found in the lower classes of a secondary school. On the other hand, the 
cost of education in a Bombay primary school, which performs a wider func- 
tion, must not be compared with that in a Bengal village school, the majority 
of whose pupils will advance no further. It would be unnecessary, according 
to the Bengal system, to raise the standard of instruction in a pathsala above 
tho requirements of the simple village folk. The large part which secondary 
schools in Bengal take in primary education may be inferred from the follow- 
ing figures. In high schools 39 per cent., in middle English schools 78 per 
cent., and in middle vernacular institutions S3 per cent, of the pupils are re- 
turned as being in the primary stage. In the rest of India these piipils under 
a different system would swell the ranks of attendance in primary schools, but 
in .Bengal and Assam they are classed as pupils attending high and middle 
schools respectively. 

149. Advantages and Disadvantages of the dual System.-The ques- 
tion has l)cen raised by the Bengal Government, " whether there may not he a 
" certain waste of power and needless expenditure of funds in the reproduction 
" in each higher grade school of every class of instruction given in all below " 
The Lieutenant-Governor observes that « where various grades of schools co- 
exist in the same locality, it seems a matter for doubt whether ^the > competi- 
tion of the present system produces more benefit than would &Dmr turn 
"a more definite and consistent division of labour/' The attention of the 
Commission was not invited to this question until the *™^<»Jj^ 
education had been closfc, and it was too lata to find fame for ito 
But it is a question to which incidental reference was ^ "f^JJ ^ 
the arguments advanced on both sides. Those who support the Bengal I ntern 

point out that to speak ^'^^^^SS^U^ 
" every class o£ instruction gi™n in all Mow js » <»"W ™ 
o£ that system, the sjecial feature o wlich « «■ «» ^l^r d£ 
copending stages of primary, middle, andln^ 

tinct. They argue that tbe present arrangement of attaciun, / 



92 EEPOBT Or THE EDUCATION COHMISSIOIT. [CHAP. IV. 

2 7^8 primary schools in Bombay, while m Madras there wcro only 89,702 
pupils in primary schools including the primary classes of high and middle 
schools. 

147. Bombay : Progress of primary Education -In the next ten yean 

the two Presidencies were to compete on equal terms so far as finance was 
concerned, But the Bombay Government adhered to its original policy, while 
in Madras education v\ as extended by stimulating private enterprise and by 
incorporating and improving the existing indigenous schools. The result was 
that by the beginning oE 1882 the relathe position ol the two Presidencies was 
reversed. The Bombay system was still instructing a larger proportion of the 
male population, hut while its numbers had rather more than doubled since 
1871, those in Madras had been quadrupled. The difference in their relative 
progress was not merely numerical : 87 per cent, of the 360,643 primary scholars 
m Madras were in aided or inspected schools, while 73 per cent, of the 332,688 
pupils in Bombay were attending departmental schools, exclusive of a large 
number of pupils in inspected schools, chiefly departmental schools in Native 
States. The annual reports bear constant testimony to the fact that the de- 
mand for cess schools his far outstripped the ability of the Department to 
supply them* If only for this reason, it is desirable that greater encouragement 
should he given to the indigenous schools. But it must he noticed that the 
Bombay indigenous institutions have repeatedly declined to submit to inspec- 
tion on the terms hitherto offered to them unless substantial aid is giten to 
them. It must not therefore be assumed that the incorporation of indigenous 
schools into the departmental system will be as economical an arrangement 
as that in Bengal will presently bo shown to have been. It is unnecessary 
here to anticipate the course of this history by describing the progress made in 
providing trained teachers and laj ing down definite standards of examination, 
measures which hive done so much to Lecp up the efficiency of the State 
schools But in one respect tha development of primary instruction in Bom- 
hay has tended in a direction which has heen observed with regret The local 
fund cess is contributed mainly by the rural community, and the municipal* 
Hies ksre mtsmiied themselves^ shj /ar s$ wtes hap&$ t of th\5 permission wfncfi 
the law allows them ol assigning municipal funds for the support of primary 
schools, The result has heen that the greater share of the provincial assign- 
ment, which ought to be distributed between the towns and villages rateably 
in proportion to local resources, has been somewhat unfairly spent on the town 
schools- This result was anticipated in 1870, when the Director oLPublic In- 
struction, 3d>* Peile, warmly advocated the imposition of a compulsory rate for 
education on the town population. But the local Government was unwilling, 
in view of the income tax and of the license tax subsequently imposed, to 
increase the burden of taxation, The inequality has therefore not yet been 
redressed But the subject demands notice here, because it is the only complaint 
against the Bombay system, other than the alleged neglect of the mdigenous 
schools and of private effort in primary education, which has been pressed by 
witnesses upon the attention of the Commission 

148. Bengal : System of primary Schools and primary Classes.— 

At the very outset it is necessary to explain a featured in the Bengal svstem of 
education which renders difficult a comparison of its results under any* class of 
education ovith those of Bombay, or of any other Province that has not 
adopted the same plan. In Bengal each class of school is in theory shaped to 
meet the wants of a different section of the population. Thus the high and 
middle schools are intended to be complete in themselves, and they contain 
hoys in their lower classes who are only receiving elementary education. In 



chat iv ] primary education 93 

these schools, which iro in no sense of the word schools for the masses the 
instruction gu en m the lower or primary classes is merely the elementary 
stage of an education wlucli advances to the standard of a high srfiool It is 
also more expensive than that given in strictly primary schoofs Tor whereas 
the average annual cost to the State of educating each pupd m the ordinary 
village school is only 10 annas per annum, the cost in the primary class of 
a secondary school is three times as high Each description of school, in fact, 
is intended to provido for the complete education of a different class of 
society, and the standard consequently differs with the requirements of the 
stratum of society using the school In Bombay the town as well as the 
village primary school is devised to give the best possible primary educa- 
tion to all classes of society The son of the cultivator, who has no pros 
pect of over going to a secondary school, reads in the same class with the 
Brahman hoy who is destined to go up for the Matriculation examination 
In Bengal the former would be content with the village school and a much 
less ambitious course, while the latter would m places where a high school ex 
isted learn his lessons in a different class-room of the same school in which 
he would continue to prosecute his studies up to the University Entrance ex- 
amination Unless this fundamental difference of system is constantly borne in 
mind, a comparison between the statistics of primary and of secondary educa 
tion m Bengal and those of other Provinces will be very misleading For 
instance, the quality of the instruction conveyed m a Bengal indigenous 
school must not bo 3udged by the standard required by the well-to do classes of 
urban society who attend a cess school in Bombay, hut who in Bengal would 
be found in tho lower classes of a secondary school On the other hand, the 
cost of education in a Bombay primary school, which performs a wider func 
tion, must not be compared with that in a Bengal village school, the majority 
of whose pupils will advance no further It would be unnecessary, according 
to the Bengal system, to raise the standard of instruction m a pathsala above 
the requirements of the simple village folk Tho large part which secondary 
sfclvwAs *n Bengal take m pfraorvry educator may \» vafested fwvm. flaa follow- 
ing figures In high schools 39 per cent , in middle English schools 78 per 
cent , and in middle vernacular institutions S3 per cent of the pupils are re 
turned as being in the primary stage In the rest of India these pupils under 
a different system would swell the ranks of attendance in pnmary schools, but 
in Bengal and Assam they ore classed as pupils attending high and middle 
schools respectively 

149 Advantages and Disadvantages of the dual System -The ques 

tion has heen raised by the Bengal Government, " whether there may not he a 
" certain waste of power and needless expenditure of funds m the reproduction 
" in each higher grade school of every class of instruction given m all below ' 
The Lieutenant-Governor observes that "where various grades of schools co- 
" exist in tho same locality, it seems a matter for doubt whether the compeh 
" tion of the present system produces more benefit than would follow from 
"a more definite and consistent division of labour" The attention of the 
Commission was not invited to this question untd the discussions on primary 
education had been c\os% and it was too late to find time for its 
But it is a question to wlch incidental reference was made and we may s ate 
the arguments advanced on both sides Those who support tba Bagd ystem 

joint out that to speal of « the » -^£5^^ 

" every class of instruction given m all below is to convey au w* 

of that system, the special feature of which as tha the courses oJ > study m 

corresponLg s'tages «? pnmary, middle, ^ S TO 

tmct They argue that the present arrangement of attacnm a a ^ * ^ j 



91 



KEPOliT OF THE EDUCATION* COiTMISSIO^ 



[chap K 



department to middle and high school^ and of keeping the strictly jmmatj 
schools distinct, is in full accordance with the definition of elementary cduca 
tion accepted in England, which is so framed as to exclude not only all schools 
in which a high fee is charged, but also the lower departments of schools teach 
ing to an advanced standard Again, in theBeport of the School Enquiry Com 
missioners to Her ilajesty, 1868, the following recommendations were made 
regarding the classification of schools "Education as distinguished from 
" direct preparation for employment can he classified as that which is to stop at 
" about fourteen thai which j$ to stop at about sixteen, md that which is to 
" continue till eighteen or nineteen , and for convenience sake we shall call these 
" the third, second, and first grade of education respectively " It is obvious that 
these distinctions correspond roughly, though by no means exactly, to the gratia 
tions of society Accordingly, in those Provinces, namely, Bengal and Assam, 
in which this system prevads, a marked distinction is drawn between " primary 
"instruction 1 'and" the primary stage of higher instruction /' and pupils m the 
latter stage are returned as belonging to secondary, and not to primary schools 
As the pupils in primary schools, and those m the primary classes of secondary 
schools, aim at a different class of education, and belong to different grades 
of society! it is both economical and logical to recognise this distinction at 
the outset of their educational career The instruction suited to the earlier 
stages of a course which is to continue for nine or ten years, and to end in the 
University, is not that which will best enable a village boy to tike care of bis 
own interests m his own station of life after three or four years at school By 
instituting separate schools with distinct courses of instruction, village boys 
come to regard the village school course as complete m itself , by uniting them 
and thus compelling all pupils, whatever their future destination, to pass 
through the same elementary course, the mischievous tendency to regard 
primary education as a fragment of higher education and a stepping stone to 
it, is confirmed The division of labour is most consistently carried out when 
this distinction is maintained , and no competition can exist between schools 
teaching different courses and levying very different rates of fees Boys in the 
primary department of a high school pay fees at the rate of one or two rupees 
a month, and sometimes more , that is, ten times as high as the fee m a pri- 
mary school They pay for better supervision, better discipline, a higher tone, 
and the prestige of reading m an advanced school This system therefore 
most effectually carries out the requirement of the Despatches, that those 
who arc able to pay should gradually be induced to pay more towards the cost 
of their education Consequently the lower classes of such schools pay largely 
for the cost of tho upper , md hence m Bengal there are more high schools 
aided md unaided, under private management than m all the rest of India put 
together If the high schools were limited to the upper classes reading for the 
Entrance examination, there would bo an immediate diminution in the fee- 
receipts of all high schools, and the effect on private enterprise w ould bo that 
tho great majonty of non departmental schools would have to b rt closed through 
inability to pay their way The great unaided colleges of Calcutta support 
themscHes lirgcly by the surplus fees o£ their school departments Lastly, it 
is urged, that m Bengal, where this system has picvailcd from the first, there 
has been no opposition to it from any quarter of the Province, and that it has 
received the cotdial support of private managers The advantages of the exist- 
ing system were fully discussed by the Government of Bengal, in its letter to 
the Government of India >o 1603, dated 12th June 1870, and Ko 177, dated 
20th February 1870, where it was urged that any change in the existing 
system \fonld l>e little short of disastrous Such arc the arguments by ^hich 
the Bengal system is supported On the other hand, those of us who object to 



cnAT. rv.] rniaiAr.Y education 

It, assail it on the grounds both of finance and of admimstrafion It is 
that there must he a Trasto of money and of power, no matter lunr cSrc 
fully the system 5s organised, in employing the superior masters of a 
sceom\zry school to teach children elementary knowledge; and further that it 
hecomes impossible to distinguish the cost of secondary from that of primary 
education. In particular the real cost of educating in Bengal a secondary 
pupil becomes obscured ^rhen, as shown above, 39 per cent, of the attendance 
in high schools, 78 of that in middle English schools, and 83 of that in middle 
vernacular schools belong to the primary classes, TVhen the cost of educating 
each pupil in each of these classes of schools is divided by the average 
monthly attendance, the cost is unfairly diminished in comparison Trith 
the cost of educating a pupil of the same class in other Provinces. This 
matter will appear more clearly when the Commission has to deal with the 
subject of grants-in-aid and withdrawal in Chapter VIII. Again, it h argued 
that it is an advantage to associate all primary pupils in the same class 
of institution, and that defects in the system of primary education are thus 
brought to light and the progress of society is reflected in ths progressive 
standards of primary education. To this last argument it is rephed that the 
Bengal system of primary education seeks above all other objects to keep down 
the standard to the requirements of the masses, and not to raise it hy consider- 
ing the wants of the well-to-do classes who are not, properly speaking, the 
masses. In this conflict of views, and considering that no opportunity was 
given to the Commission of arriving at a definite conclusion on the subject, we 
have refrained from expressing an opinion, TVe consider that the matter must 
he settled by each Local Government. At the same time we must observe 
that although Bengal and Assam are not the only Provinces in which primary 
classes are attached to secondary schools, yet it is only in these two Provinces 
that the pupils attending such classes and the cost of their education are 
shown under secondary instruction, TTe irould also call attention to our 
Recommendation given in Chapter V, on secondary education, which is as 
follows: "That high and middle schools he united in the returns under the 
single term * secondary schools/ and that the classification of students in all 
secondary schools, according to the stage of instruction, be provided for in a 
separate Table, showing the stage of instruction, whether primary, middle, 
or upper, of pupils in all schools of primary and secondary education." 



u 
ft 
if 



150. Bengal : History of primary Education in four Periods.— Both 

in Madras and in Bombay, from the time that the Government seriously under- 
took to extend primary education, its progress under different systems lias 
proceeded upon uniform lines of policy. In Bengal, on the contrary, various 
methods havo from time to time been adopted ; and it is necessary to consider 
the subject under four divisions. These divisions necessarily overlap, and crcn 
when one system was being diligently followed, others were not entirely 
disregarded. Apart from the expediency of applying several methods to the 
solution of the difficult and important task of infusing a new bfe into the 
indigenous system without destroying its vitality or usefulness, there were 
special obstacles in Bengal which from the outset stood m the way of any 
sustained policy. Primary education bad no financial basis of its own. It 
depended not on local rates, but on the share of provincial and 
rributions which could be spared for it. The first divmon m the history wo are 
about to consider commences with 1855 *™L™ ^ to lS?5 ffoe «£ maI 
years tha "circlo system" was in^ f^ved heprelnaetoits 
*' school system" was persevered in, but its very J ™™ipd rn 

d.^JW ,8^.8,5. to .^£^^K££ 

the basis of a system of stipends and 2» ormal classes, a a : 



0Q KDPOM Or THE ETJTTCATION COMMISSION- [ CUAI\ IT. 

rapid development proved to he too costly, and was thought to ho in other res- 
pects unsuitable ; and while the general policy of its founder was continued m 
Lay particulars, the stipendiary system was generally cstaged for that 
form of the system of payment hy results which is still maintained. 

151, Bengal: Tirat Period from 1855 to 1862--We have already re- 
ferred in Chapter IL to the enquiries prosecuted by Mr. Adam in 1835 and the 
views entertained hy Hacaulay as President of the General Committee of Pub- 
lic Instruction in Calcutta. But no systematic or widespread attempts to worl 
upon the indigenous schools of Bengal were commenced befoie 1855- In that 
year the " circle system " was introduced, under which improvement was aimed 
at hy employing and paying certain State pandits, each of whom was attached 
to a circle of three or four village schools under their own gurus or masters. 
The gurus received grants equal to those earned by their pupils, every one of 
whom on attaining a certain standard was rewarded according to Ins progress. 
It was this system to which reference was madb by the Court of Directors in 
paragraph 31 of their Despatch of 1859, when they wrote "this plan has so far 
" been found very successful, and it 19 proposed to extend it to others of the 
" educational divisions," It was so extended especially in the Eastern and 
Central Divisions of Bengal, and m 1860-61, 172 schools giving instruction to 
7,73 1 pupils had been brought under improvement But it was felt that 
even this progress was too slow, and that it would taLe an almost indefinite 
time to improve the vast network of indigenous schools, "While therefore a 
policy of improvement was not abandoned, it was sought to secure a greater 
quantity and not inferior quality of primary instruction by other methods. 

152. Bengal: Second Period from 1862 to 1872 —Accordingly, m 

1862, Sir John Peter Grant decided to substitute a system of District training 
schools and fixed stipends for the " circle system " Tinder the new scheme, which 
uas generally called the " Normal school system/' a guru, or his relative or pi 0- 
bable successor, was sent to a Normal school with a stipend of Us. 5 a month, 
under a written engagement with the village that after a year's training he would 
be received as the teacher with a guaranteed income of not less than Its 5. The 
course of studies at the training school included reading, writing, and arith- 
metic, as well as accounts and mensuration up to the full indigenous standard. 
Elementary geography and history and the art of teaching were also taught. 
Babu Bhoodob Mookerjea, an experienced Inspector of Schools, who devised 
and carried out the system, estimated that it w r ould be possible in fourteen 
ycaia to get 1,000 schools supplied with improved teachers. The plan was 
in entire accordance with the orders of the Court of Directors, which had 
dwelt much on the want of competent masters for all classes of schools. 
After a trial of two years there were 377 improved schools educating 12,000 
pupils, and the new scheme wa$ extended into six more Districts, of u hich 
Midnapur was one. Meanwhile the "circle system 11 and other plans were 
not neglected. That the "Normal school system" succeeded m raising the 
tone of the indigenous schools was made evident by complaints loudly ex- 
pressed in 1 866 that the village schools were rising above the traditional level 
of the wants of the classes for whom they were intended It was alleged 
that they liad ceased to be schools for the masses. On the other hand it was 
contended that the indigenous schools of Bengal were never meant to be exclu- 
sively schools for the masses, whose wants, however, were adequately supplied 
by them. A comparison instituted at this time between the attendance in the 
halkahaudi schools oE the Agra circle in the Northwestern Provinces and the 
pithsalas of Burdwan in Bengal showed that in the former only 3 g per cent* 
of the pup*U belonged to the labouring classes against 67 per cent, in the latter! 



CKAT, IT.] * PRI3IAKT EDtFCAUOJT. gy 

In tlio nest year tlio constantly recurring difficulty of sustained pro^ss was 
demonstrated by flio Orissa famino. Educational grants were at that period 
provided from imperial revenues. In consequence of the famine these grants 
were reduced and no further provision was sanctioned for tho development of 
the formal school system. I n this condition of affairs the Supreme Govern- 
ment interposed. It has already hecu noticed that the Note on the educational 
system of India prepared hy Mr. Howell induced the Government of India to 
call the attention of the Madras Government to the need of placing the develop, 
meut of primary education upon a more secure financial basis by the imposition 
of local rates. Tho events which we have -reviewed afforded indications of a 
similar necessity in Bengal. Notwithstanding constant interruptions, some- 
thing had undoubtedly been done to improve the indigenous schools, hut the 
progress was felt to bo insufficient. The old doctrine of « downward filtra- 
" tion," which Iiad been accepted in Calcutta, still found powerful supporters, 
and so late as 1 865 the Director of Public Instruction had written as follows : 
" The education of the lower orders of society should assuredly not he ne- 
" glected ; but it is a primary condition of the spread of education among all 
"classes that full provision should first be made for the education of that 
" class on which depends the education of all the rest." ■While tins doctrine 
influenced the Head of tho Department, it was natural that the weight of 
financial pressure should fall on primary education. One remedy would 
have been to adopt tho plan followed in Northern India and in Bombay, 
and to create a special local fund for the extension of education amongst 
tho poorer classes of the community. Accoidingly on 25th April 1868 a 
letter was addressed to the Bengal Government by the Government of 
India which contained the following contrast : " In Bengal, with a population 
" that probably exceeds 40 millions, the total number of pupils in the lower class 
"Government and aided schools was in 1866-67 on ly 39j io 4« I n the North- 
" "Western Provinces, with a population under 30 millions, the number of pupils 
"in schools of a similar class was 125,394. In Bombay, with a population of 
" 16 millions, the number was 29,i8p. In the Punjab, with a jjojiulation of 1^ 
"millions, it was 62,355. In the Central Provinces, with a population of 8£ 
"millions, it was 22,600. Nor does there seem to be any probability that these 
"proportions will hereafter become more favourable to Bengal, although the 
" measures that have lately been taken for the encouragement of vernacular 
" education by means of the system of training masters in the so-called indi- 
" genous schools have been more or less successful. The Go\ ernor General in 
" Council feels that it would not be right to evade any longer the responsibility 
" which properly falls on the> Government, of providing that the means of ob- 
"tainiDg at least an elementary education shall be made accessible to the people 
" of Bengal. He feels that this responsibility must be accepted in this as in 
" other Provinces, not only as one of tho highest duties which we owe to the 
"country, but because among all the sources of difficulty in our administration, 
" and of possible danger to the stability of our Government, there are few so 
"serious as the ignorance of the people." It may bo observed that the pupils in 
the primary classes of middle and high schools in Bengal were not included 
in the above comparison. The Government of India proceeded to impress upon 
the Lieutenant-Governor the necessity for imposing a compulsory rate on tiie 
landholders of Bengal in order to provide funds for the necessary extension of 
education. This proposal led to further correspondence, but owing to difficulties 
which it is beyond tho scope of the Commission's enquiries to discuss, no local 
rate for education has up to tho present time been imposed. 

The want of adequate funds created insuperable difficulties in the w*y of 
further aiding and improving the indigenous schools. Still some progress^ was 



+ 

Q g StlPOliT or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION, [CHAP, iy. 

reported. In 1868*69 the lower schools were returned as 1,797 with 52,688 
pupils, besides 252 schools with 7,932 pupils under the grant-in-aid rules: of 
these, 1,393 4°'5°° puP Us were improved pathsalns* The whole outlay on 
education from public funds was hardly more than one per cent, of the revenues 
of Bengal, Two years later the financial pressure again induced the local 
Government to reduce even this grant, and thus in 1870-71 the attendance at the 
lower schools had sunk to 52,231 pupils, besides 7,387 in the grant-in-aid 
schools* The general position of elementary education in Bengal in 18707 1 has 
been thus summarised by the present Director of Public Instruction : " Some 
** 2,000 Tillage schools, with an average attendance of 26 pupils, had up to that 
" date heen taken in hand and supplied with trained teachers of a superior stamp 
" to the old gurus of the country, whilst their course of instruction had been 
" improved by the introduction of printed books and systematic arithmetic* In 
"these, as in the pathsalas of the original type, hoys of the middle and lotver 
" classes read together in nearly equal proportions, and consequently under the 
" new Bystem the masses were touched to some appreciable extent The result 
** of the introduction of trained teachers was that the course of instruction in 
* c many, perhaps in most cases, passed sooner or later beyond the simple standard 
*' at first proposed, and geography and history, together with the more advanced 
* ( portions of arithmetic, were taught. The improved pathsalaa were hardly dis- 
" tmguishahle from middle schools, and in order to identify them still more closely 
with that class, and to connect them with the general scheme of education, a 
system of scholarships was proposed for their benefit, though the concession was 
" not yet granted. The teachers being paid fixed stipends, there was no systema- 
Cf tic examination of scholars by prescribed standards for the purpose of determin* 
" ing the amount of Goyerament aid The scheme was in its earlier yeais 
" confined to nine Districts, but it was afterwards extended to the whole of Bengal* 
** The indigenous schools of the country were recognised exactly in so far as 
" they were taken up into this system." The complete figures for 31st March 
187 1 for Bengal and Assam show that the organised system of primary education 
included 47 Government schools and 2,430 aided indigenous schools, which 
were altogether attended by 68,044 scholars. These figures excluded the 
hoys attending primary classes in the middle and high schools, and 499 
pupils in unaided schools under inspection. According to a calculation made 
in 1881 the number of scholars in secondary schools in Bengal, who in 1871 
were attending primary classes in Government and aided schools, was 57,945,80 
that the total number of children, whether belonging to the upper or lower 
classes of society, whose primary education was assisted by the State, only 
amounted to 126,488, — a number which fell short of the attendance in the 
departmental schools of Bombay on the same date. But later and more com* 
plctc enquiries show that about 6,500 more pupils in primary classes should bo 
added to the estimates made in i88i,and with this addition the primary pupils 
in Bengal in 1871 numbered about 133,000 in all classes of schools known to 
the Department against about 160,000 in the similar institutions in Bombay, 

153. Bengal: third Period : Sir (J. Campbell's Resolution.— It need 

not therefore occasion surprise that a radical change of system was demanded. 
The proposal to create a local fund for education was not carried out, but Sir 
Georgo Campbell, in a Besolution, dated 30th September 1872, declared it to bo 
the great object of his administration to extend education amongst the masses, 
and he assigned four lakhs of rupees in order to mate a commencement. 
The controversy, which had arisen regarding the upward growth of the improved 
pathsalas and the alleged conversion of schools for the masses into middle 
schools for the middle classes, gave a distinctive shape to the new policy, and the 
Bengal system is in very marked contrast to the systems which we have 



chap it] 



PEIMAUT EDUCATION 



99 



already described The urns of the Bengal Government were thus described 
"The Lieutenant-Governor's wish is that the money now granted should 
" bo used to encourage and develope m rural Tillages proper indigenous edaca- 
" tion,— that is, reading, writing, and Trithmetic, m the real indigenous language 
"and chuacterof each Provinee, Arithmetic and writing are 

" the mam subjects in which the people desire instruction, and many books 
" will not be used , those that are used will he of the simplest and cheapest 
" description . It is quite clear that if rural schools are to be 

"popular among ordinary villagers, the teachers must be of the old gurumahasay 
"class, or must come from the same social and intellectual stratum "What is 
"wanted is to teach ordinary village boys enough to enable them to take care 
" of their own interests in their own station of life, as petty shop keepers, 
" small landholders, ryots, handicraftsmen, weavers, village headmen, boatmen, 
" fishermen, and what not It is beyond all things desirable not to import at 
" village schools that kind of teaching whioh, in a transition state of society, 
"might induce boys to think themselves above manual labour or ordinary 
"village work To the really able boys at pathsalas opportunities for ad 
" vancement will bo offered by a chain of scholarships, the garners of which 
" can pass through the several grades of schools up to a University degree One 
"valuable means of providing that the ordinary pafchsala course of study shall 
"be confined to reading and writing the vernacular, to simple and mental 
" arithmetic, and to a knowledge of mensuration and the native system of land 
" survey, will bo a regulation that proficiency in these subjects only will be 
"required for pithsili scholarships 1 By these means it was hoped that a 
gradual improvement of the indigenous schools would be secured without too 
rapid an alteration in their method or subjects of instruction A more power- 
ful influence in the same direction was supplied by the order that no grant to 
a village school should exceed Rs 5 a month " Perhaps an allowance of 
" Es 2 or Ks 3 a month will in many cases suffice " It is important in view 
of subsequent events to remember that Sir George Campbell regarded an 
annual grant of Us 24 as the minimum grant which could secure the object 
at which, he aimed 

That the present masters were inefficient was admitted, and the Resolu- 
tion remarked that it would be useless to summon the very old school- 
masters to the Normal classes " Old men of that stage have done much 
"good in their time, they are popular with the villagers, and they manage 
"their schools fairly well, if new acquirements or modes of teaching are 
"required they will come with the next generation of village schoolmasters 
"But it will probably be desirable to bring into the Normal classes the younger 
"and newly appointed village schoolmasters For the present it will be 
necessary to perfect villige schoolmasters m reading and wnting the printed 
character, of which (in Beharat any rate) they are often ignorant, to 
instruct them m the best modes of teaching simple and mental arithmetic to 
'improve their knowledge and power of teaching mensuration and accounts 
"J to enable them to understand and teach ^J^^*^ 

"on these latter subjects" We ^V^^^^^^^X 

passing future schoolmasters through the Norma ™? 

but thS scheme of Sir George Campbell laid great stress upon ^he p»cge, 

,nd he proposed that a Normal school or J ^ung eta 

lished not only at the head quarters of "^^^^te. to work 

sub divisions Great latitude was given to the District iuag^ 

out the details of the new scheme 

Por the tot tm. » «* h-siory of lta|d . fa* «-> 



(C 

tt 



100 



BEPOTtT OF THE THnJCAMOK COMMISSION, 



was now siren to primary education out of the provincial grant, There were 
no local rates, and therefore no local committees. Over the greater part of 
Ben^l not a single school hail to be created. In almost every village, it this 
asserted, a school of some sort existed- The task of the Magistrate was 
simple, lie was to mate his money go as far as lie could, and transfer 
existing schools and scholars from the outer circle of an indigenous system 
into the inner circle of improved public primary schools* A gradual irn* 
provement of the indigenous schoolmasters had been aimed at under the 
(< circle system," and continued under the "Kormal school 5 * or "pathsala 
"system." It was also a leading feature in the new plan laid down hy 
Sir George Campbell, But at the same time the Lieutenant-Governor had 
expressed fears of raising too rapidly the level of primary education, and had 
enjoined cautious progress in the training of masters. His caution was suggested 
not merely by the expense which such training involved, hut by the consi- 
deration that a scheme built on the indigenous schools could not be secure 
unless the schools retained their popularity. Hasty improvement might prove 
fatal to their existence. So far was this principle carried that in the follow- 
ing year, 1873, the pathsalas that had been improved under former systems 
were, like those newly*aided, placed in the hands and under the control 
of District officers^ with instructions to work them into the general system. 
The immediate result of these last orders may be briefly indicated. The 
improved pathsalas, which on the 31st March 1873 were 2,161, fell in the 
following years to 2,070, 1,878, and 1,745, ^bis last was the number in 1876, 
when the two classes of schools were finally amalgamated, and the distinction 
disappeared from the returns. In fact, Sir George Campbell believed that the 
course m the improved pathsalas was unduly high, and that so far as they 
existed they were an obstacle to the spread of genuine primary education 
among the masses of the people- The warning that the teachers must at 
the outset deviate as little as possible from the accepted modes of teaching 
was renewed; and the Lieutenant-Governor in 1873 diew the attention of all 
District Committees and Magistrates to the following extract from a leport 
by Mr, S C, Bayley, Commissioner of Patna: "I think it cannot be too 
f r much impressed on those who will have to work the new scheme that 
" pathsalas are to remain pathsalas ; that maps, books, and furniture arc not the 
" first requisites, neither are registers and a variety of subjects ; but the essential 
" point is to tale advantage of such teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic 
"as we find in existence, and endeavour gradually to improve it, not to substi- 
tute something (better perhaps, but u holly different) which the people do not 
want, or if they do want, cannot pay for/* Mr. Bayley also bore testimony 
to the advantages of Normal schools for improving the teachers of indigenous 
schools. 

154, Bengal: the Hidnapur System —In the same year, 1873, the com- 
plaint, that the people refused to pay their accustomed fees to thoso gurus it ho 
received aid from Government, was made in all parts of Bengal. It was said 
that people argued that as the Government now paid the guru, there was no 
reason why they should contribute to his support to the same extent as before ; 
and accordingly they reduced their contributions in some proportion to the 
amount which the guru received from Government, TVith this drawback, the 
newly aided pathsalas were declared on all hands to have been a great success, 
and to have been received by the people v ith much cordiality* The Midnapur 
system 0! aiding primary schools, which had already received the approval of Sir 
George Campbell, now came into prominent notice. It substituted the annual 
examination of pupils at fixed centres, together with rewards after examina- 
tion, for inspection of schools tn situ and regular monthly stipends. The 



101 



ciur. rv.] PBiitAET edtjcation. 

general subjects of oxamhaation were reading, writing, and written and mental 
arithmetic ; and a reward of four annas was given for passing in each suhiecL 
besides eight annas for bazar and zamindari accounts, and one rupee for 
land-mcasurmg. A rupee was also given to each indigenous schoolmaster for 
every quarterly return submitted. This system spread the amount of the Dis- 
trict grant over a large circle of schools, and was much cheaper than that of 
fixed stipends. It was also reported to be most popular with the villagers 
teachers, and pupils. Accordingly in the following year, 1874, attention was' 
called to this scheme by Sir- Richard Temple, who described it as the most 
effectual means of improving the indigenous schools, while maintaining them as 
places of genuine primary education. In fact, the outcry that the^lla^ers 
habitually reduced their fees in. proportion to the amount of the stipend had 
now become so loud, that it was considered necessary to devise means for 
checking tho evil. Tho Midnapur system seemed to offer such a means. When 
aid was given, not in the form of monthly stipends, but as a distinct reward of 
success coining once a year, tho people had much less excuse to retrench their 
payments. The system was also most economical. "While the average rate of 
aid to each pathsala in Bengal was about Rs. 25 a year, little of which was 
thought to find its way to the pocket of the guru, in Midnapur the average 
yearly rate was Es, 7 (in sums varying from Us. 2 or Us. 3 to Bs. 50), which 
at any rate was a clear gain to him. It was also maintained that tho system 
involved no loss of efficiency. There was plenty of education, it was urged, 
abroad in Bengal ; and if tho standard of instruction in primary schools was 
kept strictly at Sir Georgo Campbell's level, tho gurus— no longer itinerant, 
as so many of them had formerly been, but stationary and having a new and 
definite incentive to improvement — could work up to it without difficulty. 
Those who could not do so were held to be incapable of improvement under 
any system, and must be gradually replaced in course of time by better educated 
men. All this had an obvious hearing on the Normal school system ; and it 
will bo shown in a subsequent paragraph how it soon led to a great reduc- 
tion in the number of Normal schools. 

The development of tho aided pathsalas continued to advanco on two 
different lines, some District officers being anxious to raise the schools to some- 
thing like the old departmental level, while others rigidly confined even the 
best of them to Sir George Campbell's standard. In a Resolution dated Janu- 
ary 1876, Sir Richard Temple, in again drawing attention to the success of the 
Midnapur scheme, remarked of a District in which the aided pathsalas had 
reached a high standard of excellence, that the system therein pursued did not 
appear to provide sufficiently for that education of the masses which it was 
the main object of the primary school fund to encourage and assist. It was 
nevertheless maintained that the policy of Government was not only to extend 
primary education among the lower classes of the people, especially the agri- 
cultural classes, but also to gradually improve its organisation and quality 
The results attained by the system were summed up as follows : " Primary 
"education has for the first time been organised, regular hours and a fixed 
"course of study have been introduced, and a commencement at least has 
" been made of giving village schoolmasters the advantago of Normal school 
" training The result has been, not only that the standard of education 
" has been improved and rendered progressive, but that these primary schools 
" now attract classes of the population who previously scarcely came under 
" instruction at all." 

155. Bengal : fourth *eriod: farther Development of the System- 

The tendency of the best of the aidedpathsalas to rise above Sir Georgo Campbell s 



102 



K.EFOHT OF THE EDUCATION COilMISSlON, 



[CHAP, IV, 



S 



standard could not, however, be altogether checked ; and it was known that a 
considerable number had reached a higher standard. It was also known that 
many of the old departmental pathsalas had, under the attractions of the primary 
scholarship and the disfavour Tvith Tvhich they were often regarded by tho 
District officer, come down to the primary standard. To meet both cases, Sir 
Richard Temple established in 1876 a new class of schools intermediate between 
the primary and middle, whose course was fixed by the creation of a nevr 
class of scholarship styled " lower vernacular." The standard for the scholar* 
ships was higher than that of the old departmental pathsalas, and included 
the Bengali language, the history and geography of Bengal, arithmetic, the 
1st Book of Euclid, and elementary physics; and the scholarships were 
thrown open to all pathsalas of whatever origin. On a reference made by 
the Director as to the classification of these schools, it was ordered that 
"they sliould undoubtedly rank under secondary and not under primary 
" instruction,*' It has already been explained under what circumstances these 
lower vernacular schools have since been taken up into the primary system 
under the name of <( upper primary schools/ 1 But neither at this nor at any 
other time was it intended that the new standard should be that at which the 
general body of primary schools should aim- This point is emphasised in 
the Resolution on the Educational Report for 1876-77, in which the follow- 
ing occurs: "It must be distinctly understood that it is not the policy 
ft of the Government to convert the pathsalas into cheap middle schools " 
The system of payment by results was again recommended for general adop- 
tion, as affording the best means of securing " the progress of the general 
u body of pupils " The year had been signalised by a serious reduction in the 
primary grant arising from financial pressure; and the manner in which 
the primary schools had stood the test was pointed to as showing the sound- 
ness of the system. The following figures show the number of schools which 
up to this time had been established or incorporated into the organised system, 
excluding the attendance in the primary classes of secondary schools : — 



Tear 


Schools 


Scholar? 


1870-71 


2,486 


68,044 






205,934 


'873-74 ...... 


13,229 


3°3i437 


1874*75 


*3.i45 


330*024 


i875*7 6 




357* 3 33 


1876-77 • . 


13,966 

1 


360,513 



It appears from these figures that the number of schools aided from the 
primary grant did not increase very gseaAiy dvomg tfas \s&t iow years of the 
period to which it refers. Throughout the subsequent period it will be seen 
that the increase went on at a rapid and surprising rate. This was the natural 
result of the exhortations conveyed to District Magistrates in the success™ 
Resolutions of Government, urging them to substitute the cheaper system of 
payment by results for that of fised stipends. In 1877-78 it ynt stated that 



CHAP. TV. 3 



PllIlTARr BDirCATIOV. 



nearly bait tho Districts of Bengal had introduced the results system The 
following figures show how rapid was the increase up to 1881-8*, by which time 
it had practically superseded the other all over Bengal. They also show the 
cost to the State at which these numerical results wai* nHt*;*..^ _ 



Year 


1 

Schools 


Pupils. 


Expenditure 


1876-77 


13,966 




Rs 
3.75 °°o 


1S77 78 . 


^7.395 


406,135 


3 35.M9 


i8;S-79 * , 


2 4>354 


489,518 


3 99 200 


rS7g 80 


304M 


587.992 


3.88.635 


1SS0-S1 , . ♦ , , 


37 5°i 

/ 


671,723 


4,07,286 


1881^3 

.. .. 1 


47,402 







In the last year of this period, the primary grant had been increased 
hy more than a lakh of rupees ; but even with this addition the average grant 
to each aided school amounted to little more than Bs ua year, while Sir George 
Campbell's lowest estimate of the assistance which any indigenous school 
should receive was Rs. 24 a year, and he laid down Rs. 60 as a maximum 
grant. It may be observed that in no other Province of India is so small a grant 
given to the indigenous schools, and that in the adjoining Province of Assam the 
percentage of the cost of aided primary schools home by public funds is 64 per 
cent- against 26 per cent, in JSengaL A further development of the system of 
payment by results ^was effected by the introduction of the "chief guru'* system 
m 1S77, The most competent and influential of the village teachers within a 
given area is selected by the Inspector as f f chief guru/' and in that capacity he 
has to supervise some 20 or 30 patbsalas lying within a radius of five miles from 
his school. He draws no salary from Government beyond what is paid by vray 
of stipend to the pathsala which he teaches ; but he receives a small allowance 
m proportion to the number of schools visited. He distributes his timg 
between teaching his own pathsala, which is to serve as a model for the whole 
neighbourhood, and inspecting those subordinate to him, with which by long 
habit he is thoroughly familiar. He collects Teturns and is responsible for their 
accuracy; he summons pathsalas to central gatherings, distributes registers, books, 
and rewards to teachers or pupils, and generally acts as an intermediate agent 
between the Department and the village schools. The system supplies a close 
network of organisation, and has been found rery effective m discovering the 
smallest village schools hid in the remotest corners of Districts, The object of 
Government being to raise and strengthen the indigenous system of education 
rather than to replace it by another of its own devising, the employment of 
agents drawn from the general body of gurus to assist it in carrying out that 
policy is believed to establish a more intimate connection between the Govern- 
ment and popular education ; while it is hoped that hmll strengthen the confi- 
dence of the people in the system and offer a definite object of ambition to the 
best of the indigenous teachers. 

156. Bengal System : (xeneral View.-Ti? Bengal system of primary 

education is therefore based entirely upon the existing indigenous schools. Its 



104 



HEP0RT OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. 



declared policy towards them lias been, first, to win their confidence, and then, 
secondly, to cautiously and gradually introduce necessary improvements. Any 
rapid improvement or elevation o£ their standard has been studiously avoided 
It has been already stated that the Government of Bengal were strongly 
opposed to the inclusion of lower vernacular schools in the primary system. 
In a letter to the Government of India, dated 20th February 1879, it expressed 
the opinion that " the definition o£ primary instruction should be confined 
<f to reading, writing, and arithmetic; and that no substantive instruction as 
" such (i, e*> as a special subject, and in addition to any information that the 
"standard reading-book may furnish) should form part of the standard" 
This passage defines the view which the Government of Bengal has taken 
since 1872 of the scope of primary education. That view is held by the 
Bengal Government to be in accordance with the Despatch of 1854, and it 
follows the policy laid down in the orders of Sir George Campbell. It will 
have been gathered from the foregoing sketch that the object of Govern- 
ment has been to give the masses of the people useful however elementary, 
instruction in the schools which they themselves created and maintained, and in 
the form in which they are said still to desire it. The schools are declared to be 
village schools, established and maintained by the people for the people ; and the 
Government contribution, small as it is, is a subsidy paid to the schoolmasters 
as an inducement to them to teach, and as a reward for teaching, those subjects 
of elementary liberal instruction which find no place in the ordinary course 
of the village pathsala. It is believed that any attempt to raise the schools 
as a body above the lower primary standard would bo to drive away those pupils 
whom above all others it desires to attract* At the same time, the general im- 
provement of the pathsalas is not wholly neglected ; and it is effected partly by 
the substitution, as opportunity offers, of younger and better -educated teachers, 
and as a consequence thereof, by the introduction of new subjects of study* 
serving to connect the pathsalas with the general educational system of the 
Province, and by encouraging the rise of selected schools to the upper standard. 
The motive to improvement is supplied, not only by the small rewards that are 
earned at the annual gatherings, but by inspection, by the stimulus of a com- 
petitive examination, by the award of scholarships, and perhaps in a still 
higher degree by the knowledge which the people in every village of Bengal 
have acquired, that the Government interests itself in their schools, desires 
them to prosper, and is eager to co-operate with them in their improvement. 

157. Bengal: Educational Eesulta in 1882-—^ have reviewed at 

considerable length the Bengal system, because in respect to the small grants by 
which its large numerical results axe obtained and in regard to its practical 
abandonment of the principle of training teachers in Normal schools, its advan- 
tages have often been contested. "We have therefore been anxious to show the 
merits claimed for it, and the approval which its development has received from 
the local authorities, The difficult task of incorporating the indigenous schools 
into the State system is one which we have recommended to the attention of 
the various Governments, and it will serve good purpose to explain upon what 
foundations the Bengal primary system is based. Our Becommendations 
given at the end of this Chapter will show in what respects we consider that 
that system requires improvement. It is only necessary here to conclude our 
review by offering a few remarks on the statistics for the year with which we 
are mainly .concerned. Excluding 2,709 indigenous schools with nearly 41,000 
pupils, which divided between them a grant of Us. 4,272 for the whole year, 
paid for the mere submission of returns, there Were in 1881-82, 898,389 children, 
male and female, who were receiving instruction in primary schools either 
maintained, aided, or inspected by the Department. This was an increase in 



it 
It 



CHAI" XV | FEniAlLT EDUCATION j 05 

the school* aided under the various systems of about 125,000 children m a 
single year These numbers exclude the attendance in the primary c la«es of 
secondary schools But even so, the 51,778 schools thus brought into the 
State system of pnoniy education represent three different chases of institu. 
turn Of them only 28 are wholly maintained by Government, and arc sztu- 
atcd in backward tracts of country Each pupil educated m them cost public 
funds nearly Us 4 per annum The aided indigenous schools numbering 47 374 
were educating 835435 pupils, each of whom cost pubbc funds about 1 1 annas 
per annum They come under some one or other of the various systems of aid 
which have been described Besides the*e there Ttere 4,376 unaided schools 
attended by 62,038 pupils which m the words of the Provincial Report have 
been "cut out in the couTse of the year from the quarry of indigenous path- 
" salas, and hive either adopted the departmental standards or attended the 
pubbc examination'; without receiving any aid " The strength of the Bengal 
system lies in the aided indigenous schools, and we shall presently enquire 
mto the quality of instruction imparted in them But it may be mentioned 
hue that in 1S76 out of 338 000 pupils in such schools 110,000 could read 
eaij sentences in a printed book In 1882 out of more than 820,000 pupils 
316,558 could read It is to be remembered that the schools taken up mto the 
system are schools m which there is httle or no reading of a printed book, 
and that any considerable increase under that head makes a clear gam to the 
general instruction of the people 

1 58 North-Western provinces and Ondh • Primary System —It has 

been explained m Chapter II that primary education m the ^orth TTfttern Fro 
vmces began with an attempt to improve and multiply the indigenous schools 
which llr Thomason's enquiries, made between J 845 and 1830, showed to 
exi!>t in very considerable numbers throughout the Provinces Mr Thom- 
ason's general object was to distribute as evenly as possible a network 
of schools over the whole country His special object was, while preserving 
as far as j>ossible the traditional method of instruction, to make zt more 
practical, and so to enable the agricultural population to understand the 
rights assured to them under the settlements of the land revenue In the eight 
Districts selected for experiment tahsih schools at the head quarters of each 
tahsi dan were established is models, and a staff of inspecting officers or 
pargana and zila visitors as they were then called, was entertained The duty 
of the pargana visitors was '« to visit all the towns and principal villages m 
" their jurisdictions, and to ascertain what means of instruction are available to 
" the people Where there is no village school, they will explain to the people 
" the ad\autagss that would result from the institution of a school , thev will 
" offer their assistance m finding a qualified teacher and liiprowdim: books ic 
" "Where schools are found in existence, thev will ascertain the nature of tlic 
" instruction and the number of scholar* aud they will offer their assistance to 
the person conducting the school If this offer is accepted, the school will he 
entered on their list, the hoys will be examined and the more adxnriccd 
" scholars noted , impiuremertts in the coarse or mode of instruction will bo 
'* recommended, and such bookb as may be required will be procured Prizes 
* will be proposed for the mo>t deserving of the teachers or scholars, and Hie 
« power of -ranting free admissions to the tahsildan school be accorded 1 he 
zda visitor supervised the *ork of the pargana visitor,, testing 
of thou- reports, deciding on the bestowal of prize, recommended Jythe. , 
reporhng upon the cour.e of education folded in each class of >chonl *w 
tuning a°s far as possible the extent and nature of ^^^^^ 
to those of the upper clasps who didnot attend schools and acting as the depart- 
mental a .rent for the distribution and sale of school books 



ff 



n 7 



106 



FEFORT Or THE EDUCATION COMHISSIOK 



[chat rv 



Tor four or fire years every effort ^as made by Mr II Stewart Hcid, the 
"\ isitor General and those under lum to carry out Mr lhomasons scheme 
The results, however wore roeagic the tahsili schools alone answering tie 
expectations entertained of them Moreover, during these Years another system 
of primary institution had been growing up llus system aiose out o£ an 
experiment made by Mr Alexander Collector of Muttra, upon the following 
plan ' A par gana being chosen it was ascertained bow many children of school 
' going age it numbered ^ hat revenue it pud, and what expense it could 
therefore bear A cluster of villages, some four or five was then marl ed out 
( and the most central of the villages fixed upon is the Bite of the school [termed 
halkabandi] The rate m aid originally varied a good deal m the different Dis 
tncts but ultimately the zamindais agreed to contribute towards education at 
the rate of one per cent on their land re\ enue Mr Alexander s idea was quicUy 
caught up by other Collectors in 1853 Agra Bareilly, Etah Etnwah Mam 
puri JIuttra and Shahjahanpur all had 1 certain number of hall abandi 
■ schools and at the close of 1854 theie were about 17 000 boys receiving educa 
tion m them * Vi ith the increase and success of these schools the indigenous 
schools gradually fell more and more into the 1 ackground and before many 
years the recognised system of primaiy education consisted of the tabsili or what 
would now be called mid He vernacular and the halkabandi or primary schools 
The teachers m both received fixed salaries the cost of the tahsili schools 
being borne directly by Go\ernment and that of the halkabandi schools by 
the one per cent cess on the revenue which at first voluntary was m a few 
years made compulsory In 1 87 1 there were 4 307 departmental primary schools 
attended by 148 126 pupils while 143 aided primary institutions were giving 
instruction to about 5 000 children Meanwhile the numerous indigenous 
schools continued to exist but were left almost entirely to thems^lvc^ In 
addition to this cause of complaint against the system it was urged that the 
halkabandi schools tried to imitate tl e tahsili schools and ^ere rising above the 
requnenients of the masses while the adoption of Urdu m the place of Hindi 
afforded a further ground f 01 dissatisfaction in many parts of the Province 

159 North-Western Provinces and Oudh Progress of primary 

Education — That these complaints were not without some foundation in<iy 
be inferred from the results shown in the two comparative statements printed 
towards the beginning of this Chapter The statements indicate an absence of 
such piogress between 187 1 and 1S82 as may be found throughout the rest of 
India m the school attendance of primaiy schools After pioper allowance has 
been made for the primary elisses of secondary schools, there were m 1871 
more than 153 000 children in the public primary schools of this Province — an 
attendance far m advance of Madras and of the Punjab and not far behind 
Bombay But after the lapse of 1 1 years we find tliat both the Southern and 
the Western Presidencies have far outstripped the Northern Piovince In 
1881 82 there were 213 238 pupils in x^nmary schools maintained 01 aided by 
the Department m the ftorth Western Piovinces and Oudh while in Madras 
with a far smaller pop tbtion there were more than 360 600 and m Bombay, 
with only half the population o£ the Noithern Province there were nearly 
332 700 m similar schools In no other Provmce of India was the percentage 
of pupils m primary schools to the male population so low being only 89 
percent in the ft orth Western Proymces and Oulh against 26m Bombay 
and 22m Midras The contrast which these figuies afford n-vtuially leads 
us to enquire into the causes assigned for them It has been alleged tint 
the poverty of the ngncultuial classes sufficiently accounts for the back- 
ward state of primary education and it is true tl at up to 1S77 78 a year 
of general sickness and distress the attendance in public primary schools 



OH VP IV ] PniMAUT EDUCATION }Q? 

steadily increased every year. The losses of that and the follows T eirs 
have not yet been wholly iecovered There can be no question that tin 
filling off m recent ycais was due to famine and its subsequent effects, but, 
on the other hand, it may be noted that m the Decern, where the famine of 
1S76-78 was of longer duration and probably 9/ rven greater severity, the 
primary schools are filled, and the progress of education has been resumed 
The losses of the famine yeais have been more than made good, and the average 
attendance in a Bombay school is 62 as against 36 in the Northwestern 
Provinces Moreover, the Bombay agriculturist nays school fees, while in Oil 
Northern Province, free msti notion is grv en to the cess payers Again it has 
been alleged that at one time the halkabandi schools made an inj uaicious attempt 
to imitate the tahsih schools, and several of the witnesses who appeared before the 
Commission considei the piesent course too ambitious and unsuited for practical 
purposes , but in the opinion of the Provincial Committee, the foimei charge at 
any rate cannot now be sustained Some other explanation must, theiefore, he 
sought for the want of elasticity m the system of primary instruction m the 
IS 01th "Western Piovinces It seems that there has been a deviation from the 
original policy initiated by Mr Ihomason with the full appioval of the Court 
of Directors The indigenous schools have remained altogethei outside the 
oiganised system, and for many jears past they have leceived no assistance or 
encouragement f 10m the Dcpaitment let the feelmgof a large proportion 
of those hose ltisure and means permit of their providing for the education 
of their children, is still in favour of the indigenous system , while the number 
of those families who accept the departmental type of school, and at the 
same time are able to spare their childien fiom manual labour, has nearly 
reached its limit In Bombay, the popularity of the dcpaitmcntal schools is 
proved by the annual increase of pupils attending tFiem, hut in the North- 
Western Provinces the attendance in the halkabandi schools exhibits no similar 
progress "Wo shall hereafter enquire into the subjects taught and the quail 
fications of masters in halkabandi schools , we shall also consider the powers 
entiusted to local committees and the financial an augments for primary edu- 
cation. It is sufficient here to state that in our opinion the encouragement of 
indigenous schools would have led m the North "Western Provinces to the same 
development and progress winch have been found m the rest of India to mark 
the history of education betireen 187J and 1S82 

160 Punjab : Primary System —The Punjab system was intended to be 
a combination or the systems of Bengal and of the North-AVestern Provinces 
Prom both it borrowed the organisation of the high school with its piovision for 
primary classes, and fiom the latter the halkabandi school But the circle 
system was soon abandoned, and schools were established without any exact 
reference to the theoiy of equal geographical distribution In 1854 the Local 
Government declared it to be their "intention to impart sound elementary 
" knowledge in the vernacular and to give every village tonghout the land its 
» elementary school " But at the same time they recognised the fact tint a 
provision of 24 Jakbs of rupees would be required for the extension of a really 
national system of education, and that more than one generation must pass 
away before any such sum could be realised It seems P^ahle tha »™ 
progress towaids realising the extension of such a sj stem m.ght lmc been 
Loaned byTncorWatmg ^indigenous schools ^?S7^ ,, ^^ 
mary eduction and by improving their methods V, e have already expressed 
» Chap^III our dVnt from one of our 

different view At any rate that policy was ^ ^^» nd ^ 

eope with the ignorance of the masses unl has c£to! 

succeeded It may be admitted that the want of adequate funds Has cicaicu 



10S KErOIlT OP THE taracATiosf COMMISSION. [ciur. IV. 

put of these difficulties Thus in 1869 about 300 primary schools were abolish, 
cd Tvitli a view to raising the salaries of teachers in those which were retained. 
The total of primary schools which stood at 1,884 in 1867 amounted to only 1,524 
on March 31st, i8St. During this period the total expenditure on education 
from all sources had increased, according to the statement of the Provincial 
Committee, from lis, 8,66,766 in the former year to IK I3*9 2 *534 in 1880-81. 
Tor although the municipalities in the Pun jib arc exeep Homily liberal to wank 
education, and though tho primary school fund rests upon the solid basis of local 
rates, still it has never been the practice in the Pun jib to make any alignment 
from provincial revenues to primary vernacular schools. On the contrary, the 
cost of subordinate inspection and other charges formerly borne by provincial 
revenues have been thrown upon the fundi administered by local committees; 
and, as in the North-Western Provinces, even the local fund is subject to appro- 
priations for famine and other Public Works before it reaches the local com- 
mittee. Another explanation of the comparative unpopularity of tho Fun jib 
schools has been found by certain witnesses in the inclusion of Persian as a 
part of the primiry school course. A still more frequent cause of complaint 
urged against the departmental schools is the preference given to Unla instead 
of the Hindi and Punjabi vernaculars. Tho vernacular of ft large proportion 
of the population of the Province is Punjabi, or Hindi in its various forms and 
it is urged that the departmental schools do not make adequato provision for 
teaching these dialects, and that they employ Urdu too exclusively as the 
medium of instruction. On tho other hand, it is represented that it was quite 
natural that the Department should at the outset adopt Persian and Urdu. 
Throughout the territories of the Muhaminadan Kings of Delhi, Persian was 
used as tho language of official correspondence, and its position became so firm- 
ly established that it remained the language of the Courts during tho Sikh rule, 
hostile though that rule was to every form of Muhammadan supremacy. When 
the Court of Directors desired that the vcrnicular should be substituted for the 
classical language, Persian, the change to Urdu afforded the most easy transi- 
tion The great bulk of the indigenous schools teach Arabic, Persian, or Urdu, 
and it is therefore urged that ths Department wisely conformed its course to 
that o! the existing schools. Urdu is still the language of the British Courts 
of law, and while it remains so it will naturally find a place in the public pri- 
mary schools, Whether tho circumstances of tho Province have now altered, 
is a more difficult question to decide. There is a largo party who would like 
to see Urdu replaced by Hindi, But tho choice of a vernacular is as much an 
administiative as an educational question, and therefore it is one on u hich the 
Commission have hesitated to pronounce an opinion* In no other Province of 
India has the choice of a vernacular constituted so great a difficulty ; and the 
advocates of the local language or dialect, which has been displaced or excluded 
from the school course, have been loud in their complaints against the Depart- 
ment* It is a question which in our opinion can only be practically determined 
by local boards, and wo have framed a Recommendation accordingly. We only 
notice the subject here, as it accounts in some measure for tho obstacles against 
which the primary schools of the Punjab hare had to contend, For these and 
other reasons, primary schools have not increased in the Punjab as they have in 
the adjoining Provinces, There were, however, 102,867 pupils in 1,827 primary 
schools on 31st March 1S82. Of these schools 1,549 departmental and 

278 were aided. Thus the attendance in 18S2 fell far short of that which 
existed in Bombay or in the North^Vestern Provinces in 1871, On tho other 
hand, it appears that in 1870-71 there were 1,755 schools in the Province 
maintained or aided by the State which were attended by 69497 pupils. 
These figures would at least show that primary education in the Punjab, if it 
has not advanced as rapidly as elsewhere, has yet not been entirely stationary. 



CHAP. IV.] PRIMARY EDUCATION. 209 

A constable number of the Government schools, and the great majority 
of aided primary schools, are attached to English schools for secondary 
education, of which they form a preparatory department. These schools are 
situated in the large towns. Of the rest of the schools included in the pri- 
mary system, some are converted indigenous schools, others axe only branches 
of vernacular schools for secondary instruction, and about one-half the whole 
number arc purely primary schools chiefly established by the Department 
Judged by the proportion of the population at school, it seems that, with 
the exception of that of the North-Western Provinces, the State system of 
primary education in the Punjab has been the least successful in India. 
"While moro than s£ per cent, of tho male population are at school in Bombay 
and Bengal, -91 per cent, only are so provided for in the Punjab, Of the 
Hindus and Sikhs, about rs per cent, in each case are at school, whilst only 
•63 per cent, of the male Muhammadan population attend the schools recog- 
nised by the Department. 

161. The Central Provinces: Primary System.— The Central Provinces, 

embracing an area of 84,000 square miles with a population of nearly ten mil- 
lion 1 !, bonier on Madras, Bombay, Bengal, and the Noith-Westexn Provinces. 
Seventeen per cent, of their population spoak Marathi, the chief vernacular of 
the Bombay Presidency ; 53 per cent, speak Hindi, the chief language of the 
North-West em Piovinces and the Districts of Bengal that adjoin them ; 8 per 
cent, speak the dialects of the aboriginal races known as Gondi and Rhondi ; 
and 6 per cent, speak Uriya and Telugu, the vernaculars of Orissa and of the 
neighbouring distiicts of Madias. As the educational history of the Provinces 
dates only fiom 1 86 i, their policy has naturally borrowed something from all 
the systems which obtained in the adjoining Provinces. Trom the Noith- 
Western Provinces, the Central Provinces borrowed the village school system of 
3Ir. T homason as well as the 1 per cent, school cess, w liich -was raised to 2 per 
cent. o[ the rental shortly after the formation of the Province ; from Bombay 
it has largely adopted its system of internal mechanism and its standards of 
examination ; while from Bengal it has derived tho theory, advocated xn that 
Province long before it T\as put into practice, of incorporating indigenous 
schools and working upon the basis of private enterpnse Judged by the sta- 
tistics whether of Bombay or of Bengal the progress made has been remarkably 
slow, but it is necessary to remember the poverty and scantiness of its popula- 
tion ; its early history, which like that of Bombay was a history of general 
disorder and diwnganisation; and the confusion of tongues which results from 
the use of so many different languages and dialects With slender funds and 
a wcik indigenous system to work upon, the Department has neveitlieless 
made fair progress. The indigenous schools wherever tbey could be found 
bave been incorporated into its system and gradually improved. The depart- 
mental schools havo been increased in numbers and associated with vdlage 
school committees on the plan adopted in Bombay. In addition to these two 
agencies the Department has encouraged the creation of new schools by private 
enterprise. In doing so, it has relied somewhat too much upon the enthusiasm 
of a particular officei or his influence over the village headmen. In fact it is 
one of the rules of administration in the Central Provinces that « every -B*- 
" trict officer is expected to see that the schools are well filled with pup* l 
We have referred elscwhexe to the bad effects of offi cial pressure ; and a hongh 
it helped at tho outset to overcome some of the difficultjes with wh* 1 the De- 
partment in a backward Province was called upon 0 deal, 
may he traced in the felling off of aided schools which we sba H «^t«£ 
Xn .871 there were 79 5 departmental primary schools, and 1,091 aided or 
inspected institutions which were together educating 7 6,399 P*P^ 1883 



110 



RrPOUT OF TIIE EDUCiTlOV COH MISSION 



[ciur IT 



tho aided and inspected schools hid fallen to 454 with about 22,000 pupils, 
while the Government schools had risen to 894 nith 55*745 P u I nls But 
the aided and inspected schools mo strong and progressive institutions In 
Bengal tlid average attendance at an aided school is 17 pupils, while m the 
Central Provinces it is 51 M r ith such an attendance even a sniill grant per 
head aiTords substantial assistance to the manager In Bengal the contnbu 
tion from puhhc funds gnen to an aided prnnarj school on account of each 
boy avenges less than 11 annas, in the Central Provinces it is double that 
sum, bo that while the avenge grant made to each -school in Ucngal is about 
Its 12 a year, m the Central Trounces it is about Its 70 The percentage of 
Huhamnudans at elementary schools is, with tho exception or the llaidarahad 
Assigned Districts, tho largest lit India, being neirlj 4 per cent of the male 
Jluhammadan population The percentage of Hindus is grc iter than in the 
North Western Trounces But upon the hrgc abori^in il population the Depart 
ment has hitherto made no impression at all ihe decrease of aided schools is 
ascribed to the backwardness of tho people, the collapse of premature endeavours 
to stimulate local effort, and general! j to the weakness oT pm ate enterprise. The 
small increase of departmental schools is attributed to unnt of funds and the 
widespread ignorance and superstition of the popukat ion Altogether a great 1m 
provement and advance is required before pnmarj education can overtake the 
masses Ihe percentage of the male population at public priman schools is lanrcr 
than m the North Western Frounces and the Punjab being i 5 per cent , hut 
on the other hand both those Provinces lmc a large system of indigenous schools 
awaiting incorporation into tho State svstem whilst in the Central Prounccsthc 
outer circle no longer exists It is therefore an interesting problem, vihich 
patience and experience can alone solve, whether tho direct instrument- 
ality of Government must henceforth, as was the ease in Bombay, be mainly 
relied upon for the further extension of primary education, or whether continued 
efforts to rely on private enterprise will succeed as they have succeeded m 

1 32 Assam : Frzmary System — TAv? Jraforf #f £$?szn fras k&xsd 

with that of Bengal until 1874 The greater part of tho early history of its 
primary education has therefore been already described under tho account 
given of Bengal The systems of the two Provinces are so far identical that 
primary education in each is based on private effoit But in Assam tho great 
majority of the aided schools aie new creations, and were not adopted from 
the pre existing indigenous system They ha\c been called into existence 
by the stimulus of the ^rant in aid system This is tho natural result of 
offering substantial assistance In Assam the average annual contribution 
from public funds for each boy in aided institutions is nearly lis 2, of which 
Be 1 9 is borne by local rates In 1879 tho Assam Local Rates Regulation 
was passed, under which an allotment from the rates may be made for the 
construction of school houses, the maintenance of schools, the training of 
teachers, and the establishment of scholarships In other respects, besides 
the liberality of its aid the Assam system now differs largely from the 
Bengal system. Great attention is paid to the training of teachers and the 
improvement of their method of instruction The schools are divided into 
two classes, lower vernacular (or upper primary) and pathsahts (or lower 
primary schools) Grants in aid to primary schools viere up to 1876 limited 
to Rs 5 per mensem In 1876 the maximum allowance was raised from 
Rs 5 to Rs 6, except m the District of Sylhct, where the original maximum 
was retained In special cases for hill tubes a grant up to Rs 10 per mensem 
may be sanctioned Tor tols and maktabs only a scheme of payment by 
results was introduced m 1SS0 81, but as yet with little result The Benzol 



LlIAP IV ] WlIMARY EDUCATION j 13 

plan of granting aid by payment foi results has never been tried m Assam 
proper, and the Inspector considers that its introduction m the form in which 
it is carried out in Bengal would result in closing most of the struggle 
primary schools which hare been brought into existence ° ° 

163 Coorg Primary System —In the small Province of Cooig Tvhich 

wis annexed in 1834 early steps were taken to estihlisb Government schools 
Tho direct agency of Government has continued to supply the wants of the 
people without any attempt to incorporate the indigenous system and with 
very little effort to stimulate private enterprise In 1871 the Government of 
India in pursuance of their general policy which has aheady been fully de 
scribed, uigtd upon the attention of the Chief Commissioner the need for 
extending primary education by means of a local cess The village headmen 
proposed the rem al of the plough tax, which was a rate levied on each plough 
varying from tliree to four annas according to the classification of the sod 
The proposal was sanctioned as being in accordance with the wishes of the 
people, and the tax yields about Rs 5 220 a year As a necessary complement 
to the h» y of a local educational rite, the village headmen were consulted 
regarding the control of the schools, and village school committees weie 
appointed in 1873 to assist m promoting attendance and in supervising the 
management of the institutions By these measures primary education has 
made some progiess, and whereas there were only 1 541 pupils at elementary 
State schools m 1871, there were 3069 on jist Alarch 188" attending 57 
Government and 3 aided schools J* early 5 per cent of the Native Christian 
male population and 3 per cent of the male Hindu population attend these 
schools The whole male population of Coorg amounts to onlv 100 439 of 
whom 3 per cent are at primary schools 

164 Haadarabad Assigned Districts Primary System —These Dis 

tricts separated hy mountain harriers from the Central Provinces on the north 
and from the Nizam s Dominions on the south are open on the west to the 
Bombay Presidency and on the east to the Central Provinces They have 
borrowed their system puncipally from Bombay, but have also attempted in 
later jears, after the example of the Cential Provinces to encourage the in 
digenous schools Their primary schools ai e supported by contributions from 
a local cess which is applied to works of local utihtv For such works a cess 
is levied on the land revenue to the amount of 7^ per cent of which one fifth 
is assigned for education To this assignment a contribution from the revenues 
of the Province is added, but owing to a peculiar system of account the Pro 
vmcial grant appears to be larger and thelocal fund contribution Ipss thin they 
really are The education fund created by the combination of provincial and 
local contributions is not administered as it 1* in Bombay by local committee:,, 
but it is distributed by the revenue officers who are primarily responsible for 
the management of the elementary schools The progress made in the en 
couragement of indigenous schools may be inferred from the following stalls 
tics In 1871 there were -97 primary schools with 10 223 pupils all of which 
were Government schools On 31st March i88s the Government schools had 
increased to 467 with 27 844 F*pd* while tl ere were 209 aided schools with 
4212 pupils? Li *o 7 schools unamed but under mspe eta « "ttaided by 
2 6 73 pupils The population of these Districts is 2 67- 673 and 2 5 of the 
m ale ^nidation are at school The Muhammadans are well represented m 
the school attendance, but the large aboriginal population ■«^3££ 
remams entirely uneducated It is alleged that the 

inferior to th/ Government schools and not so popular It ^^"^J 
be noticed that the average grant mad. to each male pupil in an aided chool 



112 



RCPOI T OF Til! rDTTCVTJiyS COMMISSION 



[CIIAP IT 



is only T2 inms pre imrtim which is not mucU more liberal thin the rafr 
given in Bengil, and oontrnt* unfivounbU awth tint in Assim md the 
Central Province* to which the satisfactory results noticed in i previous para 
graph nrc attributed 

165 Statistics of Primary Education for all India— Under the 

various prouncnl s\s>tc ns uhich Imp been describ 1, there were in iSSi Sz in 
the public pi imiiy schools of Indn w ith w Inch our lit port is concerned, 2,061 ,541 
pupils receiung instruction 111 82,916 recognised institutions 'Urns 1 02 jw 
cent of the entire population in the nine Trounces rcucwod were under 
instruction, or if the school going population of both sexes ho estim ited at 15 
per cent cf the whole population then 6 78 percent ot them were at pnman 
schools But thc^o figun s do not tike into account the pnnnrj clashes of 
higher schools in Bengal and Assmi which wire gum.; instruction to about 
100 000 pupil* nor yet the attendance in the indigenous elementary schools out 
side the Stile sjstun, for which in cstimito is gi\cn in pimgnph 1 18, Chiptcr 
III Assuming tint altogether there were some 2 520 000 pupiK under primary 
instmction m 1881 82, this estimate, which 19 the most hhcral tint we ire 
justified in making, would give onlv 8 29 per cent of the populition of school 
going ngo in the pnmiry schools or classes of Indn m tint ^car If igim the 
mile populition he separated from the fcmale > then there were under pnmiry 
instruction 15 48 per cent of the male school going population, and 81 of the 
femilc school going population , while 12 ^5 of the mile children and So of the 
temile weie in the primary schools recognised hy the btate In this Hst 
diss of schools contiming 2,061,541 pupils of both sexes nLirl} 1,600,000 
were Hindus 374 560 Muhammidans and 41,600 Satire Christians But for 
our present purpose 1 more unportint clissiQcation of the pupils under in* 
struction in schools recognised by the Dt pirtmcnt \ullsbow that 663 915* or 33 2 
per cent , were in Government institutions 1,141,844, or 55 4 per cent , in aided 
bchools whether indigenous or conducted on Europem methods while 255*782, 
or 1 2 4 per CLnt were muniided schools under regular inspection, miny of which 
are reilly departmental schools in Native Stitcs Tor further details we must 
refer to GencialTahlcs 2 a, 2 b and 2 c, which will be found at the end of this 
Report But we ehill conclude our review of the provincial sj stems of pnmarj 
education in India hy stitmg the Recommendations which we offer on this pirt 
of the subject under discuss on 

166 Recommendations regarding Systems of State primary Educa- 
tion — Our review his sho^n tint foi many 5 Lais the cause of pumirj educa 
turn hid to struggle against the theory descubed as that of "downward 
"Attrition" lhe contest was prolonged up to dites varying in different Pro- 
vinces of Indn TUe comparative neglect of the education of the masses mthe 
Native States of India shows that their claims ire even jet inadequitely 
lecogmsed hy natne society Under these circumstances, and as it is pro 
bable that henceforth the admmistrition of primary education will largclv 
devolve on local committees, we think it desirihle that the policy upon wlueh 
the British Government has acted since 1871 should be reaffirmed We there 
fore express our conviction that while evert/ branch of education can justly 
claim the fostering care of the State, %i is desirable, tn the present cu cum 
stances of the country, to declaie the elementary education of the masses, 
tts provision^ extension, and improvement, to te that part of } e educational 
system to tokirh the strenuous efforts of He State sjoi Id vow be directed tnasttll 
larger measure than heretofore In order to weenie full pmcticil attention to 
this important declaiation of policy, to which further reference will he 
made in considering expenditure on primary education, we shall in pin 



CHAP TV] PEIMAKT EDUCATION 113 

graph 216 consider the financial arrangements which will best adrmco the 
object in w We shall also, in considering the subject of leguhtion in 
Chapter XI, repeat and discuss a further Recommendation w inch we unani- 
mously adopted That Becommendation was that an attempt le made to 
secure the fullest possible provision for an extension of primary education It 
legislation suited to the circxtnstattces of each Province If adequate financial 
provision is secured and the hearty co operation of local boards obtained, tho first 
question that will present itself to tho authorities entrusted with the task of 
diffusing primary education will he the choice of tho agency by which the work 
is to be done We have discussed at length the advantages claimed for the de- 
partmental system, and* shown to what extent the direct instrumentality of Gov- 
ernment has hitherto been relied on in various parts of India We may repeat 
the eiution contained m the Despatch of 1859 " It is olnious tint no general 
''scheme of popular education could he framed which would be suitable for oil 
" parts of India " The history of the progress of education under the different 
Local Governments forbids any general condemnation of any of the various sys- 
tems in force, which have produced on the whole satisfactory results As 
remarked by the Government of India m 1881, " these systems being the outcome 
'* of long experience must necessarily vary with local circumstances and local 
" requirements, and it would be unreasonable to seek uniformity at the cost of 
" hindering their further development, or of rendering them unsuitable to the 
"particular Circumstances of the Provinces in which they have grown up ' 
We have therefore carefully avoided any Recommendations which could he 
interpreted as advocating any centralised control in the matter of primary 
education, or the wholesale alteration of any existing system At the same time 
wo may remark that arguments which at tho outset induced Government to rely 
mainly on its own direct efforts, lose, except in the case of neglected castes or 
of backward Districts, much of their force when once a solid foundation has 
been laid for tho diffusion of primary education We are therefore unanimous 
in pressing upon tho attention of those Tronncea such as Bombay, the £*orth 
Western Provinces, and the Punjab, which ha\e almost exclusively directed their 
attention to Government schools, the following Becommendation that tchere 
indigenous schools exist, the principle of aiding and improving them he recognised 
as an important means of extending eLmentary education There are several 
Provinces, of which the most important is Bengal, ulnch do not require to 
be reminded of the permanent advantages of eliciting private enterprise , but 
our renew of their systems of aiding indigenous schools Ins <;u£rgcstcd the 
Ilecommenditmns given m Chapter III, namely, " tint 1 steady and gradual 
"improvement 111 such schools be aimed at with as little immediate inter 
" ference with their personnel or curriculum as possible " and " that special 
" encouragement bo afforded to their masters to undergo training or to bring 
" their relatives and probabl e successors under regular training " If mdi genous 
schools are to be improved, it is necessary tint the inspecting staff should be 
strong The number of Sub Inspectors in Bengal has been largely increased 
sinco 1872, and every indigenous school recognised by the Department is m 
spectcd either by one of the 173 Bub Inspectors or by a chief guru, * ho i< a 
superior indigenous schoolmaster But since it is obviously impotable for the 
173 Sub Inspectors to examine m sitn a very large number of the aided indi- 
genous schools/it has been found necessary to supply their place for ■ P arp« 
of local inspect on by the agency of chief gurus Both ig™e. hare their m 
but with tCE/ond increasing number of indtgenoo. schools requiring 
mspechon » Bengal it is absolutely necessary in our opinion tc ► niflke , 
large addition to the regular inspecting <taff In us »t Kepori on Pubhc 
Instruction the Director has remarked that « it ma> bo broadl) assumed that 



H4 



HEFOttT OT THE EDUCATIOK COMMISSION* 



[chap, iv. 



« if the number of Sub-Inspectors in those Districts in illicit primary schools 
« abound were doubled and even quadrupled, it would still be impossible 
"to secure such frequent inspection of pathsalas as would seem to bo 
" required " If the indigenous schools are to be incorporated into the State 
system, it is essential that the Government, which can afford them very 
little assistance in money, should at least provido sufficient inspection. The 
examinations under the Bengal system are conducted at central gatherings, 
and we have already stated the objections which seem to bo involved in &uch a 
plan* To meet tho deficiencies of the system we recommend that examinations 
by inspecting officers be conducted as far as possible in situ, and all primary 
schools receiving aid be invariably inspected in situ. Of the different systems 
of aid we have already given a brief notice, and in Chapter VIII their 
advantages will be more fully discussed, "We therefore content ourselves with 
stating without further comment our Recommendation that as a general rule 
aid to primary schools be regulated to a large extent accordhig to the results of 
examination ; but an exception be made in the case of schools established in 
backward districts or tender peculiar circumstances which may be aided under 
special rides. By the qualifying expression "to a large extent" wo mean to 
include, in our definition of the result system recommended by us, such a system 
as is being tried in Madras and Assam, where a salary grant is given more 
or less dependent on the efficiency of a school as tested by results. On the 
importance of providing Normal schools and various other matters we have 
passed specific Recommendations, which will find a more appropriate place in 
subsequent portions of this Chapter, 

167* Methods of Registration of Attendance.— It can readily be under- 

stood that in Provinces where the schools are mainly departmental and the 
schoolmasters are Government servants receiving fixed salaries, there can be no 
general inducement to falsify the returns* unless a school is bad and tho master 
wants to deceive his superior officer* But even in this case the difficulty of falsi- 
fying registers is to a considerable extent checked by a bomparatively strong 
inspecting staff, and by the independent agencies of school committees and Heve- 
nueO^ceis. In Madras where ike great bulk of the schools are sided^ special 
and stringent rules regarding registers are contained in the Result Code. In* 
specting schoolmasters, Deputy Inspectors, Inspectora, and finally Local Fund 
Boards, constitute a chain of supervision which tend^s to secure accuracy in the 
returns, and instances of fraud seldom occur* "When they do, a prompt example 
is made, and the offending schoolmaster is deprived of the whole or a part of his 
result grant. In Bombay, and in the Central Provinces, in addition to the 
agencies described as existing in Madras, there is a further check upon the 
schoolmasters which might perhaps be adopted with advantage in other Provinces 
of India, at any rate for departmental schools. Under the orders of the Govern- 
ment of Bombay it is " considered part of the regular duty of an Assistant 
" Collector to visit a considerable number of primary schools and to report, 
" on forms issued by the Education Department, the results of his inspection* 
"The mamlatdars and mahalkaris " (senior native revenue officers) "should visit 
" every school in their charge for the purpose of reporting on such matters as 
" the condition of the buildings, the use or abuse of the free list, the number of 
"boys present as compared with the number on the register, and the tmth of any 
u complaints against the master." In addition to these safeguards there are 
village school committees attached to each school, whose business it is to record 
in a book kept for the purpose the results of their frequent inspections, Lastly, 
it is a common practics in We stern India for the native Judges on circuit, native 
, pleaders and other professional or private men who are travelling, to visit the 
village schools en route, and record their remarks in the visitors* book. Under 



CHAP. IT.] PKIMAHY EDUCATION. 

this system the registers of village schools are believed to be thoroughly trust- 
worthy and hardly a single case of fraud, except in Sind, has been reported for 
many years. In Bengal the annual returns are ordinarily collected at appointed 
centres "by the Sub-Inspectors, whose means of checking false statements con- 
sist in a reference to their notes made at visits in situ and at gatherings of the 
pathsalas. It is stated in the Provincial Report that " there is no temptation to 
*' give in false returns, as there are no capitation grants for numbers on the roll.'* 
On the other hand, the area of inspection is admitted to be too vast for adequate 
supervision. In reviewing the last Report on education the Lieutenant-Governor 
expressed his hope that it will in future be possible to attach greater statistical 
value to the returns of primary instruction. "Recent disclosures make the Lieute- 
" nant-Governor glad to think that in the Local Government Boards a means 
" will be found for closer supervision than at present exists over the class of chief 
" gurus and Sub-Inspectors who are now responsible for the submission of these 
"returns." In the North-Western Provinces it is admitted that perfect honesty 
has not yet been secured, and must not be expected, but on the whole the 
returns are considered fairly trustworthy. In the Punjab it is the business of 
all inspecting officers to examine the registers of attendance, and to ensure as 
far as possible that the entries are genuine. It is, however, stated that in 
village schools there is some laxity. In the Central Provinces part of the 
Bombay system of inspection has been introduced, and the Inspector General 
reports that in village schools the visits of the tahsildars, deputy tahsildars, as 
well as the Inspectors and other officers, afford an adequate check against fraud. 
But he adds that though in a remote village a master may submit false returns 
for a time, his detection is ultimately certain. In Assam the Inspector considers 
that the registers checked by his subordinates are generally honestly kept and 
trustworthy, though instances have occurred of gurus filling them in from 
memory. In Coorg the inspecting officers aided by village committees are 
said to keep sufficient check over the masters' returns. In the Haidarabad 
Assigned Districts a clear line of distinction is drawn between departmental 
and aided primary schools. The registers in the former are considered trust- 
worthy, but in the latter it is said that " the very existence of the indigenous 
"schools is only reported once a year, and the statistical information supplied 
"cannot be relied upon." 

168. SdlOOl Accommoaation.-Inthe matter of school buildings as well 
as of methods of registration, there is also a broad distinction between depart- 
mental and aided schools. The contrast is most marked between the depart- 
mental system of Bombay and the indigenous system of Bengal. In the 
Bombay Provincial Report it is stated that there are 688 substantially built 
school-houses in the British districts and 37* m the Sudatory States of the 
Northern Division alone, which have together cost more than 37 lakhs. Besides 
these there were 560 houses built after the country fashion of less lasting 
materials, whilst 2,530 were private houses or temples lent to the Department. 
Thesehool-houses are being improved as far as funds will permit. In Bengal it 
is stated that « School accommodation does not as yet form a very 
"point for consideration in this country, the climate F™^JjL<^^ 
"except during the rains, to sit out in the open air. Of the 5° .788 schools, 
"6,545 have houses of their own, are a^ommodated ren^ *eem tho 

"houses of other people, and 987 «e hehV under the shelter of ^ In 
Mad^s, school ac Jmnfodation for «■* » ^ £ ^ ofthe 

An open p V al t or raised verandah facing the street, is atnon 1 
Places provided. Sometimes a dark room -^^^^ 
night often does duty for a school-room by day. Inspec un„ 
frequently hold their examinations under a tree. Where, however, local board* 



116 REPORT OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. [CHAT, IV. 

and municipalities hare schools, there is generally fair and sometimes good 
accommodation- In the Nortii-TVcstcm Provinces school-bouses are either 
Government huildings on a more or less uniform plan prescribed by the Public 
Works Department ; or rented buildings ; or sheds or other accommodation lent 
hy zamindaxs. The houses answer their purpose fairly * ell, and light and ven- 
tilation are sufficient. In the Punjab also, where the system of primary educa- 
tion is chiefly departmental, constant attention is pnid* to the subject, and it 
is stated that the tendency is to build more expensive houses than are 
really required. In the Central Provinces the Government school-houses 
aro built on a standard plan. They are said to ho durable and cheap. A 
school-house for 60 pupils costs lis. 600. It is a tiled building built of 
hrick and lime. If the village or town committee wish for a more imposing 
structure, they must obtain subscriptions to its cost. In Assam the houses 
are of the rudest description, consisting simply of posts and a thatch, while 
in the Haidarabad Assigned Districts more ambitious flat-roofed structures have 
heen planned by the Public Works Department- 1 hey arc said to be expen- 
sive, and in the Provincial Report the expense is justified by the argument 
that the village school-house ought to he the hest building in the village— a 
really suitable and permanent structure. ft Such a building well furnished is 
f f in itself an education both for the villagers and their children, and should 
" outlast successive generations/' On the whole, then, it may ho said that 
proper school accommodation for Government schools is generally provided, 
while in Bombay and in the Ilaidarabad Assigned Districts very great attention 
is paid to the subject. On the other hand, the school-houses of the aided 
schools in country villages are very indifferent, frequently mere cattle-sheds or 
corners of houses, while in some cases the shade of a tree supplies the wants of 
the pupils until the monsoon closes the sylvan echool-hou^es for four months. 
After some discussion we arrived at the following Recommendation, that for 
primary schools f school-house* ond furniture should he of the simplest and most 
economical kind. Local authorities must attach to the phraso *« economical" 
whatever interpretation considerations of the climate and of the permanency 
of the institutions may justify. "We are not in favour of spending local funds 
on architectural effects, but on the other hand cow-sheds or the precarious 
shade of trees afford an obviously insufficient accommodation even for Indian 
chddren. In Bombay, the expenditure upon school-houses is very largely in 
excess of that which is found necessary in other Provinces, and it seems to us 
that it would be advisable to reduce it- TUo provision made in the Central 
Provinces appears to be well adapted for all purposes. 

169, School Apparatus and Libraries, — Once again, the advantage is 
naturally on the side of the departmental schools in the matter of furniture 
and apparatus. In Madras the schools are ill-supplied, except of course the 
primary classes in higher schools. It has been suggested that in order to 
remedy the admitted defects m the indigenous and some of the aided schools, 
the managers should be compelled to spend a portion of the grant earned on the 
purchase of a board, maps, and slates. This, it is urged, would be a develop- 
ment of that policy of steady hut gradual improvement of method which is bo 
successfully carried out in the indigenous schools of Madras. But as such 
compulsion would interfere with the right of private managers to spend their 
grant at their discretion, the proposal has very properly not been enforced. In 
Bombay it is part of the system of making primary education thoroughly 
efficient and progressive that maps, boards, sand-glasses, and other necessary 
furniture should he invariably supplied. Por the larger town schools more 
apparatus is given; and to thefewschools which have adopted the Kindergarten 
system wall pictures are issued. Globes have heen supplied to the cess schools 



CEAF. IV ] PftBUET EDTJCATIOV. H7 

that teach the higher standards, and several of the largest institutions have 
collections of mineral, botanical, and other natural objects collected by the boys 
themselves. A few schools in convenient localities have gardens* attached 
to them, and prizes are annually awarded for the three best in eacb District. 
Nearly every school is supplied with a library of some sort consisting of a set 
of the class books and books of reference. The town schools are also supplied 
with a monthly school paper. Most of the aided and inspected schools ha* a 
equipped themselves with similar furniture and apparatus. In Bengal the 
primary schools have little or no furniture, and of courso no libraries. The 
upper primary schools alone have a few benches and a stool for the teacher. 
They have also the necessary maps, a black-board, and a few books of reference. 
In the North-Western Provinces and the Punjab such furniture as is absolutely 
necessary is supplied, while in the Central Provinces and Berar the Department 
has generally furnished its schools on the Bombay scale. In Assam the school 
furniture consists of a chair, a table, and a few maps, but there arc no books. 
In the preceding paragraph -we have stated our Recommendation that " the 
furniture should be of the simplest and most economical kind/' but much has 
to be done before even this moderate provision is universally made. 

170. Standards of Instruction 'and Eesnlts of Examination — We 

give below a statement showing the results of primary school examinitions under 
the various standards prescribed in each Province of India. TVe shall afterwards 
explain in detail the standards adopted, and offer some remarks on tho varying 
results which the following Table discloses ; but we may mention hero that the 
figures for Bengal do not show the results of the District examinations for 
rewards under the payment by results system, since no fixed standards other 
than the scholarship standards are prescribed for the w hole Province. It is worth 
noticing how rapidly the number of those who pass examinations decreases in 
going from the lower to the higher standards. The proportion varies consider- 
ably in different Provinces, hut throughout India a large number of the pupils 
in primary schools leave school before they have received anything hU a 
complete elementary education. ( 



SO 



118 



KEFOBT OF THE EDUCATION COSDII»«W [ 

. . jf - of Hir Primary School Ezaminahont tn , 
TABLE 3 — Statement shotting the rcmts^JMjLnmt^^ 



PtlOTtNCE 



instil lion* 
pr«*eatir>£ 
tx&nuncr* 



h&nVr at 
examine** 



Special Upper rrtmjuT 
Uppor Primary 
Lower do 
Eeault Standard II 
ptto I 



Totil 



PttbUo Scmco Cert fl**U Fiftm! ration In Vfmamikr Standard Vt JJ^J 
S ith Vema*tiLir Standard Examination la ScbtxAa -J c T 4 

1n 



Bomb 



Fifth ditW 

Fourth (Upper SVtmnrj) a d tto 

Third d tto 

Swtmd (Lo*tt Pnmsrj) 1 d ttfl 

Firtt d tto 




K W Peoti^ciS and 
Off an 



Upper T, riui4ty 
Lower do 

Utterpara tXitafcan Sabha Eianuuition 

Upper Primary 
Lowe? da 



f 



Central PaoTiwcis 



Upper Primary 
Lower do 

iTft'fi Vernaeuflir ^niiartf £iaminat' off dcfa'tii iSfcioofo 

Fifth 3 tto 

Fourth (Upper Primary) a ditto * 

Third CLow*t Primary) d tto 

Second ditto 



Ass in 



lflrU 
Tot it- 

in*™ 

tr rU 
Total 

1r rU 

|Q A* 
TOTAL 

1fS rli 

ToTAt* 

ic rii 

Ulori 
fUoy* 

1( rlj 

1c u 

JlTOTft 



1 1*3 
"4 
1 4, 140 

7?? 
si it* 

J£ 777 

14 

M 
I? U7 

JO«iJ 

l /mi 
54 




4,7 

i« 

4>* 

^ J 
*7<*47 

My 

*7 

14,06 

4tf 
t 6/ 



*J3 " 

144 

5» 



119 



f*l«4 




4,**1 


5 


S 


7 




t<s"?7 


7J** 


341 


i6j 


44 



I 



747 
it 

5J 



437 



t^Multi not Ubulattd by 
f the UspeclOfi. 



Totil 



{ 



HaIdaeaeap Asaioy 



< 



Lower Primary 



Upper Pnmaiy 
Lower do 



{ 



Oirla 



Total 



Bora 
lOirls 



534 



3 9 



t 



3 



{ 



517 

36 



a" 



«4 



\ 



Total 

Pnbho Semca Cftrfaficata ExaaiijatuJiiiii TcmflctJAr Etimdard YI Boya 
Sirti YernAi?alar Standard Elimination held in GohooU 

Fjfth ditto 

Fmirth (Upper Primary) * ditto 

Tlurd d tto 

Bcctrad (Lower Pnm»ry) b fljtto 

First ditto 



fBOTS 

j Boy a 
lOirla 

$X 

I Girls 



Total fob Ikdia£} 



Girls 
Boys 
GtrU 

Total 

Gula 
Total 



(T01 



34 

66 

341 
3 

5 



3^ I 



1^4 

3 69 

31 

4 747 

SS 
G 743 

4*1 7 
9P* 



3 754 
4J 5 

1 0 a ) 



Indnft t« of 564 paeaod t^ndidat^e from th^ lower classes of m ddk nctioola 
DitTto 430 d tto ditto 



and tipper pximttry echooU 



lncVofiire of 073 pupilft Sn European and "Eotus an nchoola tial nrs m«&parnblo from tha returns 
Excluding Ajm r Bntieh Bunna ajid *U N&tiTe States tbat ilcUh luwtor thoir own nj tern *>f o4b cation 
ji The Btandfttd ^elected by the LocbI GciTemment ea eqn valent to that of the Upper Primary Eiuntrjatloii^ 
b 11a Standard eelsotcd by the Lowl Ctarernment &q equivalent to that of the Ltwer Primary Exammat oiu 



CHAP. IV.] PRIMARY EDUCATION, ytn 

171. Uniform Standard of Examination for primary Schools— 

We have already explained that the Government of India desired to obtain 
statistics from the several Provinces of India, with a view to enabling 
them to compare the progress made in different parts of the Empire. Ae- 
cordingly the proceedings of the Government of India, No. JL of the fth 
January 1879, laid down general regulations for primary education in the 
following four paragraphs : — 

(A) In primary schools shall be included all pupils who are under instruc- 
tion from the earliest stage up to the standard at which secondary education 
lrcgins ; this standard being marked by an examination to be called the upper 
primary school examination. 

(B) Primary schools shall consist of two divisions, the number of pupils 
in each division being shown in the returns— (r) the lower division containing 
pupils preparing for an examination to he styled the Jower primary school 
examination, and (2) the upper division consisting of pupils who have passed 
this standard. 

(C) The upper primary school examination shall be the qualifying test for 
admission to a course of study to extend over three years, and ending with the 
middle school examination. Candidates shall be required — 

(1) to read at Bight with fluency and intelligence a passage of ordinary 

difficulty from a book or newspaper in a vernacular language, or 
in the case of Europeans and Eurasians in the English language ; 

(2) to write a passage to dictation from the same ; 

(3) to work miscellaneous questions in arithmetic — the precise standard 

to be determined by the Local Government ; and 

(4) to pass an examination in at least one additional subject to be detcr- 

mined by the Local Government. 

(D) For the lower primary school examination candidates shall be required 
to read at sight with facility a moderately easy book in a vernacular language, 
to write to dictation from the same, and to -work sums in the first four rules of 
arithmetic, simple and compound, including easy miscellaneous questions. 

The Bombay Government and the Resident at Haidarabad complained 
from the first of their inability to force their Bysteni, which had developed 
with local wants far beyond this arbitrary definition of the upper primary 
standard, into the form required by the Supreme Government. In a letter to 
the Government of India, dated April 15th, 1879, the Bombay Government ex- 
pressed the belief that the Government of India did not desire to impose a 
material change in the educational system, by tho introduction of returns which 
were merely intended to record results in a more convenient shape, and they 
promised to select from their school examinations those which would corrc. 
spond with the examinations prescribed by the Supreme Government. On 
thU subject they called attention to a Bsport of their Director, who showed that 
the lower primary corresponded with Vernacular Standard H, and tho upper 
primary with Standard IV. With regard to the latter, the Director 
Upper Primary examination corresponds to Vernacular Standard IV, but by 
the definition qualifies for tho middle school course of three years. 
' no possibility of our fitting in our two most valuable Vernacular Standards V 
'and VI, the last of which qualifies for admission to the ™^J?*^ 
" tho public service. Here again the rules of the Government of L*ha neccs 
•white a reduction of our curriculum, and a renunciation of our second bifur 
'cation of stdt .hich has been found so suitable f^^^*** ' 
'managers/' The Bengal Government also objected to the orders of 



j 20 BEPOKT Or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION [CIU?. lr. 

Supreme Government on the following grounds- It was pointed out that in 
Bengal the course in primary schools and in tho primary classes of secondly 
schools was determined not by reference to an ultimate University standard, hut 
hy the requirements of those students whose education was to como to an end 
in the school or the class in which they ucre reading. Alternative standards 
were required hy the various needs oE the community, and the effect of the 
rules was to abolish them. As a special objection, it was urged that the pro- 
posed classification made no provision for the standard of the "lower vernacular 
u schools/' each of wHck included History, Geography t Euclid, and a hranch of 
physical science, and therefore went far heyond tho upper primary standard as 
now defined Tho force of these objections was admitted by the Government 
of India The same considerations havo induced us to recommend that the 
attempt to cany out the orders of January 6, 1879, be abandoned, and no 
endeavour made to force various and widely different systems into one shape 
Our Eecommendation is ihat the upper and lower primary examinations he 
not made compulsory tn any Trotince ; and its^ application is intended to he 
somewhat wide, as the course of our debates will show. It was first proposed, 
at our meeting of February 19th, 1883, that " the adoption of the upper and lower 
u primary examinations be not made compulsory on the Departments throughout 
te India, 0 The proposal was objected to* on tho ground that it was desirable to go 
much further than this, and to avoid imposing an identical course even on schools 
within the same Province. For a similar reason the proposal, that ** the upper 
f£ and lower primary examinations he not made compulsory on schools in any Pro- 
ts vince of India," was not carried, because it was held that the Eecommendation 
as given above was wide enough m its terms* not only to secure variety in every 
Province, but also to allow of it in the various classes of schools found in the 
same Province, Finally, a motion was made and strongly supported, to the 
effect that "the annual Keport* of Public Instruction should show a complete 
"record of the results of the departmental and public examinations held in each 
" Province " To this proposal objection was taken on the ground that the motion 
if carried might be used to impose on schools the same uniform tests which it was 
sought to abolish ; and that it was better to leave eaeh Local Government free 
to issue whatever orders were considered necessary. On the other hand, it was 
urged that in some Provinces these tests were popular with aided as well as with 
Government schools In this conflict of opinion the Commission, recognising 
the importance of leaving to every Province the largest independence and dis- 
cretion, decided against the motion, thinking it better to leave the original 
liecommendation sufficiently wide to cover all cases, 

172, Provincial Standards of Examination— Madras : Bombay : 

BengaL— The following summary will show how far thfc regulations of the Gov- 
ernment of India have been adopted in their entirety or modified in the different 
Provinces. In the case of the three largest Provinces we have placed the 
standards side by side in parallel columns, so as to afford an easy comparison. 



chaf iv ] 



FRtMAItr EDTJCATIOK 



121 



The lower and upper primary standards in Madras, Bombay, and Bengal are as 
follows — D 



Bengal 



LOWER PRIMARY STANDARD 

(UstfALLT PASSED IT THE END OF THE PtfPlL 0 TEAK ) 



1 (o) Reading at tight with facility 
& moderately easy boot in 
a vernacular language 

(15 marks) 



J 



(5) Writing to dictation from the 
same boot 

(25 murks) 



Anthmet c — The first 4 rales 
simple and compound w th 
easy miscellaneous questions 
founded on them 

(40 marts) 



Head 

1 (a) Reading and explanation of 

the First and Second pe 
part mental Readers in the 
printed vernacular eharac 
fer 

(fl) The First Departmental Flei 
der 1 1 tl e script vernacu 
lar character 

M Eecilat on and explanat on of 
the poetical pieces 

( 00 marks) 

2 (a) "Writing to d ctut on in the 

pr nted and scr pt ven a 
cuJar characters an tasy 
pis TgecoE t. inin^ words of 
two or tl tee syllables 
[b) Copy writing (large hand) 

(100 marks) 

3 Ar tl metic— 

(a) The first 4 b mple rules 



[b) Mental Arithmetic on the 
native methods 

(100 marks) 



He-id. 

1 Teading — 

(a) A Vernacular adaptation of 
Chambers a Rudiments of 
Knowledge 

{b) Mannscnpta written in current 
baud 



Copy wnting 

(200 marks for head* 
I and 2) 



A B — In order to pass the puptl 
must obtain | of the maxim im 
number of marks in each of the 
above heads and \ of tl e aggre 
gate marks of the standard 



4 Geography — Boundaries 
mountains rivers chief 
towi s road*) rn Iwajrs itc 
$f t}& jtfJItttfor to hp 
pointed out on the map 

(50 marks) 

J} — In order to pas» the pupil 
wast ohtan } of the marks 
assisted to each *ub head and ^ 
of the toUl mark a of each head 



Arithmetic — 

(a) The first 4 rales simpe and 
compound 

(150 marks) 
(1) Mental Anthmet c on the 
native methods 

(150 marks) 
(c) Eaiar and zam ndan accounts 
and simple mensaration 

(150 marks) 

Cumngham s San tary Pn 
mer 

(100 mark*} 



2f B — In order to piss the pup 1 
must obtain } of the marks m 
ciich group of subjects and \ 
of the aggregate marks of tb* 
standard 



UPPER PRIMARY STANDARD 
(Usually r*ssEi> at the esd of X 5^ *» AB cqvxsk } 



Ctvtjmlsoty Subjects — 

I (a) Read ng at e ght with flaeney 
and mtell rt ence a passage 
of ordinary diffculty from a 
vernacular book or new* 
paper 

(15 marks) 



(e) Writing a passage to diet at on 
from the some 

(35 marks) 



Cfom$uUor$ Subjects — 

I fa) Read ne with explanst on and 
p*rsin n the Fifth De 
partmental E >ol mcloa ve 
of the Lessons on Elemen 
tary Physics and hatural 
History 
(5) Poetry 

(e) Eesd ng mmuBCTipt* written 
in good current band 

(lOO marks) 

* (a) Wr t *g (m the pr nted ftnd 
scr nt cl aracter) to d eta 
ton from the Read ng 

lb) Copy writing (current hand) 
* ' r (ioo marks) 



Compulsory Subjects — 



Vernacular language 

(100 marks) 



31 



122 



r.rroux op the educvtiox coimissiov, 



[chat, it- 



Eft)***. 



Antlmriu?— (a) JWnctJon 
lb* Coot pound TUltrt mi 
^ ftl^ir traction* 

(40 m4rVt) 

(*) MtnUl Arithmetic appbed to 
tarn tnowtion* 



{to markt) 



C«^r»p^j— -Aha. 



(40 rc&rlf) 



JLnthmelti* 

(a) Vulffir Fnct*ooi ^mp 1 * 
UaU <l£ Three a.ud Sunntt. 
In teres 

(4) Mental Anttmetitf {campW) 
after tbe native method* p 
and haxar accounts 

(too marVi) 



II l starjet In with special 
reference to tin* Lntorj of 
lb tt rreTitice , Fhjaical and 
Tolmcal Gco^pliy of 
India t tnsp uf tl 0 District 
or frounce to le drawn 

(100 marli) 



Antiuneti 



(a) Valvar and Dm mil Irtetatt* 
and Simple I*roport*oti 



Ofttcna! S*bj*fti (anj two (nij b* 



\ < raimlir Fo* try — V wiU 

1 m*< of T*r*o f rom anj 
appmTed a ethology bJ topli 
parting 



1 



i Oetntnlary Dtamng tiz — 

(a) Frw bind drawing 

[b) Model and Obj«t 

drawing 

(r) Practical Gwtnetrj 



ttroinff frm tie N*ond 
anl oral tnti ■ too 

(45 rnirVi) 



orlh^tmr or iLf IJulorr 
cf tb* U ortd 



(jf> tnirki) 



lk^k or i^jj itaibf Primer 

(jptnirti) 



^ JJ —Id rr*rr I a p*m psptl J V 



Fi*ld lnitrucboii in tgricnl 



Pnrtititf arprntrf, joinery, 
amitbcry 4c 



J7— In ctd*t to put t\* mjm 1 
teGtt olta a J of ilia irir£« tn 
r^cJb ■ lUtn'fci and 1 t f tt* t£ 
pr^tU us*f\* of c*eh Ini of 



{I) Kittte accounts 



Euclid Book I 



(130 roark*) 



(50 miriii) 



Jl^tory and Gcograpay of 
Bengal 

(100 m$rb) 

Elementa of Phjsiw 

(too infrrki) 

CnnLngham * Sauit»Tj 

(too mtJkO 



tot) it obUxn 1 cf Lb* nrmki td 

a^crp^t* totrki of |t< 
t ftas4ani 



IVo Im* reform! to Vrrnicuhr Slnnihnl VI, winch is the highest derdop- 
meTit of the Kouihoy course, and is intended to prvpnrc the successful pupil 



CIUF IV. ] iTlHArr TBTJCATION 123 

in primary schools for tho lower grades of tho public sernce The subjects are 
as follows — 

Cowp-uUoTy Subjects 



1 (a) Itei ling:, with explanation tl e Seventh IXpartmcntal Book (inclusive of the lesions on 

tlie Ilistorj of Ancient and Modern Europe, and on Natural History and Elementary 

Pll} SKS) f 

(i) Sj ntax, Piosody and Eh tnolofy t 

{c) Fxilanation and recitation of 300 lines of classical Yernac ikr Poetry t 
(rf) Balding rough current band 

(115 marts) 

2 "Writing a report or storj in current hand 

(too rcarks) 

3 (a) Arithmetic, complete 

(J) Ktiowhdgc of the principles and method of arithmetic p or Euclid, Book I 
{c) Advanced Native accounts and boot keeping 

(lOO marks) 

4 {a) History of Indiij ancient and modern, with information regarding the system of Gov 

eminent 

(J) Geofrraj by, Pol tical, Phjsical ml Mathematical, an outline map of India to be drawn 
(details to he prescribed by the Inspector) 

v (100 marks) 

«; Cnmtiffham's Sanitary Primer (Vernacular Version) 

J 0 (50 marks) 

Optional Subjects 

1 PlementaT) Drawing, including— 
{a) Free I and dn\wng, 

(5) Object and model drawing, 
(e) Practical (jeometry 

2 Field instruction m Agriculture 

KortWestera Provinces and Oudh: Standards -In primary English 

schools tho subjects of instruction aio Hindi or Urdu, English reading and 
writing the elements of grammir, anthmotic, lmtory and geography, and 
simple «nutnn rales In pnnnry vernacular schools the subjects are reading, 
writing and arithmetic, with the elements of history, geography, J™** 0 * 
and linsuntion In some schools the boys are taught to rend rntaff* 
accountant papers Besides the lower and upper primary Pa- 
tented hy the Government of India, there is no general depirtmental examin 
ation for primary schools 

PrnimV Standards -The lower primary school contains three clasps 
J/anjaD. bianaarus following is the work of the 

the course in which comprises no English lho 101 ' owm S* , dictation, 

thud or highest class third and fourth Urdu readers cc* es 
first and second Persnn readers, ,ritbmctic to ^^^iTZI^t 
maps of the Punjab and India the upper primary sehoo ^^J^rf^ 
and the course mny he e,ther English or vernacular That of th ^ 

18 as m r In b^uted lor t 

practice, rule of three, square measure, and intaa* gcograp * 
names of tho countries of the world, with their capitals and 
tores and re\ision of previous lessons 

Otter Proves • Stands -m S^T^' 



124 



ItEFOUT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION 



[CHAP IV 



white the former usually have four and in towns five or six classes Vernacular 
standard III is held to correspond with the lower primary standard and standard 
IV with the upper primary Under the former aro taujit reading writing 
grammar geography and arithmetic including mental arithmetic and the four 
simple and compound rules Under standard IV ire taught reading writing 
grammar history geography, and arithmetic including simple proportion 
vul<nr fractions and native accounts In Assam primary schools are classed as 
lower and upper the latter leing also called lower vetnacuhr schools Tie 
standard of the former is arranged m strict accordance with the Government 
of India Resolution of the 6th o£ January 1879 while to tho course of the 
latter a few additional subjects are added in order to prepare the pupil for the 
scholars! ip examination In Ooorg the standards arc those prescribed by the 
Government of India In the Ilaidamhad Assigned Districts the course is 
framed upon the standards already described for Bombay 

173 The Place of English m primary Schools —Considerable conflict 

of opinion prevails as to the p nper place which tho study of English should 
occupy in primary schools or classes Variations of practice depend to a large 
extent upon differences of system In Provinces where the pupils destined for 
higher education are separated at the earliest ago from the great hulk of 
primary pupils and commence their education m a middle or high school the 
general tendency is to begin English as soon as possible and in some cases 
English is taught before the child cm read or write his own vernacular Thus 
n the Bengal high school English is generally employed as the medium of 
instruction and is taught from the lowest class hut m middle schools its studv 
is d scouraged until the boy has passed the third standard In the ordinary 
village school of Bengal English is very rarely taught In Aladras not only is 
English taught as a language from the lowest class of a middle school hut it 
is also studied m the primary schools from the third class upwards , m other 
words before the pupil has entered on the upper primary standard The 
demand for English instruction m the south of India is so strong that the large 
attendance m primary schools is said to he due m no small measure to the 
papular demand for English In Bombay on other Ivand the Department has 
systematically resisted every attempt to introduce the etudv of English until 
a hoy lias completed standard IV and reached the point where secondary educa 
tion commences Even then an English class is not attached to 1 purelv 
pnmary school unless those who re^uue it a\c prepared to pay for the extra 
cost As the strictly primary course according to the definition of the Govern 
ment of India is then completed boys ^who study English in a class attached to 
a primary school are classified as under secondary instruction There are no 
primary classes attached to middle scl ools in Bombay and therefor* it follows 
that in Bombay no pupils under primary instruction are returned as studying 
English The Bomhay Department not only believes that many good vernacular 
schools are liable to be spoilt by the introduction of English mto the primary 
course but it also argues that the preservation of the vernacular m the course of 
all classes of schools is required in order that the mental progress of the scholar 
may he reflected in his increased power to make use of his own language It 
is urged in the Report* of the Provincial Committee for Bombay that the 
Despatch of 1834 contemplated that the Vernaculars would be enriched by 
translations of European books or by the compositions of men imbued with the 
spmfc of European advancement and that the only method of thus hnn^in^ 
European knowledge within the reach of the masses is to give every pupil a 

* Page 47 of the Report 



chat, iv.]' rnniAnY education. 12 5 

thorough grounding in tlio vernacular, and to keep his attention upon it even up 
to the college caursc. In pursuanco of this policy English is rigidly excluded 
from the primary school courso. With such a varioty of practice we found 
it impossible to lay do™ any rule upon the subject of English instruction 
which would suit the circumstances of every Province. The extent to which 
English is at present taught f o children under primary instruction in each of 
tho large Provinces of India will bo seen in the Table given below. But 
it must be noted that owing to tho peculiarities of the Bengal system already 
described wo aro unable to show the number of pupils in the primary classes of 
secondary schools who are learning English. The figures given for Bengal are 
thoso of pupils in strictly primary schools. For the other Provinces the*fi»ures 
in column 3 give the number of pupils both in primary schools and in the pri- 
mary classes of secondary schools who are learning English. All that can be said 
regarding Bengal is that out of nearly 140,000 pupils in secondary schools 
more than 94,000 are in primary classes, and would, in any other Province of 
India except Assam, be returned as primary pupils Of them all in the primary 
classes in high schools aro learning English, as well as some proportion of those 
in middle schools. 



Statement showing the number of primary pupils learning English m each of the 

larger Produces of India. 





r 

Total number of pu- 
pils in hU j nst Ita- 
lians learn Eng 
lib. 


E umlper of pnpila in 
primary Schools or 
chsses kerning 
English 


i 

■ 

Percentage of num* 
ber$ m column 3 to 
th&se 2a column 2 


I 


2 


3 


4 


Madras • * 


* 


6r,og8 


35*59* 


"~ -™ -™ — ■ — i_i 


Bombay • 


■ 


23*789 


* * 


■ 


Bengal 




75. 6 77 


1,025* 


See foot-note. 


North^We stern Provinces and Oudh 




1 8,449 

■ 


12,608 


68 


Punjab * 


* 




7,808 


70 


Central Prounces 




5i446 


2 f 6og 


47 



luo figures for Bengal wlade the prmrtrj classes in middle **ools. 

174. Besults of Examinations in primary Schools.~Mthough the 

results of examination ought to afford some indicat on of he relative value of 
primary instruction giren in each Province, yet it will he clear from what has 
been id that tho results, as already tabulated in paragraph I? o can only 5ive 
a partial idea of the relative progress mado throughout India Of th * progre s 

SotT a£d S* standard IV as equal to the upper penary standard pre- 



126 



BEFOKT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. 



[CHAP, IT. 



scribed by the Government of India, while the Bengal Department regards the 
course in its upper primary schools as going considerably beyond that standard. 
But the relative difficulty of the subjects taught in the diffemt Provinces of 
India can be determined by a reference to the standards already given in this 
Chapter. Independently of this question, the following statement is useful as 
showing the very small proportion of pupils tvIio come up for examination in 
Bengal- It indicates the difficulty and magnitude of the task which has yet to 
be accomplished in that Province before it can raise the standard of its indige- 
nous schools even up to the moderate requirements of the lower primary stan- 
dard- This remark remains true after every allowance has been made for the 
fact that the pupils in the primary classes of secondary scbools in Bengal 
are for the most part excluded from this Statement* 

Statement comparing the number of examinees in each Province. 



Prottnee 


Primary pupil* 


Etamlneef 


Standard 




Madras 


3*^43 


JO S69 
23*879 


Upper primary 
Lower „ 

Both 


7,17* 
16,607 


34.743 


23 779 


Bombay * 


332 6SS 


18630 

4o 5^3 


Upper primary 
Lower „ 

Botlt 


22 822 


64,213 


30*99S 


Bengal 




3 157 

29,368 


Upper pLimary 
Lywer tt 

Both 


2 544 

16561 


32 525 


19105 


North-Western Froracea and Oudh 

*■ 


213 233 


14316 
31*322 


Upper primary 
Lower p ^ 

Both 


6756 
15 225 


45^33 




Pnnjab 


102,867 


6,329 


Upper primary 
Lower tJ 

Both 


4,210 

7,626 


166S9 


ttS36 


Central Provinces 


77*737 


7>55i 
; 12.740 


TTprier primary 
Lower „ 


3 U3 
6,617 




9 730 



175. Eecommendations as to Standards and Examinations.— We 

have fully explained the want of uniformity which necessarily attends the pro- 
gress of primary education not merely under widely different systems, hut 
also amidst populations that differ so materially in social hahits and stages 
of civilisation as the different races and classes of Indian society. The largest 
possible independence should be left to each Government. Education should 
girow mth the Wans, grouts <rf different P^rorais, am\ -wnaterer tends 
to check its free play and development or to force it into anything like a 
uniform shape for the whole of India should he avoided. Our attention has 
heen drawn to a difficulty which has been specially brought to notice in the 
North-western Provinces, hut which has also been ief erred to in other parts of 
Northern and Eastern India. It is urged by some that the spread of education 
is injurious to the inteiests of agriculture by mahing the children of cultivators 



cnu* iv] rmiArr education 227 

unfit for hard work in the fields and leading them to he discontented with their 
lot in life It is obvious that this is a danger which irises only while edu 
cation is the monopoly of i few, hut with a wider diffusion of knoiUea-e 
the sense of discontent which it is said to inspue will disappear To some 
extent, however, the complaint indicates another danger ind shows Iiow neces 
sary it is that the elementary education provided for the masses should be of a 
kind which they recognise as practically useful to them m their ordinary occu- 
pations TVe arc convinced not only that education of the right hind is as 
bcneficnl to the cultivators as to all other classes of Indian society, bnt also 
that it is cipablo of improvement and development as society advances "We 
therefore recommend that the standards of pummy examination in each 
Province be reused with a new to simplification, and to the larger tntroduc 
lion of pi actical subjects, such as native methods of arithmetic, accounts, and 
mensuration, the elements ofnattaal mid physical science, and their apph 
cation to agriculture* health, and the tmhtstnal arts, but that no attempt 
be made to scane umfonnily tfo oughout India Not only do we desire to 
see each provincial system left free to develope -iccoidmg to local wants 
but wo also desire to see the greatest freedom left to mamgers of aided 
schools TVe therefore recommend that care be taken not to interfere ictth 
the freedom of managers tn the choice of textbooks Under a gnnt m nd 
system, it miy he necessary to test results by fixed standards of examination 
but it is imporhnt thtt* promotion from class to class be not made to depend 
uecessarihj on the 1 emits of one fixed standard of examinations uniform 
throughout the JProi nee 

176 Physical Training. — TVe have given an account of the intellectual 
traimn g provided under vinous standards m the public primary schools of India 
fTc havo now f o enquire what steps are taken to promote the physical and moral 
wellbeing of the children As we have previously obseived, the Provinces in which 
education is munly provided by the direct instrumentality of Government possess 
a great advantage in this as in some other respects over those whose sj stem is budt 
on pnvite schools which must he left very much to themselves Accordingly, in 
Bombay and the Central Provinces especially, gymnastics and dnll have been 
introduced as part of the school routine and schoolmasters are taught gymnastic 
exercises as pait of their training In Bengal the opportunity of hoys being col 
lected for central examinations is often taken to encourage athletic contests and 
to reward success in physical exercises In the rest of India less systematic 
attention is paid to the subject It seems to be taken for granted that the boys 
who helong to the lower and more robust classes of society will provide exercise 
for themsel\ cs But the sedentary habits of the higher castes are proverbial , 
and we comidei that a regular course of physical exercise would have a specially 
good effect upon the minds and bodies of most Indian students We therefore 
recommend that physical deielopment be promoted by the encouragement of 
native games, gjmnasttcs, school drill, and other exercises suited to the circiim 
stances of each class of school The Bengal plan shows bow in the case of 
aided schools occasional opportunities may be taken for encouraging gymnastics, 
3nd under the departmental system the provision of a small play ground W1 tb 
a few poles and bars will not add much to the cost of education, while it will 
afford the hoys a beneficial interlude from mental study 

177 Mnral Trainiilff —Much has been said in the evidence and the memo 
Mais before us regarding thlimportance of moral teaching There is a widespread 
deling cspecnar m the P^ab, that somctmng should he done tc . promote .the 
development of the sense of light and wrong in the minds of scholars of aH 
grades Some have advocated the preparation of i moral text-book, others of 



123 nrrorvr or tub education* coujiis^ion. [cimp. n # 

a manual for the guidance of masters, whilst others again think that tho object 
will ho more surely gained by introducing lessons having k moral hearing into the 
ordinary reading-books- Very successful efforts havo heen made in this direc- 
tion in the Province of Bombay, especially in the series of text-books prepared 
by Mr, T. 0- Hope, C s. Tho whole subject of tc^ct^booU for primary as 
well as for other schools will bo reserved for consideration in Chapter VII* 
Undoubtedly they offer one means of conveying moral teaching to pupils. But 
even where their importance is recognised, we doubt whether the teachers tike 
sufficient advantage of any opportunities open to them of instilling moral prin- 
ciples and habits into the minds of their pupils. The ever-impending examin* 
ation tends to push to one Bide any subject, however important, which will not 
appear directly in tho " results." In the Central Provinces the Manual of 
Teaching, which is put into the hands of every student on his admission in to 
tho Normal school, contains a full statement of the teacher's duty in this 
respect, and similar directions are included in tho "standing orders" of the 
Bombay Department But thcro may bo somo doubt how far these measures 
effect their object. It is of course impossihlo to secure that every teacher shall 
be a man of such moral character as to lend weight to his precepts. But the 
inspection of a school should at any rate include a careful enquiry whether the 
boys have had their attention directed to tho moral significance of the lessons 
they have read A simple manual for tho guidanco of teachers may assist them 
m this part of their duty ; while the knowledge that some enquiry mil be made 
by the Inspector will keep tho subject before their minds, Nor should the 
moral value of strict and careful discipline be left out of sight. When a boy 
knows and keeps his proper place in tho school* he will bo in somo degree trained 
to keep it in tho world also. Manners afford some indication of moral training* 
and should on no account ho regarded as beyond the teacher's care. It appears 
that a good deal of what is sometimes described as moral deterioration in Indian 
school boys is in reality a departure from tho gentle and respectful manners of 
old times In this respect the Inspector's treatment of the schoolmaster will 
often he reflected in the master's treatment of his pupils, Thero may he 
inspecting officers who are more careful of their own dignity than of that of the 
schoolmasters with whom they deal, while the latter is in reality far more 
important. On the whole, though no general measure can secure moral training 
in primary schools, careful and constant attention may havo some effect in 
promoting it. "We therefore recommend that alt inspecting officers and teachers 
be directed to see that the leaching and discipline of every school are such as to 
exert a right influence on the manners^ the conduct , and the character of the 
children^ and that for the guidance of the masters a special manual he prepared 

178* Religious Teaching- — It has already been shown how Iar<*c a 
place religious teaching occupied in the course of instruction provided in 
indigenous schools, both high and low, Even from the essentially secular 
bazar school in some parts of India, religion is not excluded ; while the com- 
plaint against maktabs has heen that they confined their instruction to the 
Koran. Following a policy of strict religious neutrality, the Despatch of 1854 
declared that the system of grants-in-aid should be based on an entire abstinence 
from interference with the religious instruction conveyed in the school assisted. 
Under the application of this stringent rule, aided institutions are at liberty to 
convey whatever religious or moral instruction they please. But the Despatch 
did not leave its decision on the question of religious instruction in departmental 
schools to be drawn as a mere inference from the contrast with aided schools* On 
the contrary, the Court of Directors declared that Government institutions were 
founded for the benefit of tho whole population of India, and that it was there- 
fore indispensable that ihe education conreyeel in them should be exclusively 



a 



cmr iv ] PniarAnY education 129 

secular At the same time it was explained in paragraph 84 of tne Despatch 
of 1S54 and m paragraph 59 of the Despatch of 1859 that the misters of Gov. 
eminent schools were not absolutely precluded from giving instruction out of 
school-hours in the facts and doctrines of the Christian religion to any pupils 
who might apply for such instruction Against the strict principle of excluding 
religious instruction from the school-courso various objections were rused and 
discussed m tho Commission It wis urged that m some parts of India no 
difficulty would arise, because the Government school is attended by children all 
of w horn belong to one religious sect , that part of the policy of transferring the 
management of primary schools to local committees was to permit of wider and 
readier adaptation to local wants, which might possibly include a desire for 
religious teaching, and that, finally, these boards might be trusted not to 
do violence to religious prejudices or local feelings, or at least that the reserv- 
ation of a right of appeal from a dissenting minority would secure justice to 
all On tho other hand, a majority of us considered that religious feeling 
was so inflammable in India, and sectarianism so prevalent, that it was not safe 
to depart from a policy which had worked well m the past The value of reli- 
gious education was admitted on all sides, but it was hoped that home instruc- 
tion and the increase of aided schools m which religious instruction may be 
freely given, w ould to a large extent minimise the recognised evil of bamshin 
religion from Government primary schools Accordingly we rejected a pro 
posal "that religious instiuction bo permitted, with the sanction of the school 
' committee, in primary schools maintained by boards provided (1) that such 
'arrangements bo made as to enable parents objecting to the religious instruction 
' to withdraw their children from it , (n)that the Inspector or other Departmental 
'officer does not mteifere or examine in such subjects , (in) that if there |be a 
'dissenting minority m the community, who represent a number of pupils 
'Butiuaenb to form one or more separate classes or schools, it shall be incumbent 
' on the Department to provide for the establishment of such classes and schools, 
•and it shall be incumbent on the municipal or rural board to assign to such 
1 classes or schools 1 fair proportion of the whole assictnablo funds " Having 
rejected this proposal, the Commission by a large majority adopted the follownig 
Kecommendatiou, that the existing rules as to religions teaching in Government 
schools be applied to all primary schools wholly maintained by municipal or local 
fund hoards In dissenting from this Recommendation one member of the 
Commission obsci ved that it must not be implied that the existing rules precluded 
religious instruction , for on the contrary teachers were allowed, m accordance 
with tho Despatches just quoted, to give such instruction in the school before or 
after the mdmary school-hours, and several instances could bo mentioned of 
teachers nvailin" themselves of this permission, especially in the Bombay schools 
for Muhammadan boys Another member remarked that religious instruc- 
tion was especially desirable in girls' schools The mover of the Recommendation 
with the assent of his supporters disclaimed any intention of desmng to alter 
existing practice, and the Recommendation was adopted on tins understanding 

179. Training of Teachers : Policy affirmed by A« 
outm PraoUce -We now approach a ^^^^SS m 
ation of primary education ^^J^^^^om^^ from 
the instructions issued by the Government of India to xue u ' 

which we quote tho following passage 
"parts of tho country for training the teachers of primary 

"brought under careful revw, and of 
"efficient and practical should, if possible, to submitted a * t 

.850 it was remarked that « the institution of training schools does see 



130 EE POET OF TUB EDUCATION COMMISSION** [CHAP. IV. 

« have been carried out to the cstent contemplated by tbo Court of Directors 
In a later Despatch of the Secretary of State, dated March 24* 1862, satisfaction 
was expressed at " the improvement of the lialkabandi schools in the North- 
"Western Provinces in consequence of the training of the masters in Normal 
" schools," Thus from the earliest date particular stress was laid upon the im* 
nrovemcnt of the teachers. Wo have seen that upon this basis proceeded the first 
attempts to improve tho indigenous schools of Bengal The " circle system** and 
the "Normal school system " attempted to raise the standard of instruction in 
the Bengal village schools " through improved teaching ,f Sir George Campbell's 
scheme of 1872 also laid particular stress upon 44 attaching newly appointed 
" teachers of village schools for some months to training classes at the district or 
u suVdivisional head-quarter^ " In 1872 and 1873 there mere 26 Government 
Normal schools of all grades in Bengal, In 1874 the new scheme for the ex* 
tension of Normal schools came into force. It contemplated the establishment 
oi ft fost grade school lot ttaiumg superior vernacular teachers at the head* 
quarters of each Division ; and of a lower grade school for village school teachers 
in each District, Accordingly, sanction mas given to tho establishment of 9 
Normal schools of the first grade, 22 of tho second grade, and 15 of the third 
grade, at a total annual cost of Its 1 ,64,000. Half of the stipends at first 
grade schools, and all at second and third grade schools were allotted to pupils 
under training as village teachers. 

180- Change of Policy in Bengal as regards the Training of Teach- 
ers. — After a year's trial of this scheme, the Lieu tenant-Governor, Sir Richard 
Temple, found reason for believing that it was unduly expensive. In fact, 
the utility of Normal schools, except as a means of providing trained teachers 
for the better section of the pathsalas, had already begun to bo doubted. A 
phrase in common use about this time in the mouths of District Officers was 
that to raise the indigenous schools much abo\e their traditional level would be 
"to improve them off the face of the earth.* 1 The complaint also began to be 
heard that the indigenous gurus were strongly averse to leaving their villages 
and coming in, if only for three or six: months, to the Normal school. Thus 
the new Normal schools were declared to bo both costly and ineffective. The 
best gurus were considered able to teach the simple standard required of them 
without going to a Normal school; the worst were regarded as incapable of 
improvement by any process. The gradual substitution of better educated, 
if untrained, men was urged on grounds alike of economy and efficiency, 
especially if accompanied by a system of payment by results. Under that 
system it was thought that greater attention mould be paid to the middle of 
the school, while the scholarships would always pull up the first class. The 
new policy with regard to Normal schools was set forth in a Minute dated 
9th September 1875. The Lieutenant-Governor was of opinion that, at least 
in Bengal proper, teachers for the primary schools could be supplied in abund- 
ance from the classes educated in the lower vernacular and middle schools of 
the country ; and that Normal schools for the training of elementary teachers 
could, except in the most backward Districts, be gradually closed without injury 
to the cause of elementary vernacular education* Accordingly* a few second and 
third grade Normal schools were to he kept up, though on a reduced footing, in 
the backward Provinces of Behar, Ohota Nagpur, and Orissa only, where the 
supply from other sources of qualified teachers for primary schools was not 
equal to the demand It was hoped that under the new system the cost of 
Government Normal schools could be reduced one^half without any sacrifice of 
efficiency. At the same time, continued improvement in the quality of the in* 
struction was put forward, equally with an increase in its quantity, as an object 



to bo constantly kept in mind. The policy pursue£l throughout this period was 
governed by the principle that the standard of the lower primary scholarship 
was that at which the general body of primary schools should aim; and that 
for teaching up to that moderate standaid instruction in a Normal school 
was not required. Even in backward Districts the system of payment by results 
tv as alleged to bo sufficient to increase tho natural supply of competent gurus, 
and to make tho maintenance of a Normal school les3 necessary. The results 
of this now policy may be summarily shown. From 1874 to 1876 the number 
of Government Normal schools was 41. It fell to 31 in 1877, to 24 in 1878, 
and to 17 in 1879. In 1881-82 there were 8 Normal schools for training 
superior vernacular and 10 for training village teachers, including the guru 
departments of first grade schools. There is, therefore, no question that the 
new policy sanctioned by the Government of Bengal has been carried out in a 
deliberate manner.^ That policy proposed tho gradual substitution of young 
men taught in middle and lower vernacular schools as teachers of primary 
schools ; and consequently, in considering the effect which the system has had 
in improving tho primary education of the country, the Bengal Depart- 
ment claims to take into account not only the teachers trained in Normal 
scfhools, but those taught in departmental schools of the classes named. Under 
this definition of trained teachers it appears that, besides 3,358 teachers trained 
in Normal schools, 4,1 1 8 have been taught in middle schools, and i,6oi in upper 
primary schools. There arc, therefore, altogether 9,077 teachers in aided schools 
out of n total of 47,402, who are qualified, according to the standard of qualifi- 
cation now accepted in Bengal, to teach the, full primary course There are 
also a certain proportion of the indigenous gurus who are similarly qualified ; 
but as tho total number of schools nhiehsent candidates for the upper and lower 
primary scholarship examinations was in 1882 only 9,336, it follows that the 
number of such gurus is small. It is true that the number of schools qualified 
to send candidates for the primary scholarship examination has been steadily 
increasing sinco 1876, when the number was 3,110; but the figures show how 
great is the task that still lies before the Department in Bengal in its endeavours 
to bring the general body of primary schools up to the standard even of the lower 
primary examination. It proposes to cifect tliis, not by imposing teachers from 
without on the village schools, sinco the choice of the teacher must generally 
be left to the village, but by gradually infusing among the villagers a desire for 
a better standard, and by so improving the position and prospects of the teacher 
that men with higher qualifications for the work may be gradually attracted to it. 
With the views expressed in Bengal as to the policy of training primary school- 
masters, it is well to place in contrast the opposite policy which has been steadi- 
ly maintained in Madras, where the great bulk of the primary schools are 
improved indigenous and other aided institutions. The substitution of trained 
masters for the old class of teachers is there strongly insisted upon, and 
under the term "trained" are not included masters who have merely passed 
through a good primary school or even a secondary school as in Bengal, but 
only those who have received a good training in a Normal school. The Keport 
of our Bengal Provincial Committee remarks* that "the training of teachers 
from outside must necessarily be out of place in a system of primary schools 
growing out of on old organisation which is slowly changing" under the new 
« influences brought to bear on it." The Beport of our Madras Provincial Com- 
mittce remarks on the contrary as follows : "Improve* dmasters are a pressing 
" want. Tortho training of these, someaddition to the number of local Normal 
« schools seems to be required. There has been a considerable increase in their 

* Tide, Bengal Provincial Report 

t CVplwIH, 5«tiou 13, pi«3»Pfe ». MaJrw Pmincul Beport 



ft 



132 



TtEVORT Or T1ID EDUCATION COMMISSION. 



" number, and they arc, wo Relieve, generally well organised and worked; a still 
" further development of the system is a desideratum. ^ On this point there is a 
" pretty general consensus of opinion amongst our witnesses. Additional ex- 
f c pendituro is of course required/* 

181. Decision of the Commission : Recommendations as to the t 

Training of Teachers-— Wo arc unanimous in attaching the greatest im- , 
portance to the continued and more systematic prosecution of the policy laid 
down in the Home Despatches, and until 1875 acted upon without question. It 
seems to us a matter of the greatest importance not merely that Normal schools 
should be established at a few centres, but that they should bo widely distributed 
throughout the country* In considering indigenous education, wc laid stress 
on the necessity of affording special encouragement to indigenous school- 
masters to bring their relatives and successors under training* But if this 
policy is to be successful, special facilities must be created* Accordingly we 
recommend that the supply of Normal schools, whether Government or aided } 
be so localised as to provide for the local requirements of all primary schools^ 
whether Government or aided t within the division under each Inspector. We 
attach considerable importance to the personal interest which cacli Inspector 
should take in the Normal school attached to his charge ; and in order that 
proper financial provision may bo made for the extension of such institutions, 
ire recommend that the first charges on provincial funds assigned for primary 
education be the cost of its direction and tnspeclion, and the protiston of an 
adequate supply of Normal schools. TVo have laid emphasis on the local re* 
quixements of schools, and on the policy of localising training schools. It is 
in our opinion very desirable that the Tillage schoolmaster should be a local 
resident and not a foreigner In the Haidarabad Assigned Districts the want 
of proper Normal schools compelled the Department for many years to rely 
upon a supply o£ teachers drawn from Bombay. The disadvantages of such 
a plan are obvious. It is evident that by giving to the people of a District the 
prospect of employment, the popularity of the Department is in some measure 
seemed. Again, it is desirable by every means to secure local interest and sup* 
port in the village school, and the villagers may be expected to co-openito more 
readily with a member of their own community* The success of an indigenous 
school has often been mainly due to the fact that the master was a member of 
the village community. In this respect the departmental schools may with 
advantage follow the example of indigenous institutions, 

182, Existing Arrangements for Training Teachers —As already 

noticed, we were directed to review carefully the present arrangements for train- 
ing teachers in each Province of India. We append two Tables, of Tvhich the 
first sIiotvs the number of trained and untrained teachers in primary schools 
throughout India, and the second gives the number of training schools. But 
in comparing the results shown in the lables special reference must be made to 
the description of each provincial system which follows. Tho term 4t certifi- 
r " cated " bears various meanings in different Provinces. In Bombay and the 
{ Central Provinces all the teachers so returned have won certificates of merit 
[ after completing a two-year or a three-year course in a Normal school. In 
another Province the title is applied after a comparatively short training to any 
one T?ho has gained a pupil-teacher's certificate in a primary school. A glance 
at the columns of expenditure and of the numbers which left the Normal 
schools in 1881-82 will at once suggest compnrisons as to the duration and 
quality e£ the training given In the case of Bengal, the list includes schools 
for training not only the masters of primary schools, but also of middle schools. 
These and other differences will be more fully noticed hereafter. 



PUIMAItY EDUCATION 



133 




CO 



to ^ 
in m 



moo 

-T 0\ 

crt c% ^ 



C6 
00 



8 



I 



to 



in ^ 



on o 



o 

to 



*- CO 
■o <o 



i** <*) 



CO 



2 



r* CO 



C4 
U3 



IP 



re 'ft 



S3 



a 



in 

03 



O 



o 

CO 

c3 



ft 



I 



4 
4 



to 



OS 



o> 

**> 


oo 

<s 


cv 

<8 


to 




CO 

• 

• ** 

* CO 


o 
o 


O 


c> 


CO 




« 




to 

• 


& 

CO 


«> 

O 



■5 iS-S 

n u 



f 1 

9 O g 



OO 



CO 
1^. 



<3 ffj 



i 



o 



-3 




13i REPORT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. [ mt 

TABLE 6.— Statement ihomng the number of Training Schools for Vernacular T * 

t?i 1881-82 



to 

R 



S3 ,£ 



Provinces Claaa of 
Institutions 



fi: 



CLASSIFICATION Of TfiH 
BTtTDETSTB £T BACE OR CBJEEE 



1 * 1 



3 



MAXJBA.9 



9* 



Bom bat 



Bengal 



Training Softool* 
'For men 
JFor women 
Total 

'JTor msn 
.For women 

TOTA£ 

fFor men 
LFor women 
Total 



**7 



553 



Soain VTesteb.it (Tot m«i 

P^OVltfCEB AND-S 

0 uuh LFor women 

Total 



Punjab 



fFor men 
[For women 

Total 



3M 



CENTRAL 

Provinces 



Cooao 



H A Djstkicth 



fTor inen. 
LFot women 
Total 

{For men 
For women 

"For men 
JPor women 
Totai, 



* S3 



33 



33 



79 



7$ 



Total for j*<*men 



For 

IN* A(C) | FofWMrtn 

Total (el) 



2.B86 



5SS 



41 



43 



535 



»57 



53 



33 



wo 



60 



171 



14 



66 



66 



13 



4*9 



s 



47 



S 



*S4 



ID 



77 5°S 



89 11 1 



90 



11 



369 



»M 9 it 



43 



13459 



5 



96 ia 6 



459t 



1 
i 

i 

•These matitntiQns 
first ^radetraiHiDgcol^ 
Hence the high rated 1 
- given in toluiim i<w 
•fOf dm number utfi 
IFurcpeans &nd Ennuwi 
^Training certificate tit 

issued to unstressed 
II Of this number -fifi 0 w 
certi^cateef<>r^!tf a 
the remainnif 





f*i 


H 


1 


360 


6 671 


8j 


5 


9 


7 


c 43"35* 


H3 


S 




37* 



5*^3 



M3 > 4 



51 



M4M 



*7>94° 



9 S 

Btatiahca 

not 
available 



53 



97 



63 9 to 



19 



&3 9 10 



313 A 0 



19 



nuclndeasiFfld ^ 
half of pupils toinu 

Middle Stkoatt> ^ 



** Including 9 |f«l* 



133' 3 »8 



■3 



15* 4«t3*7 



3*3 « a 



tig o B 



fig o 8 



I I 

ff Including Ha j -*0ftl3 
penditnre on the 
SchooL j 



>9 



ft J 09 6 O 



* 5G3 



i+Tncludsa Bs 4 7^ ( 
count of etipenda 10 1 
uii&er training 



? ^Jj^ 11 * T * c * bmld atiil other miscellaneous dorgea vhicli Lstb not been returned by tlie other FrOTincea 

total cost of eaucntiDtt each student hut been caloTilated on the aTeraga monthly ntunber of the students enrolled 
* — V sc v* < r n K ^rj^ Suitua ud (ill ^^Htb Strttes timt ftdnun ster their otra nystem of education 

t^*™ E S a Training ecnoola in AJtnir tnth 23 pupils The total eip^n^ ture incurred on these cchoola waollfl 
e — ibere arj alao iop^p 1 teachera in Sambalpnr under trwumg who arc under spec ftl flgrccmente and tho masters who 
rt ceii* a bonus on their passing- the teacher 3 certificate eiaminatian, hrne paased and were emi loyei 



chap, rv.] rnnrAUT education. 135 

« i 8 r V-^^v w 0 ™^ S i Cll00ls and T eacWs.-It is unfortunate that 
the statistics supplied from Madras should be insufficient to enable us to ffl 
in the first Table But tho deliberate policy p« Wue d in Madras, of improv 
ing and not merely of incorporating the indigenous schools, has left its mark 
upon the personnel of indigenous schoolmasters. The progress U more marked 
in somo Districts than in others. In Malabar 150 masters in 672 indigenous 
scliools aro returned as having been trained in a Normal school, and h the 
Godavnri District there aro 89 masters so returned in 641 schools. It is true 
that in 1 1,264 indigenous schools throughout the Presidency there are only 480 
masters returned as thoroughly trained and 208 more w^io hold certificates 
But theso returns are reasonably held to bo far below the proper estimate. An 
examination of the returns of the last twenty-three years shows that more than 
5,800 trained masters have received fourth and fifth grade certificates. The 
number of those who havo died, or abandoned the profession of teaching, 
Qr have been promoted to secondary schools must be a matter of conjecture; 
but in tho opinion of the Madras Provincial Committee it is probable that 
3,000 certificated teachers are engaged in primary education. The number of 
elementary Normal schools has rapidly increased of late years, and it is believed 
that their annual outturn is represented by at least 500 trained men; so 
that every hopo is entertained of speedily overtaking the demand, and of sup- 
plying nearly all the indigenous schools with competent teachers. Provision 
for training primary teachers is made in sS Normal schools, of which one is 
maintained from provincial resources, 24 from local funds and 3 are aided» 
The number of pupils in 1881-82 was 770. Of these, 166 learnt English, 14 a 
classical language, and 763 a vernacular; three-fourths of the students were 
thus being prepared for teaching in the vernacular only. Of the 770 pupils 
167 were Native Christians, 561 were Hindus, 41 Hussalmans, and one was a 
Eurasian. The standard aimed at in these schools is what is termed the " spe- 
" cial upper primary examination/' of which the course will he found given in 
Appendix B of the Madras Provincial Report. 

Position of Teachers. — The pay and prospeefs of teachers in the public 
primary schools of Madras are said to be greatly superior to those of the indi- 
genous schoolmasters who receive no aid. They are employed in three classes 
of schools— first, private schools aid^l by result grants ; secondly, the school* 
aided by local fund boards and municvalities on the " combined system " which 
will bo described in Chapter "VTIl ; and tliirdly, in schools aided by the same 
boards on the " salary grant system.") In the first class of schools the aver- 
age income of a village school-teacher is estimated at Rs. 7 a month. The 
teachers in tho second class hold a better position, not merely as being 
assured of a fixed salary, but also as being servants of public boards. Their 
fixed salary averages H«> $ and their contingent income about Us. 2-8 in addi- 
tion TLbfV, in local fund and municipal " salary grant schools/' the salaries 
vary from Ls 5 for an assistant to lis. 10 or Rs. 12 for a head-master Some 
boards, however, pay much more; in the Saidapet Local Pond primary school, 
for example, the salaries rise as high as Rs. 25. Generally only masters who 
have passed the Matriculation examination can secure salaries of Rs 18 or 
Rs «o Tho salaries contemplated in the Grant-in-aid Code for masters in the 
primary daw of secondary schools range from Rs. 20 to Rs. 3 o in the upper 
section, and from Rs. 7 1° ^ 30 in the ltnver sectl0n ' 

184 Bombay: Normal Scliools and Teacbers.-m 1881-82 there were 

7 timing fo^L male teachers, 4 maintained 

States, and one under private management These had 48 o "tmtenJ on the 
rolls, and 141 left during tho year with certificates of training; while the out- 



jgg BE POET OP Tim EDUCATION COMMISSION, [cttAP, 17, 

turn for the ten years, 1871-81, was 1,718. The total number of teachers 
employed to the cess schools at the end of 1881-82 vas 9,314. Of these, 4,565 
were head or solo masters, of whom 2,077, or 45-45 per cent., held training 
college certificates; 2,683 ^ cr0 assistant masters, of ^hom .174, or (4 per cent, 
were certificated, and 2,066 were pupil-teachers. Of the 2488 masters returned 
as untrained, 1,371 received salaries amounting to less than Us- 10 a month. 
These men arc placed in charge of branch or small village-schools, for which 
teachers with a special college training arc declared to ho unnecessary. At 
present, at any rate, the Department would not be justified in appointing to 
such schools a more expensive agency, especially as the masters now in charge 
have nearly all passed an examination in tho highest vernacular standard and 
are not incompetent to perform the duties entrusted to them. 

Position of Teachers —The Bombay Provincial Committee give a com- 
plete list of the salaries paid to teachers in the cess schools, from which it 
appears that 59 per cent, of them receive salaries not exceeding Ks. 10 a 
month* All who arc permanently engaged on a salary exceeding Its. 10 arc 
entitled to pensions payable from local fund revenues. Those masters, more- 
over, who have been instructed in tho Normal schools receive, in addition to the 
minimum pay named in their college certificates, an allowance calculated on 
the results of the annual examination of their schools and on tho average 
attendance of their pupils during the year. This system of payment by results 
works fairly well- It enables the trained master of a largo and flourishing 
school to almost double the minimum pay of his rank ; but there is a certain 
drawback to the system in the varying attendance of the village schools, in 
consequence of which the income of tho master is affected by causes independ- 
ent of his merit* The highest monthly pay given to tho head-master of any 
primary school rarely exceeds Its 60 a month, but teachers of long and approved 
service are eligible for Assistant Deputy Inspectorships, the pay of which 
post is Es 75. The prospects of a vernacular schoolmaster are not considered 
to be equal to those of an officer of similar status in the Hevcnuo Department. 
Stdl the former occupies a respectable position in native society. In ninety 
schools out of a hundred he is a Brahman. In the xura districts he is often 
chosen to manage the village post-office, by which arrangement he secures addi- 
tional pay and importance ; and in towns he is not uufrequently a member of 
the Municipal Committee. On the whole, it may be said that the cess schools 
have succeeded in attracting a competent class of men whoso position secures 
respect for the office of schoolmaster, and who in point of education and intel* 
ligence are rather above the average of subordinate officers in other "branches of 
the public service, 

185* Bengal ; Normal Schools and Teachers*— We have already quoted 

the statement contained in the Bengal Provincial Report that the training of 
teachers fiom outside must necessarily be out of place in the Bengal system. 
It will therefore at first sight occasion some surprise to see how large an 
expenditure is annually incurred on Normal schools in that Province* The 
explanation will be found in the remarLs made in an early part of this Ohapter 
upon the Bengal primary system. That system extends into secondary educa- 
tion, since middle and high schools have primary classes attached to them, 3?or 
the real primary schools of Bengal there are only 1 2 Normal schools in back- 
ward Districts, of which 8 are Government institutions attended by 248 pupils, 
% and the rest are aided institutions. Besides these there are guru classes at- 
tached to a first grade Normal schools. The total outturn from the Govern- 
ment institutions was 193 in the year under review. The course occupies from 
six months to one year, whereas in Bombay it varies from two to three years. 



137 



CHAP. IV.] PRIMARY EDUCATION. 

The other 8 formal schools were attended by 466 pupils, who are training f or 
teacherships in the middlo schools. Their course extends over three years, and 
includes a classical languago, vernacular mathematics and science, up to some 
point which is above rather than below the Erst Arts standard of the Calcutta 
University. 

Position of Teachers .— On this subject the following extracts are taken 
from the Provincial Report: "The average annual pay of the teacher of an 
upper primary school is estimated at above Us. 100 in cash, of which Us. 48 
are from Government and 52 from local sources; besides occasional payments 
in kind and clothes, and in many instances gratuitous maintenance by some 
well-to-do villager. The average income of the teacher of a lower primary 
school probably falls short of Us. 100 a year. The Government contribution 
varies, under the result system, from Us. 1 6 to the lowest average of Us. 4 ; 
under tho stipendiary system the average payment is Ks. 31 a year; and under 
a mixed system. Its. 39 A very large number of the teachers of lower primary 
schools have free board and lodging in respectable households. Cases are 
coming to bo known, of primary school-teachers seeking for promotion, and 
getting it as assistant teachers of middle schools, with some improvement to 
their position, but with no gain, as they quickly find, to their income." It 
would, however, appear that the pay of all these masters, and especially of the 
lower primary schoolmasters, has been over-estimated. For in the General Table 
of Expenditure it is shown that the total cost of 46,453 aided boys* schools was 
less than 19 lakhs, including fees, all other local receipts, and the Government 
grant, which was not quite 26 per cent, of the whole cost. According to these 
figures each school enjoys an average annual income of Es. 40 only. But aver- 
age calculations are very misleading, and no accurate estimate can be formed 
of the Talue of fees paid in kind. According to a careful calculation made at 
page 1 2 7 of the Report, the small amount of the grants given in Bengal will be 
seen from the following figures : — 

Us. 

2,059 stipendiary schools at .... 31-1 per school per aumim. 
4^58 iided by stipends and rewards at . • 39 » » » 
33,867 aided by rewards at ... 5*5 », » » 

5,6So registered schools at . • . • i*7 » » " 

186. North/Western. Provinces and Oudh: Formal Schools and 

Teachers.— This Province has always paid systematic attention to the training 
of teachers, and it is estimated that 58 per cent, of the masters hold certifi- 
cates. There are 18 training schools for male teachers, and the course of in- 
struction lasts one year. Kumaon is the only revenue Division which is not 
supplied with a Normal school. Tho Department endeavours to obtam for these 
schools young men who have passed the middle class vernacular examination, 
who are fairly well acquainted with the subjects which they wUl have to teach, 
and who require chiefly to be trained in the art of teaching. In Oudh there !s 
a central Normal school at tucknow, and in the other districts there are Ivormal 
classes attached to tahsili schools (one in each District) where teacher 
trained in a similar manner. These latter teachers serve at first as apprentices, 
and if they give satisfaction are appointed permanently as vacancies occur. 

Position of Teachers-The monthly pay of 
varies from Ks. S to Ks. . 3. Able and deserving men ^^^^iL^ 
sili teacbexships on Us. 10, Ks. 15, and Bs. *o and 

Inspectors, and possibly Deputy Inspectors, great majonty^ f h a^atod, 
teachers, however, have little chance of ever getting more than Es. 1. a montl., 



138 



KEP0ILT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION, [CHAT. IV. 



and they have no claim to superannuation pensions or gratuities- The total 
number of halkabandi teachers is 5,731, of whom more than half arc certifi- 
cated, and the proportion is yearly increasing. 

187* Punjab : Normal Schools and Teachers —There arc three Gov- 
ernment training schools for vernacular teachers. The students are almost all 
stipendiaries drawn from the Districts. Students who have passed the middle 
school examination join the second-year class and receive a year's training 
before they are examined for a certificate. The rest complete the full course 
of two years. The Christian Vernacular Education Society at Amritsar has 
a training school with 3 1 pupils. In the Government schools there are f 70 
stipendiary studentships. The Report remarks that in future, "when these 
(f students are all sufficiently instructed befoie joining to require only one year's 
" training, the annual outturn should not be less than 1 50, which would be suffi- 
" cient to supply the vacancies which occur in all existing schools." At present 
the number of teachers in Government primary schools, English and Verna- 
cular, is about 2,500, In Government vernacular schools there were, in i88i ( 
1,284 head teachers, of whom 459 held certificates* Of these certificates, 168 
qualify the holders to teach in middle schools, and 2S1 in primary schools* 
The number of assistant tcachcis was 757, of whom 120 held certificates, 56 
of the middle school class, and 64 of the primary school class. Among un- 
trained teachers and assistants, 77 had passed the Punjab University Entrance 
examination, and 305 the middle school examination A few others have 
passed the special examinations of the Punjab University College in Oriental 
languages, or have studied in Government vernacular high schools. In aided 
schools the number of trained teachers is small, but no figures arc supplied. 
In departmental schools nearly 1,000 teachers, or two-fifths of the whole 
number, hold certificates of a Normal school, or have passed some equivalent 
public examination 

Position of Teachers. — In 1869 a scheme for improving the prospects 
and pay of teachers in the departmental schools of the Punjab was sanctioned, 
under which the minimum pay of a schoolmaster, excepting assistants, was 
fixed at Us- 10. This involved a large reduction in the number of schools 
and scholars, as additional funds had to he provided from the cebs and local 
funds, hut it materially improved the position of the teachers. As in other 
Provinces, there are a certain number of attached primary schools in which the 
teachers receive salaries as low as Rs. 6. 

188, Central Provinces: Normal Schools and Teachers v — In no 

Province of India, except the small district of Coorg, has greater success attend- 
ed the systematic effort of the Department to improve teachers than in the 
Central Provinces, There are three Normal (Government) schools, one at 
Jahalpur with 97 scholarships, another at Nagpur with 40, and the third at 
Eaipur with 50. Village masters are trained for one year and town masters 
for two. All agree to serve for at least two years after qualifying. In the 
Government schools 87 per cent, of the masters are trained, which gives a 
liigher percentage than in any other Province of India, while in aided schools 
the percentage is as high as it is in the cess schools of Bombay. 

Position of Teachers —The pay of vernacular teachers in the Govern- 
ment primary schools varies from Rs. 6 to 35 a month. Those who draw 
less than Us, 6 are monitors or pupi^teachers. Many of the masters are 
respected in the villages, and some of them are employed as village postmasters, 
or allowed to sell licenses under the forest regulations. 



chap tv] JiUMArr edt;cjltio% 13 q 

189 Assam : Hormal Schools and Teachers —There were 9 formal 

schools, 6 of which wore departmental with 220 pupils and 3 -uded mission with 
111, besides 2 training classes with 23 pupils an Cachir Arrangements have 
been made in the Goalpara District to train teachers at ten primary schools, 
the estimated number of stipendiaries being So In iSSr 82 eighteen students 
qualified for first grade primary schoolnvu>terships s and one for 1 second 
During the year the various schools and climes sent out 96 teichers, maim* 
the total since 1871 1,132 In the primary and lower vernacular schools there 
were 1,389 teachers, of whom 673 were trained and 716 untruncd The im- 
portance of improving the teachers of uded schools m tins Province is fully 
recognised* and the Inspector observes tint " the supply of quibfied teachers is 
tc not nearly equal to the demand ind it is much better not to start a primary 
u school at all thin to start one w ith a bad teacher who brings discredit on 
"our system of education " 

Position Of Teachers — A guru's pay vanes from Its 3 to Es 6 a month 
in ordinary pathsalas In special cases m pathsalas for lull tnbes the guru's 
pay 1$ Rs to In the Ehasi and Jaintia Hills the pay of the teacher is on an 
average about Es 12 per mensem According to the report of the Inspector* 
the teachers, besides their regular pay, are allowed to keep whatever they eon 
collect from fees , this makes the average pay of a teacher in a primary 
school to be nearly Its 5 a montb In making this calculation all primary 
schools — Government, aided, and unaided — are included If the^e he tiken 
separately, the monthly income of a teacher exclusive of piytnent in kind is 
as follows In Government pobce schools five teachers at Us 10, and two 
teachers at Its 12 each, in aided schools each teacher gets on an average 
Its 6 S, and in unaided schools each teacher gets on an average less than Its a 
A few of the best gurus occasionally are promoted to be teachers in middle 
schools , but mth this exception they have no prospect of improving their 
position 

190. Coorg- Normal Schools and Position of Teachers —For the 

training of vernacular teachers, a ft ormal class is maintained at Herkara in con 
nection with the central school Candidates for teacherships, who are selected as 
far as possible from among the pupil teachers of schools receive Es 5 a month 
wliile under training, and have quarters m the boarding house They are 
periodically examined, and on completing a course up to the middle school 
standard, and passing a satisfactory examination, are appointed to schools as 
vacancies occur Their pay commences at Rs 7 a month with the prospect of 
rising to Us 10 after five years* satisfactory service, and to Es 12 after five 
years more Normal students who fad to pass the final examination, but axe 
jet considered qualified for a lower teacherslup, are made assistant masters on 
Es s a month The pupil teachers are promising boys who have done well in 
the school and wish to become masters Ihey receive Es 3 a month and 
teach m junior classes, to allow of an opinion being formed of their aptitude 
for the work All the Canarese masters are reported to have received some 
measure of training 

191 Haidarabad Assigned Districts- "^SjE^dtt 

of Teachers —There is one tnuung school at ALolo, mth Jtotta anOUUKlu. 

the Utter w*h „ ^ ^ - « 

both a first and a second year's course Sfodeots pa ssm 0 A Bs ' 



140 



MKtfiT or Tim MracmoN caM3tissio>\ [cuu\ l\\ 



were 28 examinees, and ig passed, those who failed being appointed assistant 
teachers on lower salaries. The trained masters who begin on Ra. 12 or 
Rs. 15 per mensem can ri\o to Us, 25, if they give satisfaction and show 
good results. Assistant leathers on lower salaries arc taken from the pup&s of 
vernacular and Anglo-vernacular schools, and those on higher salaries are men 
who have matriculated or have finished the high school course, or have, by 
their long service, experience, aud satisfactory work, established their claim to 
promo tiom It has already been mentioned that a large proportion of the 
masters in these Districts aro foreigners, hut it is hoped thftt the Normal school 
will iu a few years succeed in turning out a sufficient number of trained teachers 
who aro residents of Berar. On the 31st March 18S2, there were 418 posts 
of teachers with salaries varying Trom Us, 12 to Its. 25 jfcr mensem, and 263 of 
them were held by persons 1^0 had not gone through or passed a training 
school-course, 

192. Recommendations as to the Supply and Position of Teachers*— 

AYe hare already stated our Recommendations for providing in every Inspectors 
Division facilities for training and improving the teachers not merely of Gov- 
ernment hut also of aided inRtitutions. In Madras the importance of the 
subject has been fully recognised. In Bombay, if the indigenous schools are 
further encouraged and assisted, as we think they ought to he, additional 
Normal schools must be provided, and it will be a matter for consideration 
whether a less severe test should not be prcscnljed, and the course shortened. 
In connection with this subject we call attention to a Recommendation 
which t\ III be found in Chapter VIII that the " teachers in non-Government 
"institutions be allowed to present themselves for examination for any grade of 
"certificate required by the grant-in-aid rules without being compelled to attend 
" a Normal school/ 1 In Bengal the Normal schools for strictly primary schools 
are according to our view inadequate, and more systematic and sustained 
endeavours should be made to improve the teachers of indigenous schools, 
whether m the way suggested by Sir George Campbell, or according to any 
modifications of his system which may he approved by the Local Go^ eminent. 
In the North -Western Provinces much has been accomplished, hut iu the 
Punjab the results are less satisfactory. If our Recommendations regarding 
the treatment of indigenous schools arc carried out in these two Provinces, 
additional and revised measures will have to be considered* In the Central 
Provinces and Coorg no suggestions are called for. In Assam a steady develop* 
ment of the policy now pursued will effect much improvement ; hut in the 
Haidarabad Assigned Districts greater facilities for training teachers are 
required. We may expect that in providing Normal schools, private enterprise 
will assist Government, and in that ca^c the patronage at the disposal of Gov- 
ernment should be freely bestowed on the best qualified candidates irrespectively 
of the institutions in which they are trained. 

As regards the position of teachers, we have thought it best to make 
no formal Recommendations* It was suggested that the Local Governments 
should be invited to consider the propriety of conferring additional duties 
in' connection with the revenue, postal, and forest Departments upon school- 
masters. But in respect to revenue duties, we recognised the danger of 
interference with the functions of hereditary village officers ; and as regards 
the other Departments, we observed that the experiment had been attended in 
Bombay as well in the Central Provinces with some measure of success, and 
we anticipate that the example wdl he followed, if convenient, in other parts 
of India All parties are agreed as to the advantage of raising the status of the 
village schoolmaster, and the measures appropriate to that end may bo left to 



CHAP, IT.] PEEIAEt EDTJCATIOS". 



141 



the local authorities. The provision of liberal aid to indigenous schoolmasters 
is obviously the most smiple and effectual means of raisin- their positi< 



ion. 



193. Tees; and Exemptions.— Table 7 given in paragraph 210 of this 
Bcport Trfll show the extent to which fees support primary education in each 
Province ; and in Chapter Vm vre shall revert to the subject. It is necessary 
to repeat the caution *hich has been conveyed throughout this part of the 
Eeport against hasty comparisons between the returns vfhich indigenous school- 
masters submit, and those more accurate statistics which are collected under 
the departmental system. In indigenous schools where fees aro paid without 
regularity and in kind as well as in money, it must be a matter of conjecture 
what is the money value of the teacher's receipts. But, speaking generally, 
the fees in the local fund and municipal schools of Madras arc left to the 
option of the boards and are fixed too low. Still Madras collects in the shapo 
of fees a larger proportionate amount than almosi an/ other Prorince, espe- 
cially in its aided schools. In the Bombay cess schools a certain percentage of 
free scholars is permitted, the proportion being regulated by the sitnation 
of the school, but the Tula is that fees are charged, though at a reduced 
rate, even to the children of cess-payers. Some of the witnesses have urged 
that the fees might be raised at any rate in towns, and this has lately been 
successfully attempted in the larger towns of Bombay. Others have pleaded 
for a free education to the whole rural population on the ground of its gene- 
ral poverty. In backward Districts for aboriginal or specially poor races, 
and in girls* schools, no fees are charged. In rural Bengal according to the 
returns furnished by the indigenous schoolmasters the fees would appear to 
be largo. In the North-Western Provinces, the Punjab, and to some extent 
in the Central Provinces, contributors to/ the local cess, are exempted from all 
payments of fees. For full details as to the amount realised by fees in every 
class of school and in every Province we must refer to Table 8 given towards 
the end of this Chapter. 

19*4. Recommendations as to Pees.— "We think it generally desirable 
that even in primary schools fees should be raised as far as is consistent with the 
spread of education. As regards the propriety of demanding schooling fees from 
all pupils in the Punjab schools, we may call attention to the Secretary of 
State's Despatch Kb. 14, dated April Sth, tg6i. The writer of that Despatch 
remarks that " there do not seem to me to be any circumstances which would 
justify the continued exemption of the Punjab from the rule prevailing in other 
parts of India under which schooling fees are universally exacted." In our 
opinion the levy of some fee should be the general rule. Accordingly we recom- 
'mend that pupils in municipal or local doard-schools be not entirety exempted 
from payment of fees merely on the ground that they are the children of rate- 
payers. The adoption of this Becommendation will create a great change in 
Northern India. We base our Eeeommenda.tion not merely on the example of 
Madras and Bombay, where rate-payers are subject to the payment of fees, but 
on the broader grounds of justice to the numerous rate-payers in Northern 
India, who, though they contribute to the ce^s, aro not supplied with a 
public primary school, whether departmental or aided. The whole education 
fund is inadequate to the supply of schools for every group of vilhges and 
those who enjoy the advantage of a school should contribute towarts its «*t 
so as to promote the establishment of similar institutions elsewhere. But 
we do not overlook the wants of the struggling poor, or of exceptionally 
l»ackward races and tracts. Wc therefore propose to limit the general rule 
bj the following Becommenaation, that in nil board-schools a certain propor. 



tt 
If 



EEFOET OP THE EDUCATION COlMISSIOtf. [CHA?. IV. 

twn of pnpite be admissible as free students on the ground of poverty ; and 
in the case of special schools, established for the benefit of the poorer clam* t a 
general or larger exemption from payment of fees he allotted under proper 
authority for special reasons. While the case of departmental schools is 
thus provided for, wo would also extend our general principle to aided schools, 
and accordingly we recommend that* subject to the exemption of a certain pro- 
portion of free students on account of poverty \ fees ; whether tn money or hnd y 
be levied in nil aided schools, but the proceeds he left entirely at the disposal 
of the sohool managers. 

195* Scholarship System.— TFe Lave now to consider various measures 
adopted in tlie different Provinces for stimulating the interest of pupils 
and encouraging parents to send their children to primary schools* It will he 
seen that there is nothing like uniformity throughout India* In the first 
place Tre shall enquire into the provision made for scholarships and prizes, and 
afterwards into the measures adopted for giving the test pupils from primary 
schools employment in the public service. The following Table shows the 
number and value of scholarships held in primary schools, hut *we must ob- 
serve that some of them are tenable for two or even three years, and others only 
for one year. The Table will not therefore represent the annual expenditure. 



TABLE 4, — 27*£ number and value of Scholarships tenable in primary Schools, 



BfbdUrsUpn 



3 



Madras • . 

North Western Fravracea and Oudli 



Central Province* 
Coorg 

Haidaribad Assigned Districts 



Not returned 

39s 
None 



value 



3 



ft a p 
3 2 B 
So 8 d 
770 o o 



4 



s6 



966 

9 



Not tttwicd but imrober stated to b& 

small 



Total job I*tua 



10S 
None 
None 



735 5 4 

$21 Q 0 



3 SSS 



799 



1 $02 o o 



22 S24 



The Despatch of 1854 directed that " the best pupils of the inferior schools 
" should lie provided for by means of scholarships in schools of a higher order, 
" so that superior talent in every class may receive that encouragement and' 
development which it deserves " This instruction has not been literally or 
uniformly carried out, and deviations from the policy laid doTm in the Des- 
patch have heen justified on various grounds. In order to understand these 
grounds it is necessary to explain the functions which a scholarship system 
m primary schools is designed to fulfil. Scholarships may in the first place 
enable a pupil to proceed from an inferior primary school to one of a superior 



CHAP. IV.] PKIJIAUT EDUCATION'. 113 

order, and in the second place from a primary to a secondary school. A^in a 
scholarship system unites to a certain extent various educational agencies! since 
it possesses the unquestioned advantage of enabling aided schoofs to compete 
with departmental schools for a prize open to both. Tie shall see that, with the 
exception of Bengal, no complete scholarship system is to be found in any 
Province of India. Even in that Province the system is not developed up to 
the needs of the community. But before inquiring into the present circum- 
stances of each Province we shall examine a preliminary objection tint has 
been taken to expenditure on scholarships. It is urged that under tho depart- 
mental system the necessity for a chain of scholarships is not felt. Hence in 
Bombay the tendency has been to reduce scholarships and to rely almost cxclu- 
sively on free studentships. There is some force in this argument ; and up to 
a certain point a liberal provision of free studentships does carry out part 
of the objects of the Despatch. In the Bombay primary system there is no 
division between the inferior village school for the masses and the superior 
primary departments of secondary schools for the education of the more well- 
to-do classes of society. In fact all boys, whatever their future course of 
study, learn the same subjects in the ordinary primary school Hence no 
bridge is required to lead from primary schools of an inferior to those of a 
superior order. The first object then of a scholarship system is met in Bombay 
by the constitution of the primary school, which is complete in itself np to the 
point where secondary education commences. As almost all the primary schools 
are departmental, the Department is able to institute free studentships, and 
these provide sufficiently for the wants of poor pupils who find in the village 
school the best primary education which the State can supply. It is at the . 
stage where the primary school is quitted for the middle school that (he need 
for a scholarship system begins to be felt in Bombay. Here again a provision 
of free studentships for promising boys is made, but a scholarship system is 
meant to do more than meet school fees ; it is intended to meet also the extra 
cost of leaving home and of studying at the middle class school. In Bombay 
the provision of scholarships at this stage is very small. The Bombay Depart- 
ment argues that the middle schools are filled, and that there is no need to 
stimulates demand for secondary education. Its policy is to economise in 
secondary education, and so long as the schools maintained by the Department arc 
filled it would be a waste of money to supply scholarships, Tho Secretary of 
State expressed entire approbation of the policy pursued by Sir A. Grant in Ins 
endeavours to check the increase in departmental secondary schools, and one of 
the measures adopted with that object was to reduce the number of schohr- 
ships. To these arguments it must be replied that, whatever may be the 
advantages of the Bombay system, it does not provide all those facilities for poor 
or clever pupils which the Despatch of 1 854 advocated. However, the absence 
of a liberal scholarship system in that Presidency prevents the Department from 
offering to aided schools that encouragement and assistance which, as we liarc 
pointed out, can be so naturally supplied by a chain of scholarships In Bengal, 
on tho other hand, the system provides for all these wants. In this Province 
there is a fundamental division between inferior and superior primary schools 
and in order to bridge over the separation between them, lower primary scholar- 
ships have been established, which are tenable in upper nnmiry schoob. 
Inasmuch as nearly all the primary schools in Bengal are aided institutions, 
the Department cannot impose upon their managers any prowsior t of fre, 
studentships, and hence the necessity for a provision of «h ^»^^nt. 
Between the primary schools and the secondary schoo to ; n ^ 
is established by a stUl more liberal provision of scholarships tenable in m^dlo 



EEPOftT OF THE EDUCATIONS COMMISSION- [OHAP. IT* 

schools- It has been urged, however, that the provision is inadequate. It is 
true that only in rare cases of exceptional ability is it necessary to bridge the 
gulf by such means* Thus Sir George Campbell's Kesolution of September 
1S72 expressed the intention of the Bengal Government in these terms; 
"To the really able boys at pathsalas opportunities for advancement mil he 
* f offered by a chain o£ scholarships, the gainers of which can pass through the 
** several grades of schools up to a University degree/' Still it may he questioned 
whether the present provision of primary scholarships is equal to the re- 
quirements of a primary system constituted as that of Bengal is. The statistics 
available to the Commission do not enable us to make any distinction between 
the pupils in village and town schools, and we cannot therefore determine what 
number of village school-boys have ascended to a superior primary school 
by means of scholarships. But the number of scholarships has received no 
great addition since their first institution by Sir George Campbell, although the 
number of schools which may compete for them has largely increased. In 1 88 1 - 
82 there weie only 651 scholarships tenable in middle schools for competition 
amongst more than 850,000 pupils. Much therefore remains to be done in 
extending scholarships for primary schools ; but the importance of the system 
for Bengal has been explained. Speaking generally, it may be said that in pro* 
portion as any provincial system of primary education rests less upon Govern- 
ment schools than upon aided or indigenous institutions, so does the need for 
developing a scholarship system as contrasted with that of free studentships 
increase, This* has been fully recognised in the Central Provinces. In Madras, 
however, no scholarships are given in primary schools, though their estab- 
lishment is imder consideration. In considering secondary education it 
will he seen what provision is made for scholarships in middle schools* 
But under the circumstances it is clear that in Madras a liberal system of pro- 
viding assistance for primary scholars proceeding to secondary schools is urgent- 
ly required. This want is emphasised by a passage in the Madras Report, in 
which it is stated that the children of peasants have no special provision made 
for their education in middle schools, and take no advantage of these institutions. 
The only public service examination in Madras is the middle school examina- 
tion, and therefore the door to the public service is closed against the peasant 
proprietary. In other Provinces the need will be felt more largely, as the 
proportion o£ aided primary schools increases. The subject will be noticed 
under secondary education, and it is therefore sufficient to remark here that wo 
there recommend that "in all Provinces the system of scholarships be so 
" arranged that, as suggested in the Despatch of 1854, they may form connect- 
<c ing links between the different grades of institutions/ 1 

196. Prizes* — No notice is taken of prizes in the Report of our Benr*ul 
Provincial Committee, hut rewards amounting to nearly Us. 30,000 are distri- 
buted to pupils at the central examinations. In Bombay, the North-Western 
Provinces, and the Punjab, regular hut moderate provision is made for prizes 
in departmental schools in each Inspector's Division, and the same plan is 
followed in the Central Provinces, In short, under the departmental systems 
encouragement by means of prizes is never neglected, hut where the primary 
schools are aided institution*, no aid is afforded to the managers except m 
Bengal in providing prizes for their pupils. 

197* Public Patronage-— The most efficacious of all encouragements to 
the spread of education is that supplied by the bestowal of public appointments 
upon educated candidates. Unfortunately no lever for raisin* education 
is less systematically applied. In many parts of India the responsible officers 



or 



CHAP. IT.] P3U1TAHT XSVCA.TIOX. J^r 

entrusted with public patronage, yielding to the solicitations of friends « 
following their own discretion, regard the imposition of a fixed standard of 
qualification as a troublesome trammel. The appointments to which we here 
refer are of two sorts-those which may be conferred without any limitation 
as to the area of selection, and those which must bo conferred as the heredi- 
tary possession of certain families. In reference to these two classes the Des* 
patch of 1 854 remarked : « We have learnt with satisfaction that the subject 
" of gradually making some educational qualification necessary to the confirm- 
" ation of these hereditary officers is under the consideration of the Government 
" of Bombay, and that a practical educationatyest is now insisted upon for persons 
"employed in many offices under Government/* Ten years before the date of 
this Despatch, Lord Hardinge, in an order which will be found at page 44 of 
Mr. Howell's " Note on Education prior to 1854 and in 1870-71," had attempted 
to throw open the public service to qualified young men ; and, with a view to 
promote the diffusion of knowledge among the humbler classes of the people, 
had directed that, " even in the selection of persons to fill the lowest offices under 
" Government, respect he had to the relative acquirements of the candidates, 
"and that in every instance a man who can read or rvtite be preferred to one 
,( who cannot." How this order became and remained a dead letter is explained 
in that Note. "With respect to higher appointments in most Provinces of 
India some examination held for boys attending schools of secondary instruc- 
tion is regarded as fixing a test of qualification for the public service. But 
it is only in Bombay and the Central Provinces that real and successful 
endeavours have been made from a very early date to connect primary schools 
with the public service, and thus to stimulate the diffusion of a thorough 
primary education, and to open the subordinate ranks of Government service 
to all classes of the people in a practical way which no scholarship system could 
so well effect. The theory of the Bombay primary system has been explain- 
ed. It recognises the fact that the great bulk of the rural population can 
never afford to leave their villages for a course of higher instruction in the 
town. To the masses the village school must supply the whole of their educa- 
tion. The revenue system of Bombay creates a demand for large revenue 
establishments and provides for a village accountant and registrar in every 
village. The District officers do not desire to recruit their local establishments 
from a single class of urban residents. Irorn the very outset, therefore, the 
District and the educational officers were alike interested in the success of the 
rural schools. Even before 1S5Z appointments in the lower grades of f bo public 
service in Bombay were thrown open to competition at examinations held 
in each District. Th e standard was subsequently raised. When standards V and 
VI were added to the Bombay primary course the present public examination 
in standard YI was instituted, and the successful candidate now receives a certi- 
ficate qualifying him for the subordinate grades of the public service. To the 
higher grades of the service a similar door was opened by the additionot a special 
standard of examination to the ordinary middle-school course. No candidate 
can obtain an appointment in the public service in Bombay who cannot produce 
a certificate of having passed one or other of these examinations. The orders of 
Government do not, however, touch the case of the menial offices to which tbo 
latter part of Dord Hardinge's Besolution referred. After several years rigid 
enforcement of these rules, the public service examinations hare como to be 
regarded by the public generally as fitting standards of quabfication for employ- 
ment in the various professions of commerce and business. It is held that the 
popularity of the higher primary standards and the widespread demand for cess 
schools are very lately due to the policy of the Bombay Government in regu. 



37 



ItEPOllT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSIOV 



[cnxp rv. 



lating tho patronago of their "District Officers in tho manner indicated In the 
Hatdarabad Assigned Districts the Bombay officers who laid down tlic lmos 
of tho Education Department advocated tho introduction of the same s)stem, 
hut tho rules at first prescribed were soon relaxed, and District Officers 
bestowed the appointments at their disposal without any reference to a public 
service examination Recently sorno improvement hns been effected, and 
selected candidates .are required to produce a certificate from the Department 
But the heads of offices may relax these rules, and it is not tho practice for 
any candidate to obtain a certificate until he has been provisionally selected 
Under such a system the full advantages of a public service examination cannot 
bo realised 

198. Recommendations as to public Patronage.— It docs not appear 

that the standard of primaiy education lm yet reached so high a point in all 
Provinces of India as to render it possible to open the door to the public 
service directly out of the primary school course rather than of the middle 
school course TVc have therefore inserted a Recommendation tearing on this 
subject in Chapter V, and shall hero confine our attention to the lowest offices 
of public employment Wc recommend thai the principle laid doicn tn Lord 
Hardinge*s Resolution, dated October n> i& '44, be re'Ctflirmcd, tr>tfialtn select- 
mg persons to fill theloicest offices under Government* preference be always given 
to those who can read and write As regards the hereditary offices of village 
headman and accountant, wo are awaro that in many casi.s a knowledge of 
reading and writing is insisted upon, but it seems both practicable and id- 
vantageous that a higher standard of qualification should be enforced "We 
therefore recommend that the attention of the Local Gov crnmcnta be called to 
this matter, aud that the Local Governments, especially those of Bombay and 
the North- Western Piotinces, be itwiled to consider the advisability of carrying 
out the suggestion contained tn paragraph g6 of the Despatch of 1854, 
namely , of making some educational qualification necessary to the confirmation 
of hereditary village officers such as patels and lumbardars 

199. TCight Schools J and School Hours —Our information regardm" the 
extension of mght schools is scant The subject finds no separate place in the 
Reports of our Provincial Committees of Madras and Bengal At the same time, 
long before Sir George Campbell drew attention to them, their importance had 
been f ully recognised m Bengal, and nyht-classes have m many cases been 
attached to improved village schools No statistics are, however, given In 
Bombay, and to a much less extent in the Central Provinces, this class of insti- 
tution is established on a definite basis In Bombay there were, in 1881 82 
3 919 scholars attending 134 vernacular night schools, of which 84 were depart' 
mental, 48 inspected, and 2 aided The schools are found m every Division of 
the Presidency, and aio as popular with the Muhammadans as with the Hindus 
In addition to them there were 223 mght classes attached to daj schools in the 
Southern Division which were attended by 4 962 persons At Belgaum one of 
these classes is attended by 90 students, of whom 60 belong to thelow caste of 
Mahars The attendance of low caste men at mght schools is an interesting 
fact At Kaira, in Gujarat, the mght school is exclusively attended by low" 
caste men, and the townspeople have frequently remonstrated a^amst their edu" 
cation The schools are chiefly attended by men who have to labour m the dav" 
time, and the instruction is limited to the barest rudiments of readme and wr,t,™ 
and a little ciphering They have proved a great success, and more* are demand' 
ed than the Department can supply I n jj ombav the Theish(j Assowat J 1 ™' 
opened two aided mght schools for worlang men and niessengcis, and thev Z 



chip rr] ^juatinr education 

attended by 175 pupils At Kurla, a suburb of Bombay, a night school 
I3 attended by factory boys who work all day in the mills, and the In. 
spector of that Division reports that he has five upphcatmns for new schools 
which bis funds will not enable bun to open In the neighbourhood of Cal- 
cutta also a few night schools are attached to factories Tho experience 
gained m Bombay proves that night schools may become an assured success 
not only m towns but m villages It must often happen that until a man or a 
boy 13 brought face to face with the practical needs of his daily life, ho wdl 
fail to realise the full value of in elementary education, and then without 
special facilities he cannot obtain such education !For this and mam other 
reasons the demand for night schools will probably increase mth diz© encourage. 
ment "We therefore recommend that mght schools be encouraged tcJiererer 
practicable Although the subject of school hours is not immediately con 
aected with night schools, yet it will find appropriate mention here, because 
the success of night schools in Bombay illustrates the advantage of studying 
the convenience and habits of the people Iho factory boy and tho field 
labourer cannot attend school in the day time, and they must remain ignorant 
just when they most feel the want of .knowledge, unless the arrangements 
of the Department or of school managers arc made to fit into the scheme 
of their daily avocations In all departmental systems there is great danger 
arising from the rigidity of fixed rules, which require constant rc-adjustment 
to varying wants Bven the hours of labour differ m different Provinces of 
India, and the seasons of sowing and reaping vary with -the class of cultivation 
The indigenous schools as a rule recognise these distinctions and tho Depart 
meats should not be less considerate Accordingly we recommend that as 
much elasticity as posstble be permitted, as regards loth the hours of the daj 
and the seasons of year, during which the attendance of scholars %s required , 
especially tn agricultural villages and, bachcard Districts 

200 Special Attempts made in backward Districts, or for special 

Classes — Even zught schools and themo>t considerate arrangements respecting 
school hours will not be sufficient to attract those classes which hare inherited 
a position of social subjection, or which prefer the freedom of fortst or 
mountain and the pursuit of game to tho monotony of tho school If the 
aboriginal races are to be educated, no reliance can be placed upon the 
indigenous schools, which have never aimed at attracting them until tbcv have 
become part of the Hindu social system , nor will the departmental schools, 
unless organised to meet their wants, be more successful Besides the aboriginal 
or half civilised races, there is a large population which is found in crcry Hindu 
viUago community and which usually hrcs on the output of the village 
settlement, whose education has practically been ignored and m manv parts 
of India resisted by the higher castes It has been shown in the last pira- 
graph that notwithstanding the remonstrances of their neighbours the Maliars 
of Bombay are in <ome places crowding into the night school The half civd 
ised and the low caste races form two divisions of the Indim population 
whose education presents special difficulties tlnoughout tho Empire Ag-un m 
some parts of India a very different class from thee just mentioned costing 
of certain sections of the Muhammadan community, Inre sunk, oumg to 
causes winch will be considered m Chapter L\, mtoa deplorable state of igno- 
rance from which they eu onlv i*> extmated b> the »W*f^ ^ 
«d» This remark by no means applies to the .hole ^ Iuh ^™ 
mumty nhose pcsihon has greatly improv ed in recent years ^ far as pruury 
education of the rnodcr* type i» concerned But in some parts of the country 



) 

. laiPoUT Of THE EBTJCATKM COUUISSIQN* L Cttilf ' 

they and other once dominant races still require special help. Pin&Hy, al»4 
Tjovertv lias faUen to the lot not merely of certain classes of the community, 
hut even of the lower strata of the very highest castes, who are altogether 
unable to find the few annas required for their school-fees. Thus, four causes 
exist which practically place the four classes of Indian society to which they 
severally apply under the uan of ignorance. They may bo summarised as want 
of civilisation, lowness of caste, loss of political status, and cxtrcmo poverty. 
In Chapter IX we shall revert to this subject. Wo hero confine ourselves to a 
brief notice of what has been done f ot tbo primary education of each of these 
four classes, and to a statement of our Recommendations. 

* 

201* Education of aboriginal Baces«— In three Provinces of India- 
Bombay, Bengal, and the Central Provinces— the problem of attracting to school 
the aboriginal population, numbering 932*000 in Bombay, 2,056,000 in Bengal, 
and 1,754,000 ifl the Central Provinces, or altogether about 74 per cent, of the 
whole aboriginal population of India, is beset with difficulties. Two attempts 
demand special notice here. The first was unsuccessful, though it deserved a 
better fate, In the "Western Division of tho " forest-reserves " in the Central 
Provinces, endeavours were made in 1870 to attract the Kurkus to certain special 
schools which were placed under tho joint control of the Forest and the Education 
Departments, The instruction was to bo as simple as possible, and a carpenter's 
and blacksmith's shop was to be attached to each school* The prospect of forest 
employment was held out as an inducement to the people to send their children to 
the schools. Experience proved that European supervision was essential, and the 
scheme failed for want o£ it. In Bengal another plan was tried. The cduca* 
tiou of the various non-Hindu races that inhabit the frontier tracts of Bengal 
was entrusted to the zeal of missionary societies, and liberal grants were from 
very early days given to those who were prepared to undertake the task* 
Thus the Kola and other aboriginal races in Chota Nagpur, the Santhals on the 
confines of Bengal proper, the Khonds in Orissa, and the Paharins of Darjceling, 
as well as the Khasis and others in Assam, have all received some measure of 
attention. The Missionaries have been specially successful in training 
young Santhals and Kols as teacher^, and have overcome a great difficulty 
by thus providing masters acceptable to the tribes. At Eanchi, in Chota 
Itagpur, the Berlin mission has maintained for many years an artlzan class 
for Kol pupils, which with liberal aid from Government has been very successful. 
But while the bulk of the work has been entrusted to missionaries, the Depart- 
ment has not been idle. Not only has it maintained primary schools for the 
aboriginal tribes in Eastern Bengal, but it has also established a few secondary 
schools for their benefit at Chaibasain Singbhoom, at Darjeeling, and in Ohitta- 
gong. Altogether by one agency or another nearly 20,000 aboriginal children 
are being educated. In Bombay, the departmental system has made some 
progress which though not so conspicuous as in Bengal is greater than that 
reported by the Department in the Central Provinces, There are now 2,713 
aboriginal boys at schools, of whom 2,176 are in cess schools. But this 
success purchased by great efforts gives little hope of overtaking the enor- 
mous task before Government, Experience has proved that sympathetic 
European effort is essential, and that no Department can adequately supply 
this want. It is hopeless to depend on indigenous schools, hut that consider- 
ation doea not preclude other forms of aided enterprise. Meanwhile the 
Departments must continue to labour ; but ultimately we look to the philan- 
thropy of missionary and other societies to cope with the special difficulties in 
the way. We therefore recommend that primary education be extended in 



CHAP* IV.] tBIMAILX £DT7CAH0N\ llg 

baclward Districts, specially in those inhabited mainly by aboriginal races ft v 
the instrumentality of the Department pending the creation of school-boards 
or by specialty liberal granis-in-aid to those who are nilhng to set up and 
maintain schools. TTe sM have to revert to this subject In a subsequent 
Chapter, but it may be mentioned here that we are so convinced that it is from 
missionary agency that most may bo expected in educating the aboriginal races 
that we bare emphatically re-affirmed as the principle on which aid should he 
giren *q bodies Trilling to undertake the * ork, that of entire abstention from 
interference with any religious instruction which such bodies may choose to 
give, 

^ 202, Low-Castes and Out-castes*— It Trill be more convenient to defer 
until Chapter IX a brief account of our discussions regarding the rights of these 
neglected classes of the community to receive education. In Provinces where 
primary education is almost wholly built upon the indigenous system, we fear 
that in the present state of society, even where their right is admitted in theory 
by local sentiment, low-caste boys actually receive few or none of the advant- 
ages of education- In those Provinces, however, where the schools are more 
directly under the control of Government, more or less progress has been made 
in securing for low-caste boys a recognition of their legitimate claims. In 
Bombay the greatest attention has been paid to the matter ; and whereas in 
1871 there were only 592 low-caste boys at school, there are now 3,512, of whom 
2,862 are in departmental day schools. In our Chapter on indigenous schools 
we have insisted on the division of aided schools into two classes, "special " and 
u other primary " schools. In all but " special M schools the right of all castes 
to receive instruction is to ho affirmed, and a due proportion is to ho maintained 
between these two classes of institutions. In addition to this precaution, 
vre have ie<sommended that special grunts be given to the managers of aided 
schools on account of low-caste children, and we have now to make somewhat 
similar Recommendations with regard to Government schools. TTe recommend 
thai all primary schools wholly maintained at the cost of the school-boards t and 
all primary schools that are aided from the same fund and are not regislerel 
«s special $chools t be understood to he open to all castes and classes of the 
community : and that szwh a proportion beiicecn special and other primary 
schools be maintained in each school-district as to ensure a proportionate provi- 
sion for the education of all cUsses, special aid being assignable, if necessary, on 
account of low-caste pupils, 

* 

203, Depressed Races -It is unnecessary to anticipate the full review-, 
to be given in Chanter IX, of the measures taken to attract to the Mate 
primary schools those classes which, like the Muhammadans, have lost the specml 
privileges of a ruling race. Their claims have received considerable attcntton, 
and their process is noticed in the annual reports of the Department in most 
of the Provinces of India. But we have adopted certain HccommendaUons for 
furthering the ohject in view, which will be set forth in the Chapter referred to. 

204- Pnnv Classes— As this subject will require fuller treatment here- 
af ter'ot SSStaSTfl* place will i confine*! to . brief 
Jleoommendations which we have adopted. A poo* ^ » ™^ 
The rules of caste enjoin the performance of those ^^ d "^ f g J f 
fonnance of wlncl* the relief of the depute u tota ^ ™ ""^ii 

rJSA increase, and the ^tc-do a. to * 



,gQ nEroivr or the education commission. [ctu?. nr. 

to render aid to tbo poorer members of tlieir class. Tho Lest remedy is perhaps 
to relax tho rub which requires that education, even in schools \thicli are not 
entirely supported but only aided by tbo State, should not bo purely gratuitous. 
TFe theicforo recommend that vi all board-schools, a certain proportion of 
pupils he admissible as free students on the ground of poverty ; and in the case 
of speaal schools established for the benefit of the poorer classes, a general or 
larger exemption from payment of fees be atloiced under proper authority for 
special reasons. There may ho schools which specially undertake the education 
of tho poor, and which, under tho operation of tho above rule, will bo unable to 
charge f ecs, and must thus depend upon charitable assistance and grants from 
tho State. The grants which they may cam under the result system will 
he very small, and their case seems to deserve special encouragement. Wc 
therefore recommend that assistance be given to schools and orphanages in 
tchich poor children are taught reading t writing, and counting, totth or tcithout 
manual work, 

205. Brief Notice of Female Schools —The history and condition of 

female education, is a matter of such importance that a separato Chapter will 
bo devoted to its consideration. "With \cry rare exceptions, the u hole of an 
Indian girl's instruction is comprised within the brief years of her attendance at 
a primary school. Tho ago varies with different castes and classes of the com- 
munity and in different parts of the country. But only a small proportion of girls 
contmuo at school beyond tbo age of ton years. Here and there a Brahman 
girl may be seen as old as twelve, and occasionally a Parsi or a Brnbmo girl 
will remain up to the ago of sixteen. These ages siifiiciently indicate that it is 
under primary instruction that the chief statistics regarding female education in 
India must be sought Those statistics will bo analysed elsewhere ; and it is 
only necessary to note hero, in a Chapter which is mainly concerned with the 
education of boys, a few points which must ho borne in mind whenever Tables 
of figures bearing on primary education arc considered. Statistics of female 
education exert a most disturbing effect, not only upon percentages of attendance 
in primary schools, but especially upon calculations of cost and expenditure, 
While there were in 1 88 1-82* nearly 2»4co 1 ooo boys under "primary instruc- 
tion in the nine Provinces of India with which no arc dealing, thcro wero only 
122,806 girls at school. The percentage of children at school to tho total 
population of school-going ago was 8*29; but of boys at school to tbo male 
population of that ago it was 15*48, and of girls to female population only *8i. 
These differences are sufficiently striking. -But if ttc confino our attention 
exclusively to the statistics given in thus Chapter, there were 2,061,541 children in 
the "public primary schools," of whom only 119,647 were girls. Thus, whilo 
12'55 per cent, of boys of school-going age were at school, only '8o per cent, 
of the girls of that age were attending public schools. Tbo order in which 
according to departmental returns the chief Provinces of India stand in respect 
to the progress of femalo education as tested by the percentage of pupils at 
school to the total femalo population of school-going age, is as follows: 
(1) Bombay, (2) Madras, (3) Punjab, (4) Central Provinces, (5) Bengal, 
(6) North-Western Provinces and Ondlu Throughout tho whole of India 
the order in which the various elasses of tho population avail themselves 
of the opportunity of instructing their daughters is as follows : (1) Parsis, (2) 
Kativc Christians, (3) Sikhs, (4) Hindus, (5) Muhammadans. Tliis fact throws 
some light upon the different progicss mado in the several Provinces. But it is 
m statistics of expenditure that tho greatest confusion is caused by tho inclu- 
sion of statistics for male and femalo education under a common head. lu 
aided schools, for instance, tho annual cost to the State of educating each eirl 



cau\ iv.] runiAHY education, 351 

is nearly Hs. 3^ whilst for a boy it is only Re. u In a Government school 
it is Rs, 5^8, against Us. 3- 1 2 for a boy. The cost varies materially in different 
Provinces. Leaving out Coorg, it is highest in the Punjab, where a girl in an 
aided school costs the State Rs. 4-3, Of the larger Provinces, it is least in 
Bombay where it costs Us. 2-6. These and other differences Trill appear on a 
reference to the statistical Tables at the end of our Report, It is only necessary 
to hear in mind that if the cost of primary education in any Province appears 
to be comparatively large, it must be enquired what proportion of the cost is 
due to female education, and in the case of Normal schools, what are the charges 
incurred in the training of female teachers, 

206, The Relation of Boards to primary Education.— We have now 

to enter upon a most important part of our enquiry, namely* the function and 
powers of Local Boards in regard to primary education. The gradual extension 
of self -government has created certain corporate organisations which represent 
popular power in the country and the town. Country boards are called in 
Madras and in Bombay Local Fund Boards, and elsewhere District Committees, 
The circle of the board's infiuence is sometimes co-extensive with the area of tbo 
District, and at others with the area of the sub-divisions of Districts, winch arc 
called talutas or tahsils. The jurisdiction of the boards or committees within 
these rural circles usually excludes the larger towns or cities, which form muni- 
cipalities under the control of their own Municipal Boards or committees. The 
obvious advantage of connecting the education of the masses with local popular 
organisations has long been recognised. But as the development of self-govern- 
ment over the immense area included in the geographical expression, India, has 
proceeded on no uniform basis, and lias even varied materially within each Pro- 
vince, so the control which the several hoards have acquired over primary schools 
differs in every possible degree. It might have been expected that a considerable 
uniformity would have attended the growth of municipal institutions, as the 
conditions of life in the larger cities of India are so much more uniform than 
can be expected in rural tracts, but the interest shown in education by municipal 
corporations, where such exist, varies considerably. In the Punjab, applications 
for increased contributions for schools find a liberal response ; in Madras, muni- 
cipal assistance is said to be inadequate, but it is far more generously accorded 
than in Bombay, where only 1*17 per cent, of municipal income is spent on pri- 
mary schools. In Bengal the town councils arc still less liberal The difference, 
however, between municipal and local boards in the various Provinces is not 
merely one of public spirit or of interest in education. Their control is in one 
Province financial and in another administrative. Here it extends only over 
Government or municipal schools, there it embraces private effort as well. 
In Bombay it is described as real, and in the North-Western Provinces as 
nominal. In no part of India is the charge of primary education mado obli- 
gatory by law on town boards ; but the Local fund Boards in many Provinces 
are bound by law to expend certain funds on elementary schools. It thus 
happens that the relations of the boards to primary education vary materially ; 
and this makes it necessary to explain the actual condition of affairs in each 
part of India separately, without any attempt to generalise or reconcile essential 
differences by one vague and common description- Having explained generally 
tbo present position of affairs in each Province, we shall give a brief summary 
of the suggestions irldch have been offered by the witnesses and in the me- 
morials presented to us, concluding with a statement of the Recommendation* 
which we have adopted- 

207. Madras : Boards, and Suggestions regarding them —In Matins 

both the Municipal and the Local fund Boards maintain their own school*, and 



hefort or tee education coiniissioy* [chap, rv. 

also aid private schools. The initiative in preparing their budgets is taken by the 
Education Department, T^hose officers submit an estimate to the official President 
of tho Board for incorporation in tho general annual budget of the town orDistrict. 
Practically, the Inspector's estimate is accepted as a general rule, and when 
once the budget has received the sanction of Government, it not merely limits 
the expenditure of the board on the object proposed in the estimate, hut 
prevents any transfer of allotment from ono school to another. In the case 
of aided schools tho boards are obliged to pay for all grants by results earned 
in the three lowest standards, but they have the right of reducing the scale of 
grants and of refusing to admit any school to be examined. In other respects 
they must conform to the rules laid down by Government in the Grant-in-aid 
Code- So far, then* the financial control of the Madras boards involves the 
acceptance or modification of a budget drawn up by the Inspector, and a 
discretionary power to reduce the scale of grants and to refuse to admit 
for examination a school whose earnings after admission they cannot decline 
to pay. In the matter of control, they are unable to interfere with aided 
schools ; but in their own schools they have in theory the power of regu- 
lating the fees and the course of studies. As a general rule, however, the course 
of study is determined by the Inspector ; while the hoards usually exercise the 
power of fixing the rate of fees, and are inclined to fix them very low. The 
Madras system, especially in its inclusion of aided schools, is in theory and 
practice more extended than that of Bombay, but in their financial administra- 
tion the boards in the adjoining Presidency would appear to be more independ- 
ent This independence is perhaps due to some extent to the fact that the 
Bombay local fund boards have hardly any concern with aided schools, and 
merely manage their own cess schools. * 

The witnesses who have given evidence before the Commission in Madras 
are agreed on two points, that municipalities should set aside a fixed proportion 
of their income for education, and that the local boards should give a larger 
share of the local cess to education- They are divided as to the precise amount 
that should be so assigned- One witness considers that 5 to 7 per cent- of 
municipal income should be allotted for education- As regards the proper 
share of local rates, opinions vary from an assignment of one-third to one-sixth. 
It appears that in the nine years which followed the introduction of the Local 
Funds Act IV of 187 1, education received on the average 9 per cent, of the 
local fund income derived from rates and taxes only, while of the whole local 
fund income it received only a little more than G per cent. According to the 
wording of section 36 of Act IV of 187 I, which assigns to " the road fund " or 
public works division of the budget not less than two-thirds of the land cess 
together with the net proceeds of all tolls, the assignment to education cannot 
be called illegal ; hut it was ceitainly expected, when the Act was passed, that it 
would provide 8£ lakhs for education ; whereas in 1881-82 the actual expenditure 
charged to local funds was not 5^ lakhs. Greater differences of opini6n are 
expressed in regard to the classes of schools which should be supported at the 
expense of the educational fund thus created. Some witnesses would not limit 
the assignment of the fund to any class of institution, hut would leave it to the 
discretion of the Inspector. The general opinion, however, is that the boards 
should control their own expenditure, and that the allotment should not *be 
diverted from primary or lower secondary instruction to education of a higher 
kind, To this control certain limitations are proposed. Some would insist on the 
appointment of qualified teachers, and Mr. Justice T. Mutuswamy Aiyar amongst 
other witnesses lays great stress on the establishment of Normal schools for their 
supply. Many witnesses also consider that the Department should be allowed to 



CHAP. IV.] PRIMARY EDUCATION 1 . I53 

intervene, and at least to suggest, if not to prescribe, the course and method of 
instruction. Tins power of intervention is regarded as more necessary in the 
case of local boards than of municipal corporations. One witness would sire 
the Educational Inspectors a place ex-offich on tho boards; another would 
make the Inspectors quite independent. A third, on the other hand, would 
leave the boards independent administrators of the grant-in-aid system hut 
allow them no power of altering the rules without the sanction of Government 
On the whole, the general tendency of the Madras evidence favours the admi- 
nistration of primary and lower secondary education by local hoards, irbetLer 
urban or rural, suhjeet to the general control of the Education Department; 
the enforcement of a contribution from municipal funds; and a more JibcraJ 
assignment from local rates. 

208. Bombay : Boards, and Suggestions regarding them.— In Bombay 

neither llunieipal nor Local 'Bund Boards have as a rule any direct concern with 
aided schools. A few indigenous schools receive aid which is paid for out of local 
funds, hut the boards have practically little control in the matter. Municipal 
boards are permitted by law (Bombay Act Tlof 1873) to spend their income on 
education ; and in their discretion they for the most part leave it alone, preferring, 
as might be expected, to throw the charge on provincial revenues or else on tho 
neighbouring District Board. It may be said that, with the exception of Snkkur 
in Sind, no municipality in Bombay has hitherto taken the active part which 
it might have been expected to take in managing elementary education. As 
shown in Chapter III, Section A of the Bombay Provincial Report, the con- 
tributions from provincial revenues for the support of primary education in the 
towns of Bombay bear no adequate proportion either to the local resources of 
such towns, or to the contributions from the same revenues to the support 
of village schools. A partial change is immediately to be made in this 
matter, and primary schools will shortly he placed under the control of Muni* 
cipal Boards, hut no provision has yet been proposed for compelling the corpo- 
rations to provide increased funds. 

TTif h the Iiocaf Fund Boards, wnetter B&trict or taJu&i, tfZre case is qaito 
different. They administer the whole fund on which primary education rests, 
and they prepare their own budgets, which show separately the share of the ecss 
spent on education. They transfer or close schools at their pleasure ; they 
regulate the fees, and without their authority no departmental primary school 
can be established. But they do not interfere with the studies, or appoint 
the master. The local fund income is quito distinct from provincial revenues, 
and the educational share of that income is equally distinct. In fact, the 
school fund might he defined, as precisely as the school-board fund is defined in 
England by section 53 of the Act of 1870. In this respect the Bombay 
system differs materially from that of the Korth-TVestem Provinces as will 
presently appear. TOth. this distinct educational fund, which is entirely spent 
on elementary education and is supplemented by a grant from provincial reve- 
nues, the boards provide for their cess schools, or Government pnmary schools, 
as they are commonly called to distinguish them from tbc aided indigenous 
or other schools under private management. In the North-m-stcrn Provinces 
the local fund revenue is paid into the treasury to the credit of provincial 
income, from which an allotment is made for expenditure by the hodfarf 
committee. But in Bombay tho process is entirely reversed The provmcuJ 
allotment is paid to the credit of the local fund commHtcc, and any unexpended 
kiW at the end of the year remains the property of the rura 1 beard, JP na* 
cially, the power of the local hoards is complete, and their practical control over 



151 



EBPORT Or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION 



[CRAP. IV. 



education is only limited by their want of confidence in themselves and by the 
delegation of their own functions to the departmental officers. The depart* 
mental officers act, however, under instructions from the board. 

The evidence given by witnesses before the Commission in the Bombay 
Presidency is full of references to tho relations of municipal and local boards to 
the Department of Public Instruction. It deals with the question both of finance 
and of administration. In regard to finance, the proportion of the cess upon the 
land which should be given to primary schools is fixed by rules which have the 
sanction of law, and any unexpended balance lapses to the educational fund, not 
to the general local fund, and still less to the provincial fund as in Northern India. 
Hence on theso points no question has been raised by witnesses in Bombay. But 
the complaint has been made that the local fund is properly a rural fund, and 
should be spent on the villages which contribute it, and. not in the towns which 
only contribute a very small proportion of the cess. Several witnesses of great 
experience have urged that there should he a redistribution of the financial 
burden of supporting primary schools, which would set free for rural education 
funds paid by rural Districts and now appropriated by municipalities. Their 
view is supported at considerable length by the Bombay Provincial Committee. 
Other witnesses have in the same sense argued that the time has arrived when 
municipal boards must be compelled to make more adequate provision for pri- 
mary education out of the funds at their disposal. While all witnesses are 
more or less agreed on the question of finance, opinions are divided on tho 
point whether any local board should administer education above the standard 
of primary schools. It is further argued that if boards are to be entrusted 
with the task of aiding private schools it will be necessary to give private 
managers financial rights, and especially to protect the low -caste population 
against the indifference or opposition of those higher castes which are sure to 
command all executive power on the hoards. 

209- Bengal: Boards, and Suggestions regarding them.— We have 

already mentioned that the approval of the Secretary of Stnte to the proposal 
of the Government of India for giving Bengal the financial provision upon 
which the systems of primary education rest in other pirts of India, has not 
yet resulted in the imposition of an educational cess, or in the allotment to 
education of a share in the cesses already levied. Accordingly in Bengal there are 
no local fund boards charged with administrative powers over schools. A 
special education committee exists at the head-quarters of each District under 
the presidency of the Collector, hut it rather connects the control of education 
by the Department with a local official board than invests with responsible 
powers over primary schools an independent organisation holding control over 
local funds. Por the school committee described above has no financial, and 
little adrninistratiye, control over elementary education. The municipal boards 
occupy no better position. Some of them spontaneously encourage special 
teachers or institutions. But they exercise no systematic or recognised control 
at present over primary education ; and this need occasion little surprise, 
since in no other Province of India do municipal bodies exhibit greater in' 
difference to the claims of education upon the town funds. E\ en in the city of 
Calcutta no steps have been taken in this direction, though so far back as 
1873 Sir G. Campbell expressed a hope that the municipality of Calcutta would 
move the Legislature to permit the expenditure of some part of its large income 
upon primary schools for the children of the Calcutta poor. 

The evide * " -s^es dwelt on two points ; the liability of municipali- 
ty tn ' f " t J1 r t0 education, and the functions of the self- 



CHAP. IV.] PRIMABr EDUCATION. i — 

government boards that may hereafter be created. On both these points 
opinions differed. The Honourable Kristodas P a l objected to tluowin* on town 
boards charges for primary education, while jtfaulavi Sayyid Amir Hussein 
would insist on their making proper provision and would examine their 
budgets to see that they did so. The Bengal Provincial Committee remark that 
under Tecent orders, much of the cost of zila schools and the whole cost of 
vernacular schools in to™ will fall upon municipalities. As regards the 
advisability of entrusting rural boards with the charge of even primary schools 
somo witnesses have expressed doubts, but a few have suggested that secondary 
as well as primary education Bhould be entrusted to them. 

■ 

210. North-Western Provinces and Ondh : Boards, and Suggestions 

regarding them*— In the North-Western Provinces both the practice and the 
theory of local control had been well developed before Act XvTO of 1871 
was passed. Under that Act, which was incorporated into Act III of 1878, not 
only is the education provision lamped up v, ith the provision for other local 
wants, but to the Local Boards is allotted, as an act of grace, the income wliich m 
reality belongs to them. Unspent allotments are therefore not a saving to local 
funds as in Bombay, but lapse to the provincial treasury. The constitu-. 
tion of the local fond hoards has hitherto been strongly official, hut it will 
become more popular under the new Bill now before the Legislature. The 
control of education is not managed by the general District or sub-divisional 
committee as in Bombay, bat by special sub-committees who are guided by 
rules issued in 1877. Their powers, such as they are, extend over aided schools, 
and over middle class vernacular and lower primary schools. They are 
allowed to appoint teachers, but not to regulate the course of studies. Their 
financial powers are confined to accepting a budget already drawn up, and their 
position generally is described as that of executive agents of the Department, 
rather than administrative corporations controlling an executive. The muni- 
cipal boards make some moderate assignments to. education, and their atten- 
tion to the claims of primary schools is invited in a memorandum drawn 
up by the Department of Public Instruction. But their cpntrihutions arc 
optional, and do not seem to carry with them any real control over the expend- 
itme of the resources which their liberality provides. 

The witnesses and memorialists from the North-Western Provinces have 
generally expressed far greater confidence than those of Bengal in the admi- 
nistrative capacity of rural and town boards. Speaking, however, of the exist- 
ing system, the Provincial Committee describe *it as follows: "The present 
" system of education committees in the Koith-Western Provinces can hardly be 
" considered other than a failure. It is condemned by nearly all the wit- 
nesses, is praised with great reservation by tho Director of Public Instruction, 
"and has, we hope, been proved to be a very different system inks origin 
" and development from what was intended by the Legislature when passing 
"Act XVIII of 187 1." The Honourable Sayyid Ahmad, Khan Bahadur, 
suggests that local committees should have the power to frame annual budgets 
and to manage entirely all vernacular schools; white another witness would 
entrust both primary and lower middle schools to boards, gmng them a 
consultative voice in higher education. Six witnesses have given stomg 

testimony in favour of placing ^^^^'^^^^ 
We and of administration, in the hands of local bowh. O t th other 
hand, there are a few who consider that the committees as a present con- 
stitutcd « unfit for their *ork. It fa f-ther urged * 
able result of dependence on non-official committees xs the transfer of control 



15G 



EEPOET OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. 



[CHAP. it. 



from Educational Inspectors to Revenue officials. But on the whole, the 
superior weight of testimony inclines to placing in the hands of local hoards 
increased control over primary education, and to separating the funds for 
education from other resources entrusted to rural and urban committees. 

211- Punjab: Boards, and Suggestions regarding them.— The Punjab 

system is very similar to that just described. Under Act V of 1878, which 
repealed Act XX of 1871, the Lieutenant-Governor, after appropriating one- 
fourth of the total proceeds for famine purposes, may allot such sums as be 
pleases for education and other local wants. For each District a committee or 
hoard is appointed to administer the allotment thus made. In matters of con- 
trol, the boards in the Punjab are theoretically entrusted with the manage- 
ment of schools, but in practice they are unable to close any institution without 
the sanction of Government. The municipal committees in the same Province 
are given the share of the local fund cess which belongs to them, and are ex- 
pected to supplement it by contributions from the town income. In this respect 
the Punjab system is more equitable tban that of Bombay. The corporation 
usually exercises control over its own schools within the municipality through 
the official president or the secretary to the board. It must, however, he 
understood that both the president and the secretary can only derive their 
authority from the corporation, which if it chose might, and occasionally does, 
exercise considerable influence over education both primary and secondary. 
It should be noticed that municipalities in tliis Province contribute more 
towards education than in any other part of India. 

Tery voluminous and contradictory evidence has been given by the wit- 
nesses for the Punjab, not merely as to the capacity of the boards to mana"e 
schools, but also as to the funds now assigned for education. The weight of 
testimony is, however, strongly in favour of entrusting both the expenditure 
and the management of the educational cess to such boards. As to the amount 
of control to be reserved opinions differ. In the opinion of some witnesses 
the funds contributed by municipalities are still inadequate, and they urge that 
a larger proportion of municipal revenues should be reserved by law for the 
extension of primary education. The charge brought against the Department 
of having diverted funds from primary to higher education is neither supported 
by the figures given in the Provincial Report, nor justified by the precise letter 
of the law, which does not assign to educational purposes any specific share of 
the local fund income. 

212. Assam : Boards.— "While the Province of Assam was included in the 
larger Province of Bengal no local rates were levied in it. But in November 1870 
Regulation No. HI of that year received the assent of the Governor General 
Under Section 12 of this Regulation the Chief Commissioner is empowered to 
allot, from the proceeds of the local rates levied under it, such amount as he 
thinks fit for expenditure on the construction and repair of school-houses the 
maintenance and inspection of schools, the training of teachers, and the es'tab 
hshment of scholarships. In accordance with a circular issued by the Chief 
Commissioner, school sub-committees have been appointed subordinate to thr- 
district committees and they are entrusted with the powers which formerlv 
vested in the district committees of Public Instruction. They exercise 1 ™™ 
plete control and supervision over primary education, but power is ^servcTto 
the Inspector of Schools to mate suggestions and recommendations. ^Com - 
mittees are rcqmred to consider his recommendations, and in the cv & ' ™ l 
dissenting from them to record their reasons. All expenditure on p7 



cha*. iv.] truiaiiy HDTJCATIOX", 

education is now borne by the local rates- Under recent orders tlie powers of 
tho boards have been extended, and they are made responsible for administering 
the grants-in-aid to all classes of schools in their jurisdiction, and for mana'rin* 
the Normal schools of the third grade, ° ° 

213« Other Provinces : Boards and Kates.— In the Central Provinces a 
recent Act, which affects neither municipalities nor cantonments, has created a 
net work of hoards with village school committees subordinate to them. But 
prior to this year the local rate was distributed in accordance with budgets pre- 
pared by the local officers. In the Haidarabad Assigned Districts a levy of i 
anna and 3 pies on every rupee of land revenue is collected, and the share of it 
assigned to education is administered by the revenue officers. In Coor<* also 
an educational fund is provided by the plough tax. But in all these Provinces 
the administration of the fund prior to 1883 rested with officials, and the school 
committees which watched the village schools had no power to spend any 
portion of it. 

214- General Review of the Powers of Local Boards.— Except in 

Bengal there is no Province of India where provision for primary education has 
not been made by the imposition o£ a local rate in which education shares. 
The administration of these local rates has been entrusted, except in the 
Haidarabad Assigned Districts and in Coorg, to local fund committees* In 
Madras and Bombay the local fund income is wholly at the disposal of the local 
boards, but in Northern India it is subject to certain deductions for the 
extension of irrigation and for the prevention of famine- It is only the balance, 
after these deductions have been made, that is placed at the disposal of 
the boards ; and should they fait to expend their whole assignment in the year, 
the unexpended balance lapses to provincial revenues. Again, in Madras 
and Bombay the practice is not uniform. In Bombay a distinct share of the 
local fund income is set aside by law or by statutory rules for education, and 
under the same rules it cannot bo expended on any but primary education. 
But the law does not distinguish between rural and urban schools, and there* 
fore it is not illegal to spend the cess on town schooh. The erer-inareasing 
demand which the towns are making upon a fund, essentially a rural f nnd^ 
has given rise to complaints. In Madras, on the contrary, no specific share 
of the local fund income must be appropriated for education ; and although 
it is in accordance with tho policy of Government to spend the educational 
grant upon primary schools, it would not bo opposed to any provision of tho 
existing law to devote it to secondary education. 

"With regard to municipalities, the law is everywhere permissive, and 
education is a legitimate but not an imperative charge on municipal in* 
come throughout India, The funds of town corporations are* with the excep- 
tion of the city of Madras, applicable under the existing law not only to 
primary but to higher education. The extent to which municipalities hare 
made use of their powers will appear from the statistical Table which follows. 
The grants made towards education are accurately Lnown, but the figures 
representing the net municipal income in 1881-S2 are obtained from the 
Annual Administration Reports of each Province and are not entirely trust* 
worthy, The evidence, however, given before tho Commission affords proof 
of the unanimous conviction entertained in all Provinces of India, that the 
time has come when the exercise of these permissive powers can no longer be 
left to the discretion of municipal bodies. The enlargement of the scheme of 
self-government divides urban boards in municipal towns from rural boards, 
and it is necessary that the responsibilities and liabilities of both should be 
clearly defined. As long as the former can cast on tho latter the burden of 
providing elementary education for the town population, tho municipal autho- 
rities will be content to do nothing, and will leave the cost of maintaining these 
schools to bo met either from local funds or else from provincial revenues. 

40 



REPORT OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. 



[ciur. IV. 



158 

TABLE 9— Hdvrn showing Municipal* expenditure on primary education 

in the official year rSSi-82. 



PBOTIliCE. 



if 

J5 o « 



JTTJMCIPAL FIPFWDltmK ON 
IHIilAUY 1 UtCATlUVf 



Ginu* BctfOOtt 



* 

3 

B 

I 



^5 



■a 

■a 



Total 



3 

3 



2 



ft 



Bengal 



North Western Fro- 
irinctv tad Oudh 



33,331 



rf ( 401 



33.470 » 



n 

3 75* 



3 3J5 



p 

■3S 
t * 

eg 
»g 

^ ** 



* P £ D 

list 

*H Phi 



fa* 

tats 

£ ' e 



15 

*■ P o 



ii 



ft 



C07 



a i0o 



1 <tJ3 



Punjab 



Central Frortnees 



ii f S7.« fi 



1 (31 



»5 



Uatdar&bad As*l#upd 
Districts 



I 



l 03 J J0 



5&> 



t t «4 J to 



i/W i,*3& 



3« 



5, S3* 



1 



3» 



R 
II ail 



#3/ 



^70 



40 Mr *a*4*3" 



0 VA 



409 



50 »i 



4 



3 )<tt 



4*= 



IS 4^9 



77W 



75 



3*» 



it? 4 Fidi^Uid 

AfanJifpiZ frti^Jffff 

1 1 7J3 rtowii In 

(j tieril T»tli V, 

41 1 ^ ft* L4»*l 

1 n buiUlnp 



■ 377 



33 



*T7S 



5*7* 



1 33 



* Includpinot anljgr»ati for Ihfl tnaJntemnto ol primary Khoo1* P bat »rhoJi"hIp ul bnlHlof gnnU to ioch KbooI< tiki cflntriba, 
tlaia* to Normal Ekhcttfu 

t ^scltiBiTt of cruiUto Xnrope#B iiiaTTJr»rt»n Bcboo^ 

f Eitlnd nff Ajmir Lrilish Itumia ant] all Nattae t-tat^ that administer their #irti ititrtn oT«I motion 
•* lAcImlTA of all SlunlC'IpiU pTanMto tfcboJcal and la i-mtiiw and Eur^njjm fchoofa 

215. Eecommendations regarding Ways and Means for primary 

Education, — TFe hare to consider two questions — the claims of primary educa- 
tion, and the rights and duties of boards. "With regard to the first question, 
tyo hare to consider bow far it is possible to protect the right of tho masses to 
receive primary education not only against the encroachments of expenditure 
upon public works and other demands wliich local hoards have to meet, but also 
against those demands Tfhich fall upon the provincial revenues. Wo have also 
to guard against the danger so prominently brought to notice in the Bombay 
Report^ that the demands of municipal schools are apt to encroach upon funds 
which are raised in the villages and ought to be expended upon village schools for 
tho rural community- In dealing with the second question, we have to bear in 
mind the relations of the hoards to the Department, their duties towards the 
people, and their duties to private enterprise. Reverting to the first question 
we must consider howr the educational fund is to be constituted, and what 
precautions are necessary to ensure its expenditure upon primary education. 
We therefore recommend that primary education be declared to be that part 
of the whole system of public instruction which possesses mi almost exclusive 
claim on local funds set apart for education and a targe claim on provincial 
revenues 



rr 



This HecommendatioTi was not adopted by the Commission without Ion 
discussion and the consideration of several amendments to wliich we shall 
refer towards the close of this Chapter, when we deal with the claims of 
primary education upon public funds. The importance of the principles con- 
tained in it w&s fully understood, and when the Recommendation was carried 
by a large majority, it became the foundation of the Commission's decision re- 
garding the constitution of school funds and other matters. The first part of 



ruilIAJLY EDUCATION. 



159 



it declares that local funds set apart for education should be almost entirely 
devoted to primary education; ^hile the second part ghes prominence to the 
claims of primary education to a large share in provincial revenues. Both 
these principles have long since been established by the highest authorities in 
India, and in most Provinces they have guided the policy of the Department. 
In the Punjab, however, there has been deviation from them, Hie cause of which 
will be presently explained. But before doing so, it is necessary to state hricQy 
the arguments by which the Recommendation was opposed and supported in 
our debate on February 14th, 1883. It waa urged that local rates, which were 
levied on the land should be devoted for the education of the agricultural 
classes both iu primary and in secondary schools ; that the modern distinction 
of primary from secondary education was based on English precedents, and 
was opposed to the interests of the wealthiest though least numerous class 
who contribute to the cess, and who were not satisfied with a purely elementary 
education; and lastly that, owing to recent classification » primary education 
meant much less thau it did when the local funds were first imposed. It was 
further maintained that the Despatches of 1854 and 1859 included in the edu- 
cation of the masses all classes of instruction, and that it was quite fair to 
spend local rates on the tabsili and high schools to which those Despatches 
referred* On the other handj the supporters of the Recommendation took their 
stand upon more recent Despatches which had clearly defined the interpretation 
attached by the Secretary of State to the phrase "education of the masses;' 1 
upon the policy initiated by Lord ITayo in 1870, and especially upon the 
Circular Orders of Tehruary nth, 1871, which had been carried out without 
question in every Province of India but one- Upon the second part of the 
Recommendation, it was urged in the course of the debate that secondary edu- 
cation was as important as primary, and that where the latter was sufficiently 
provided for by local rates, it was unnecessary to give a contribution from 
provincial revenues which were required to supply so many other needs. It 
tus observed that in Bengal* where there were no local rates, the cost of all 
classes of education fell upon provincial revenues ; but in the Punjab, where 
under legislative sanction local rates had heen increased in the last 1 2 years, and 
where the provincial fund was wanted for other purposes, it was quite logical 
that the cost of primary education should be charged exclusively to local rates, 
and that of higher education to provincial revenues. Above all, it was urged that 
the Local Governments were the best judges of financial considers tions, and 
that any hard-and-fast rule might throw the educational finance of any Pro- 
vince into enbarrassmcnt without doing any good to primary education. To 
these arguments it was replied that the principle involved in the proposal, 
namely, that local rates were a form of self-help, was one o£ extreme importance, 
and that the Government was bound to help those who helped themselves. 
In one Province, at any rate, the orders of iS?r had been thoroughly under- 
stood, and the Director in Bombay had described them as the charter of the 
educational rights of local boards. It was argued that the maintenance of 
the system followed in the Punjab endangered such rights, AVith reference 
to tins argument it must bo explained that on October 25th, t$6g, the 
Government of India directed that Rule X1Y should be amended in ihp 
Punjab Grant-in-aid Code and stand as follows : u Grants-in-aid from Impernl 
1 Funds arc not admissible to purely vernacular primary schools, but special 
■ grants may be made for limited periods where the circumstances are so cMep- 
* tional as to justify a departure from rule." In February 1 87 1 , an important 
circular Resolution was issued by tbo Government of Iadia to all the Zoni 
Goremmcats explaining "on what principle it will be pcnnissiblo to assign 
" from the sums allotted for educational purposes grants-in-aid to schools for 
« primary education, and it will rest with flic Local Governments under the new 
"system ot Tinancial control to determine in what localities and to what ox- 
" tent such grants shall from time to time be made." Hat in? intimated that 



*t 



U 



It 
It 



it 

a 



lco BEronx or inn education commission [ctu?- iv, 

the Local Governments were thus authorised to carry out the orders, the Govern- 
ment of India bid down for their guidance the following principles contained 
in paragraphs 3, 4, 5 of their Resolution No, 63, dated February 1 itli, 1S71. 

" 3, It has been repeatedly declared by the Secretary of State that it is a 
"primary duty to assign funds for the education of thoso who are least able to 
" help themselves, ami that the education of the masses therefore has the greatest 
" claim on the State funds. The Government of India desires to maintain Urn 
view, but the grant-in-aid rules have in practice been found so unsuitable to 
primary schools that, except in special cases, such grants-in-aid arc seldom 
"sanctioned from the general revenues. It has, moreover, been repeatedly 
"affirmed tint wo must look to local exertion and to local cesses to supply the 
" funds required for tho maintenance of primary schools, 

" 4 These standing orders miy seem inconsistent, but thcy'rcally are not po, 
" Tho fact is that primary education must he supported both by Imperial funds 
"and by local rates. It is not by any means the policy or the Government of 
" India to deny to primary schools assistance from Imperial Revenues ; but, on 
the other hand* no sum that could be spared from those revenues would suffice 
for tho work, and local rates must be raided to effect any sensible impression on 
"the masses. This does not lessen tho obligation of Government to contribute 
" as liberally as other demands allow, to supplement the sums raised by local 
" effort. Tho true policy will be to distribute the Imperial funds *o far as such 
" funds are available, in proportion to the amount raised by the people from each 
" district, 

"G. The amount at present allotted for primary education under tho several 
" Local Administrations is small, and it is not expected that the Local Govern* 
t¥ ments will in any case diminish it* On tho other hand, they xvill have full 
" liberty to increase the allotment, cither from retrenchments in other Services, or 
"from saving in other branches of education ; and it is permhsiblc to assign, 
"from the provincial grant, funds in aid of schools mainly supported by contri- 
" butions from local cesses or municipal rates." 

Notwithstanding theso orders tho Punjab Government did not alter the 
lately revised rule in their Grant>in*aid Code, On the contrary, they adhered to 
their original policy, and in reviewing the Annual Report on Public Instruction 
for 1877-78, the Lieutenant-Governor observed — "Tho decrease in tho number 
" of schools is in part due to the policy of the Government in throwing more 
" and more upon local funds, in such towns and Districts as can afford it, 
" the charge for popular education. The chargS is indeed but nominal, the 
" local fund being as much a portion of provincial taxation as any branch of tho 
" Government revenue." Tho effect of these orders was to throw still further 
charges on local funds, and to cause a still further deviation from the principle laid 
down above that the " true policy will be to distribute tho Imperial Tunds in 
" proportion to tho amount raised by the people from each District/' VTc regard 
local funds, even when raised by legislative sanction from any District, as equi- 
valent to funds raised by the people themselves, and wo attach the greatest im- 
portance to the recognition of the principle that local expenditure on primary 
education should be supplemented by a provincial contribution, Our Recom- 
mendation is intended to enforce this view, which we believe to be not only 
sound in principle, but in strict accordance with the orders of tho Government 
of India* and the -wishes of the Secretary of State* 

216, Eecommendations regarding School Punds.— Having settled from 

what sources the ways and means for primary education are to be supplied, we 
propose to protect them against the encroachments of other Departments by 
the 1 constitution of separate funds both for towns and rural tracts respectively, 
and by declaring the items of which these two funds sliall bo composed. 
Accordingly we recommend that both municipal and local self^ovmimeni boards 



ctup. it] ranrArr education IC1 

Keep a separate school fund The fund should in our opinion he constituted 
as follows We recommend that (x) the municipal school fund consist of- 

(a) a fair proportion of municipal revenues* to be fixed m each case 

off the Zocal Government t 
(6) the fees tamed tn schools wholly mainiatned at the cost of ike 

municipal school fund , 

(c) any assignment that may be made to the municipal school fund 

from the lodal fund t 
{d) any assignment front provincial funds t 

(e) any other funds that may be entrusted to the municipalities for 

the promotion of education, 

(f) any unexpended balance of the school fund from previous years 
and that (it) the local hoard school fund consist of— 

(a) a distinct share of the general local fund f which share shall not 

6e less than a minimum proportion to be prescribed for each 
Province , 

(b) the fees levied %n schools wholly maintained at the cost of the 

school fund; 

(c) any contribution that may be assigned by municipal boards, 

(d) any assignment made font provincial funds t 

(e) any other funds that may be entrusted to the local boards for the 

promotion of education t 
if) any unexpended balance of the school fund from previous years 

It mil be observed that ^ve have not attempted to suggest what fixed pro- 
portion of municipal income should be devoted to education The ivitaesses 
from various parts of India have differed m their estimates from 3 or 4 per 
cent of municipal income to even 10 per cent But the assignment must vary 
Tntli each municipality , and though some of our number thought that it should 
be left to the municipalities to define its amount, a majority of us considered that 
the Local Government could alone determine what was reasonable On one point 
we are entirely agreed, that hitherto tho permissive sections of the municipal 
law have failed to secure adequate and uniform consideration for the claims 
of education throughout Indn, TYe have guarded against tho danger of 
the municipality encroaching on the rural fund, by recommending, as 
shown above, that a specific assignment from local funds bo made to the 
municipality, and by proposing that each separate fund, whether municipal or 
rural, be granted its own separate assignment from provincial funds This 
assignment from provincial revenues would naturally bear some proportion to 
local resources Lastly, to avoid the recurrence of the complaints made in the 
Northwestern Provinces that unexpended balances are lost to the educational 
fund, we have recommended that balances of the school fund, which may be 
unexpended at the end of the year, be credited to the school fund, and neither 
to the general local fund nor to provincial services The creation of these 
distinct school funds appears to us to offer the best guarantee against the 
complaints which witnesses have made, sometimes perhaps without duo founda* 
hon, from tho Punjab to Madras, that the whole of the education cess is not 
spent on primary schools, tint education does not receive its legitimate share 
of the income of rural or municipal boards, or that the towns encroach upon 
the financial provision for vilhge education 

217. Eecommendations regarding the Bights and Duties of School- 
boards —Turning now to a cousidention of tho rights ami duties of school* 
boards and oE tho control winch they should crercw over primary education, 
xie recommend that the general control over primary school expenditnre he 
rwfed %n the school hoard*, whether municipal or rural, which may now exist 
or may hereafter he created for self government tn each Pwwf So far as 
rural board* ire concerned the cxp-wncnt has irorLed irell m Bombay, and 
the recognition of the rights of municipal boards is only a natanl dr rrfap- 



162 



extort of tiie education commission 



[chap IV 



ment of the same policy We hat e refrained from expressing any opinion 
on the question whether the school-hoards should bo the town bonds and loeal 
fund committees or sub committees of those boards Each administrative unit 
created under the various schemes of self government will adopt the plan which 
is best suited to the locality The central boards, whether in town, taluka 
or District, mil probably work through village school committees* as they 
do in the Central Provinces But these details can be determined on the 
spot, and we have deliberately avoided suggestions of too precise or uniform 
a character There exists in our opinion the greatest need for variety and 
provincial independence in grappling with the great task of extending a thorough 
primary education The relations of the boards to the Departments must, 
however* be precisely defined, in order to avoid friction from conflict of autho- 
rity Some departmental control is necessary, but its limits should be defined 
In Chapter YIII we shall revert to tins pubject , but on one matter we deem 
it desirable here to state our Recommendation, suggested by one of the Bombay 
witnesses, which will promote the improvement of teachers, an object to 
which we attach great importance We recommend that the first appoint 
ment of schoolmasters tn municipal or board-schools be left to the town or 
District boards^ totih the proviso that the masters be certificated or approved 
by the Department, and their subsequent promotion or removal be regulated 
by the boards subject to the approval of the Department The boards will 
provide the salaries of the misters, and it seems reasonable that within certain 
limits they should select and control the teachers They will also have to 
provide all the funds necessary for maintaining both the schools and the build- 
ings We recommend that the cost of maintaining and aiding primary schools 
in each school district, and the construction and repair of board school houses, 
be charges against the municipal or local board school fund so created This 
Recommendation, if carried out, will introduce generally the lladras system 
under which the boards are responsihlo for aiding private enterprise There is 
an obvious advantage in giving the boards control not merely over thur 
own schools but over all the primary schools in the District or town Their 
financial and administrative control over primary education would be incomplete 
if the Department remained responsible for aided schools, while the boards had 
charge of the cess schools alone It should be the duty of the boards to deal 
with the whole system of primary education, to watch over the wants of all 
classes of the community, and to provide for all such wants whether by creating 
schools of their own or by aiding existing schools We have already mentioned 
our Recommendations for ensuring a proportionate provision for the education 
u of all classes," for giving El special aid on account of low castes," and for provid- 
ing "a proper proportion between special and other primary schools " It is only 
oy making the boards responsible for all agencies that these results can be 
adequately secured Another forcible reason presented itself to us as an argu- 
ment for giving boards the fullest powers The choice of a vernacular is in some 
Provinces of India, especially m the Punjab, a very perplexing question 
We have discussed this subject in a previous paragraph, and it i& sufficient 
here to state our Recommendation, w Inch is so framed as to protect minorities 
We recommend that the vernacular m which instruction shall be imparted m any 
primary school, maintained by any municipal or local board, be determined by 
the school committee of management, subject to revision by the municipal or local 
board provided that if there be any dissenting minority m the community, tcho 
represent a number of pupils sufficient to form one or 7nore separate classes or 
schools, %t shall be incumbent on the Department to provide for the establish 
ment of such classes or schools t and it shall be incumbent on such municipal o? 
local board to assign to such classes or schools a fair propoition of the whole 
assignable funds The choice of the vernacular in aided schools will, of course, 
rest with the managers of such schools, and will offer a valuable index' to popular 
wishes in each locality In conclusion, it is only necessary to guard against 
boards endeavouring to crush out prnate enterprise whether missionary or mdi 



CHAP. IV.] « PHIMAHT EDUCATION. 16 g 

gnaw. If ttepublio funds are entrusted to them, they must administer them as 
a public trust ; M accordance with public policy. TVe therefore conclude our 
Recommendations regarding the rights and duties of boards in their administra- 
tion of primary education with the following: that municipal and local boards 
administering funds tn aid of primary schools adopt the rules prescribed by 
the Department for aiding such schools, and introduce no change therein mth* 
cut the sanction of the Department. 

218. Becommendatiou regarding legislation.— It will be readily 

admitted that the constitution of the school funds proposed by m would be 
rendered more secure, and the rights and duties of school-boards be more clearly 
defined, if they were placed on a legislative basis. The question of legislation is 
one, however, which will be treated at length in Chapter XI of this Beport. 
But in discussing the -whole subject of primary education we adopted the 
following Recommendation, that an attempt le made to secure the fullest 
possible provision for an extension of primary education by legislation suited to 
the circumstances of each Province. This Recommendation was intended not 
only to secure the support of law for primary education, hut also to give 
expression to our opinion that separate legislation should be undertaken in each 
Provincial Council for making laws and regulations. 

219. Expenditure on primary Education.— The ways and means of pri- 
mary education can best be understood by analysing the expendi tare in some 
particular year. It may of course happen that tho nominal income of any 
particular year exceeds the expenditure for the following reasons, hut it is safer 
to regard the actual expenditure as equivalent to the income. The primary 
school fund, speaking broadly, depends on two sources of supply, the provincial 
grant and the local rates. The provincial grants are either assigned as special 
grants for specific purposes or else credited in tho lamp to local rates, hi the 
former case, if they are not wholly spent, the balance lapses again to tho pro- 
vincial fund from which it was given, and is not available for primary educa- 
tion unless it is re-allotted. Therefore the real provincial grant is the actual 
amount allotted and spent, and in that sense expenditure is synonymous with 
income. If, on the other hand, the provincial grant js credited to local rates, 
it either becomes, as in Bombay, part of the educational local fund (in which 
case it may be treated as local income), or else as in the North-Western Provinces 
it lapses to provincial services, in the same way as a special unspent grant 
would lapse. It follows then that, so far as education is concerned, a provin- 
cial surplus of income above expenditure cannot exist at the end of the year. 
But a local fund surplus may and often does exist. Hero again it is unsafe to regard 
that surplus as availablo for expenditure. In Bombay, for instance, tho greater 
part of the local fund rates arc collected at the close of the Financial year with 
the land revenue, and therefore when the accounts are made up on the 31st of 
March a largo surplus is shown. But this working balance will be required to 
keep tho schools going until tho following rcbruary. Also it is well known 
that most Indian Provinces are suhject to the recurrence of famine, when the 
collections of land revenue and consequently of local rates are suspended or 
remitted. In viow of such contingencies a reserve fund must be lept The 
danger varies in intensity in different Provinces ; and it is safe to assume 
thatthc local Department, which has no possible interest in reducing iU ex- 
penditure on primary schools below its income, is the best judge of the amount 
which it has to spend., Tor these reasons wc regard the actual expenditure of 
each year as practically equivalent to the income available for expenditure. 
Accordinglv wo give below two Tables, in the first of which will he found a 
comparison between the expenditure in 1S70-71 ™* ««* * 'f 8 '? 3 . . 7 • 
Table exhibits in detail the total expenditure on depirtmen (aland aided pnunrr 
schools for the year which is under review in this Beport. 



1G1 



nrroitT op the mtrciTiov commission* 



[chap IV 



TABLE 7, — Comparative Statement of the Total rxpenditure 



Ivril LI. 01 I |QV|YCTlL 

(.imp tc»b * 



Midrib 



Ot*j«l*f Eti^t) liter* 



Tturt 



BOHBAY 



floji anr] D rU **cho&ta 

Tn n n£ School* Tor H uteri md IPrtMiw* 

Srhola il pi f 

It Id npi * 

Median cotu a 

Total 

Itoys mid rl«* Rchooli 

Training ^booh for Mm ton in 1 Mtitrfuw* 

Stl fljurih pi 

Ba 1 1 ngi 

Al icellaneou 

Total 

Hoys mid 0 rU ^chonli 
Trt 

Schof jmh p* c 
MyjcelkDeota p 

Total 

Tni n n^Schoola fgr Muter* *nd M it rem* 
^cbolarth ps * 
Ha 11 ng* 
MucelUneotu 



83796 
74 799 



157505 



PfflfJlB 



CrtTBAL PflOYIHCSS 



Assam 



* 33*47 
37 753 

5" 3*7 
11 284 



3 33 551 



* 75 774 
1,3*39 J 



I 3^t' s 

39 C2J 



Tain. 



i£3 145 



2 74H* 
49555 

10 115 

1 1 £33 



5 *3 "99 
34 539 

13 101 



345733 



5 & 553 
70 316 



Coosa 



Total 

Boj» and G tU ficl oolj 

Train n^chooUf rMaifcriAndM itrcuei 

Pcbo!of*h pi c 

En 1 1 ngfl ^ 

TOTiL 

Boji and G rU Pcboolj 

Tn □ a£^boo1aforMi9tera«ndM »trew* 
N:l oUr*h pi 

Mucellanaoiu 

Total 

I3ojVfind C tU Retools 

Trn n nfr Sd oolafor Alwtm em 1 M »tr«flea 

SchrtTArsMpa 

Uald nga 

MifiCeUaneoai 

TOTAli 

Itoy* and f tU School* 

Tra n ng Schools for tfiistcri tnd M streaica 

Scnol T&h pi 

Miscellaneous 

Total 

Boys and Girla School* 

Trn 11 ng Schools for M&steriandM atmaei 
Schnlnrsh pa 
Bn Id rigs 
Miscellaneous 



314 IS* 



1 71 767 

50*69 

'5*5 



M35SI 



7M70 
29073 



100543 



46916 
4000 



171 



6I4OO 



T rarti In 
e tulint Iti 
thou* f r 



6R27IJ 



502116 



1 10783 

^4 1S7 



7*7 132 



5^769 



1838*9 



216077 



1 61 906 
9975 

<7*M 
4 9*7 



77 371 
19 751 



97 



7<5 130 
34*358 

30(4 
43 MB 



M7*«9 



164640 



**4 955 
" 153 



UP35 

350 



5-39=99 
6,392 

27059 
13720 



5B6470 



3 3 750 

S3 098 



3 44A* 



1,44,695 
14 

5335 
4633 



*37io5 



IT 930 
'0 595 

J 161 



5 530 
t6 



TOTAli 

TOTAL FOR INCrAf 



5546 



»4I7I 



154 



51 209 
30$3 

544 



2 206 
I S90 



56547 



4096 



7775*5 
2089 



15377 



95 



1291,504 



98C73 
8571 

56 Q67 
to 789 



125000 



17 21 663 



6 150 



433 



65*3 



35682 
34«S 

18619 
3 16 



60879 



5$ $*$ 

§28784 
3 533 



12 39360 



87841 



25 41 402 



+ p t J* Pic,,ldil1 * the upend tafaonKliooIi 

* * M M „ « . B ( ta ,„ rr^r aK-i sir 8 t 



cnAr. it ] pEiarAMr education. 

on primary Education %n the years iSfo-yi and i83i*S2. 



165 







1 T<JTAi £XTI5THTT*B 0* 


Tears* 


lean 




10;*- 7 1 


t&at si 




1 

ISBi S3 






7 

- 


& 




ID 


Ji 


Ji 


ft 

pt 202 
8 210 


5 '4 
1 3 77 


ft 

68371 


ft 

3 76 006 
22 782 


n 

IO4378 


R 
77505 


CQ4I2 




Bg 710 


3 00*778 


3 46747 


I<86o04i 


2Q W7 
2ig 

1,3*5 


I QJ 470 
It 


87 280 

74303 


11 788 

S2811 
16030 


8 72 

71037 
248750 

25700 


Id^2 W"S 

81439 1 

£95S*i 
2 I3 7I4 

53 139 




I OA d8l 


I "70 lOO 




12 17 8*76 




5 74S 


2 9^7 


20 758 


t»7/ °y 1 

l6 80S 


j 64 888 


90301 


jinn 






494499 






»y ^34 

2l 


54 797 
724 


«zi /7 


07 953 

3994 


C 7C 07 fi 

73817 

18729 
45*7 1 


86<87S 

43353 

27 *>5 




55 S^ 1 


* 343*4 


v* 947 




O W 0I*Y^ 


10 


62 230 
74 


07 y2Q 

10 789! 


Mfl lit 

73i444 
10 100 


5 AA7S2 


c ic6o< 


v n -»- 

13 173 


62304 


78709 








7 39S 


21 902 


6g 373 


2576 


* 4^539 
22486 

5000 


2 7S fl20 
244S* 

7 349 
49457 




21903 


70 122 




2 7O w j 




«tmi*d In 
Iberia? 


1S016 

96 


JFjrnrrs in 
eluded in 
times f w 1 


I3J2 

?B$ 
5*4 


Finn«* In 
t d^i^ fa 


99 44* 
i5^S5 

2701 
22S9 




t8XL2 




30802 




1 19722a 




1 064 






16 


po> 
1890 

433 








220 


S673 « 9*3 




*59*7 


497 


974 


1 13935 
5505 

18 6t9 
X&539 


181099 
857* 

§3575* 1 
14^* 




259Z7 


497 




1^65^ 


23974* 




20 64771 


760829 


1583 099 


35^7420 * 


7909940J 



*d to tcoomkrt MbooU 
e SUtif tics not available 



schawls under i&xpcctiQiu 



* A Ifli^fl PftftKm a f *M? mmotm £ * u f &f prfu» moid 
ilk Vatttf St&t# schooU tod c*Xmot b« »ep&mted 
bom the torn spent m itthoUrBhipff 

/Including tha eiwnditaw cf 4 15,904 an trlm^fT 
f Etttuduig tha ctnt of the ^rtumrj cloai^ of &Moud 

K Excluding tho cost of tbe primary dames ittatfitA 

i Include? tbe eipeDditurt of Ha 1 43 541 on uflaftlud 
pnoia^jf febouis tinder lnjjjfict &d 



lilcffiTB of eipead tore on primary *tbooh far £it 
roptaufi «nd tura*iin* which la ttattd t4 b« Id 
ecpmble 

wlgsitc of Ha i* 4B* on tuuudful prlmjifj icliooTi 



prixite (lindA tnd iDclnde^ mdej' otic r *oareei 

nclflftive «f lb* pip«nd tore Inctirred on the t*tfi 
uij of teacher lot ttcond&rj Tdmaculiw tcbwlB 



dt3r boja bod firl* »c^oobt t Mid rinmit bv 



ncludinft tbtf expend tare <jf H*, J ^> OH nnuded 
jpriioMrj KbpolJ uDd^r ^ipcc od bat ft indxnx 

cbfetfj by pug tt i™ thif pH mtry d (wrpbwm a# 
mi Jdie t*. bC^ls, Tb4 C4tt of th# Lfl d tutrnl k bDCiU 
mst— 



MDnic pal 
Uth«r Muf»A 



0 

5 3^ 



TatL* 



ar Ftm)pf*n* vid Ftl^tjl^Tji 



42 



1GG 



KErORT or THF TDUCATION COMMISSION [Ciur 1\, 

TABLE 8— Detailed Statement showing the Total Expenditure 



t v>tWKiiui toG^Jua lit* cifku I 



CUitot School*, 



Bo J* 



Tor*i 



Bonier 



Boy* 



{ 



T0T4L 



Eflj4j 



Fioti*cu ira 



{ 



Totn 



GIjI* 



Total 



G rl* 



Total 



{ 



Girl* 



Tout 



Boy* 

CtiU 



C601Q 



{ 



Toial 



Giril 



Totai 



HitBAlAflAD 
£ STttOTB 



{ 



Boy* 
Glrla 















a 

B 










& 








D 

u 


h 








u 






i 






iS" 3 




h 


i 






Urn 


5 


o 
H 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 



Girli 



Tot* (.Jt 



ft I A 



u ir 



0 i7j 















5 








i ! 


l » 










!^ 




1 

t 






& 


t 


t 






9 


14 


it 


1) 



S '7* 1 



J05 



5" 49 



IV 37" 35 55* 



i 

» J5<? 



It 

fl 40* 



T "1474 



I 4 577 
#( 454 



33« 5* 



*r4JO 



17.4*1 e 



0J.4 J T«44 Tt* 



H(4 too 



144 



4*"» 



3 jSl} Tj*** 
O* 3 



J7S6* 



4*1 1*3 



4>>«IJ 




4J. 31 



*i»4* 



5 J ^ J >**4^ jc^»3 



1 



>*3J 



! 

4-4VPT, ***^T4> 



A 0 4 £ I 4Ji 



IS «j 



71 35*, I 30 157 



S 131 



76,4*3 



P IS" 



4*»T^» 



i^>44^ 1* 



5 ?j ■ u ns 



94$> 



37*4 



3 3«J 



J>3 



0 5»J 



1 » 1^7 
■ 433 



7 94 *>40 



1 «3 



I 



«J<7 



j 04: 



I 355 



B7 4SI 



30 D7S< 
9 C 4 <S 



1 tH3J 



1J>* ■ 14 oj6 

*43 



«3j 



3,7^7 




I3>di|r I4&*g 



17 f°7 
>4 



■7*^ 37 5*" 



t7 ^ 



134" 



3 *3 74J 



3 "5 *9* 



1$ AlO 



3t $7* 



it 4« 



110 



53>>S4 ] 



31 47 5*' 
1 fij 3^5 



33*9 94* 



3" 



17 



Ji 



I to 



5-4J>j 



4"Ji 



3*3 
•3* 



3,4<» 



0 67 471 
r 4^,590 



S 1706a 



39Q 



***04S 



U 5J6 



7^* 



I 



3.*3tS* 



M 30 flj4 
14 67 9*» 



974 

3 l? «5J 



9*a,*44 



TO 



73* 



3M^34* 



3*rM7S5 



* Eicln Uiiff tti* eijxmllt tro on b^Hdo efor EutAwni 

0 Eiclui af Uitf ci^end tur^ 0 prhnnrY eiin At on to. 
^ la dad ng trainusg scbttrta md cluiet for tnutf t 



cnAr. iv ] 



rnniAJvr tduoation 



167 



on Dejmt hnenial and Aided Trimanj School^ tn i8Sr-82 







sis • 

£ ? c 

'i ? _ ' 

t c ■ ^ ^ 


= "3- 
0 c3 
E *■ ^ 


c d 
_ 2^ ■ 


* ^ 


~ ~* +. 

|5 = 

t» * 


— ++H 
— P ° 


3 

■q_u 

> 


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f Thff totil #ipend tars n 
cartel bj tho ^atiTfl SUtei 
([Ei 5 70 d^t) li her tin 
eludaatD ths total fiptudi 
tors en fdncitlj^ £xc nd 
Inff thut mm tht pflmntHf* 
For BoraUj la 47 30 



a Tb* fliT^Dd t rr en buiM 

jett* ftti 40 jf7&J *n «r*d in 
Table 7 tiDnat be ibown 

achool* It b*i thorefar* 
been ■tdnded htrai coluttti* 
(j 17 but Included In 



£ Tt» eipfhd toreoiipeh&lir- 
ih pt ind bn U up) {K* 
5ilSo6) entered In Tabl*7 
cannot bs sbown apptntel j 
for bOJi 4nd g^rla ivcboolt 
It b» tber«fan been ft 
oltidcd tr*m coluroti* 15 17 
but Included ia ftftluia ■ 



* +bsl ftl 11 BtitBtloQi hi S on ftbool* for Europo*3» ^ 
tdmin wi #r their Own nj« m 0t t fu »Won 



1G3 



HETOM OP THE OTtJC\TI0S COMMISSION 



[cn KT. IV. 



220 Ependiture on primary Education in 1870-71 and in 1881-82. 

—Tho first subject which demands notice in Tabic 7 is t ho contrast between the 
funds available for extending primary education in 1870-7 1 and in 188 1-82, In 
the first year, Bombay, tho North- Western Provinces, the Punjab, tho Central 
Provinces, and tho Haidarabad Assigned Districts were tho only Provinces of India 
in which local and municipal funds boro any part of tho burden of educating 
tho masses- Wo have seen the importance which the Secretary of State and 
tho Government of India attached to tho levy of local rates for primary education. 
The advantages of associating the development of this branch of public in- 
struction with local taxation wcro both financial and administrative. One 
argument was supplied by the inability of the Imperial exchequer to find suffi- 
cient funds for so great and increasing a task ; the other was suggested by 
the political advantage of entrusting to local boards, administering local re- 
sources, a branch of administration in which local interest and supervision 
could alone secure full efficiency and economy. Accordingly wo find that in 
1881-82 there was no Province of India, except Bengal, uhich had not cor- 
dially accepted the policy recommended by superior authority- The total 
expenditure from provincial, rural, and municipal funds in 1881-82 on pri- 
mary education was Us. 42,63,070, of which 60 per cent, was raised locally 
by urban or rural boards, while 40 per cent, fell upon provincial revenues. 
In 1870-71 49 per cent, of the expenditure had been paid by local rates, 
while 5 1 per cent, was contributed by provincial revenues. But the differ- 
ence between 59 per cent, and 49 per cent, is not the only measure of the 
success that has attended the imposition of local rates. In 1881-82 the pro- 
vincial expenditure had increased over that of 1870-71 by 33 per cent,, while 
the local and municipal grants to primary education had increased by 105 per 
cent. The local fund revenue has, therefore, been vastly more elastic than the 
provincial grant, and this elasticity is likely to continue in future years. This 
comparison fails, however, to exhibit the results in the most striking light. In 
Bengal there are no local educational rates, and tho local rates levied in As^am 
were imposed after the separation of tho Province from Bengal and long 
after 1 87 1. Including therefore Bengal and Assam from tho present review, 
it appears that in the remaining seven Provinces 56 per cent of the public 
expenditure on primary education in 1S70-71 was provided by local rates, and 
44 per cent, by imperial, or as they arc now termed provincial revenues. In 
1881-82 the local rates contributed 69 per cent, and the provincial funds 31 
per cent, of the public expenditure* In tho same period the provincial grant 
had increased by only 12 per cent, and the local rates by 99 per cent. 
Thus it is evident that the extension of primary education since 1870-71 in 
seven of the Provinces has almost entirely deppnded on local resources, and 
it must be remarked that if its history wero traced throughout each year 
between 187 1 and 1882, it would be found that, whereas the provincial grant 
has varied with financial disturbances caused by war and famine, tho local 
fund income has remained comparatively secure* In considering Table 7 
it must further bo borne in mind that tho expenditure on school build- 
ings is not shown for Madras, Bengal, or the Punjab, as these charges 
appear in the lump and are not separated according to the class of edu- 
cation. But in Bengal such expenditure cannot be great, as the indige- 
nous schoolmasteis make their own arrangements for accommodation. It 
must also be remembeied that under the heading "expenditure from oth^r 
<e sources " are included estimates furnished by indigenous schoolmasters TYe 
have no means of verifying these estimates which in some Provinces are 
regarded as under, and in others as o\er, the mark; and they must therefoiebe 
accepted with reservation, especially in Bengal, where inspection is still inade- 
quate to the great task which the Department has undertaken. In Bombaj, 
under this heading aie included large sums paid by the Motive States for 



CHAP, IV.] I-JUMART EDUCATION. 16 g 

schools winch, though only inspected by the Department, are in their character 
essentially departmental institutions In Chapter XII we shall he careful to 
distinguish these sums from contributions made by the people, 

it 221 ^ U Claims of P™ 11 ^ Education upon public Jonas gene- 
rally.— The controversy regarding the relative claims of higher and pri. 
mary education has not been completely set at rest by the change of public 
sentiment in regard to the " downward filtration theory." We have already 
referred to our Recommendations on this subject, but it is necessary, be- 
fore reviewing the statistics of public expenditure upon Government' and 
aided primary schools, to refer more particularly to the .debate which took 
place in the Commission on February 14, 1883. It was proposed that 
the Commission should assert the principle "that the elementary educa- 
" tion of the masses be declared to be that part of the State system of 
"education to which public funds bo mainly devoted." To this proposal 
objection was taken by some on the grounds that, if local funds were mainly 
expended upon primary education, the higher grades of education had a 
stronger claim upon provincial funds which were equally public funds; 
that it took no notice of private funds which might be largely devoted to the 
education of the masses and thus render a large public expenditure unne- 
cessary; and that the authorities had never intended to limit expenditure 
to that class of instruction now defined as primary. The Commission 
thereon decided, not without piotest from the minority, to substitute for 
consideration the following proposition : " That while every hranch of educa- 
" tion can rightly claim the fostering care of the State, it is desirable, in the present 
"circumstances of the country, to declare the elementary education of the masses, 
" its provision, extension, and improvement, to be that part of the educational 
" system to which the efforts of tbeState should now be directed in 3 still larger 
" measure than heretofore.*' This proposal was objected to on the ground that 
it was a vague and qualified declaration of policy ; that the Government of 
India Resolution No. 63, dated iehruary ri, iSji, had laid down the pofcey 
which Government meant to pursue ; and that except in Bengal the local rates 
were exclusively or almost exclusively reserved for primary education. An 
amendment to the proposition was then moved to the following effect : " That 
" it bo declared that, while all forms of education are necessary for the good of 
w the community and deserving of encouragement, the elementary education 
" of the masses is that portion of the system of education that has the strongest 
"claim on the State; and that as secondary and collegiate education become 
*' more self-supporting, a constantly increasing proportion of public funds be 
" devoted to elementary education." The main object of this amendment 
was to remove the impression that the duty of the State towards primary 
education might one day change, which seemed to be suggested by the phrase 
"under present circumstances." The amendment was lost, but the sup- 
porters of the original motion agreed to accept the Recommendation in this 
form— that ichilst every branch of education can rightly claim the fosterma 
care of the State, it is desirable in the present circumstances of the country 
to declare the elementary education of the masses, it* provision, extension, 
and improvement, to be that part of the educational system to xchick the 
strenuous efforts of the State should mid be directed in a still larger measure 
than heretofore. It was felt that this Recommendation did not prevent a 
more explicit declaration of the ways and means by wluch "the strenuous 
» efforts of Government » in the cause of primary education must he supported. 
Accordingly a further Kecommendation was proposed and adopted, to the effect 
that primary educaUon be declared to be that v «rt of the whole system of pnhha 
instruction tohtch possesses an almost exclusive claim on local finds set apart 
for education and a targe claim on provincial revenues Objection was taken 



170 



ItErOflT OF THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. 



to this Recommendation on ttio ground that local rates might ho fairly charged 
with the cost of higher education, and it was proposed to declare "that 
» primary education possesses the first claim on local funds set apart for edu* 
« cation, ^Yherc such csist, and a large claim on provincial revenues/' This 
amendment was resisted on tho ground that iho imposition of local rates 
was universal except in Bengal, where, notwithstanding the decision of the 
Government of India in 1868 which was supported by the Secretary of State, 
no educational rate had yet been imposed; and that the clause "where such 
exist M would imply that tho Commission were indifferent to the further deve- 
lopment of a policy which had been so instrumental in providing for the 
education o£ tho throughout India with the exception of one Pro. 

It was urged that the two principles contained in the Recom- 



vince. 



mendation were sound, namely, that the local educational rate should he 
almost exclusively devoted to the education of the masses who too the 
chief contributors to it ; and secondly, that the levy of a local rate did not 
diminish, but rather increased, the obligation of the State to help those who 
were least able to help themselves and yet came f orw ard to supply local resources 
for their education, Tho Recommendation gL\cn above was then carried by a 
large majority* Accepting therefore theso tuo Recommendations as the deliber- 
ate verdict of the Commission upon the question of the claims which primary 
education possesses upon public funds {whether they be those raised by munici- 
pal and rural hoards in the form of local rates, or whether they be the provin- 
cial revenues assigned to the Local Government from imperial taxation), we may 
now proceed to enquire how far the practice corresponds with the theory thus 
enunciated- Tho follo\nng figures are taken from Table 8, which has been 
given above* They show how the claims of primary education, first, upon public 
educational funds, and, secondly, upon provincial funds assigned for education, 
were recognised by the various Local Governments and Administrations in the 
year ending Harch 31, 1882. In the last column they show the share of 
public as well as private educational funds which is believed to have been spent 
on primary education, Tho information is as accurate as wc can obtain, but 
the expenditure on buildings and on scholarships is not uniformly included in 
every Province. In Chapter XII we shall give a somewhat different analysis 
of public expenditure, and the distinction between the results shown hhre and 
there must not be overlooked. 

Statement showing the percentage of qxpendUure on primary schools. 



E&OTtEfCE t 


Percentage of public 
educational f uodfl 
levoted to Departmental 
wid Aided Primary 
(choola 


Percentage of Tro- 
via ctA 1 Educational 
funds devoted to 

ed Primary schools. 


Percentage of total 
expenditure devoted to 

iJeportmcntal and 
Aided Primary achools 


Per eentagiJ of tout 
educational einenditun 

devoted to PnmHry 
achooh of all clashes 
(Departmental, Aided 
Inspected), 


Madras * 


41 06 


17 12 


38*22 


45 74 


Bombay , 


57 M 


3° 3 6 


39 34 




Bengal . 


22 73 


22 55 


33*99 


36 29 


North-Western 
Provinces and 


50 74 


23 28 


4570 


46 21 


Punjab . 


35 89 


15 39 


4607 


36 07 


Central Provinces 




39*98 1 


52 9 S 


53 4i 


Assam 


39 3 6 


1709 


38 07 


38 48 


Coorg 


52 63 


30 95 


52 61 


5261 


Haictarabad As- 
signed District": 


6561 


53 07 


6 7 93 


67 93 


All India 


41*82 


H 33 


3S23 


43 42 



chat iv ] rnniAity r^trcixioN 17l 

These figures show that in the Haidmbnd Assigned Districts, m Hornby, 
^ ortb -Y° StCrU P »*™* Cental Provinces and Coorg, more than hart 
of the public expenditure on education was devoted to the instruction of the 
masses In Madras, Assam, and the Punjab, more than one third was so spent , 
whilst m Bengal, where owing to tho absence of local rates the public support 
of primary education falls exclusively upon provincial revenues, less than one- 
fourth of tho total public expenditure was devoted to primary education For 
the uholc of India, the percentage of public educational funds devoted to the 
instruction of the muses wis 41 per cent, and the following Provinces were 
below that avenge, namely, Assam, which spent 39 3 6 s the Punjab, which spent 
35 S9, and Bengal, which spent only 2283 of its public educational fund on 
primary instruction The proportion given for Bengal excludes, however, the 
cost of primary classes in secondary schools 

233 The claims of primary Education ou Provincial Revenues — 

Tho advocates of the claims of tho masses have never been content with 
showing that a large proportion of public funds is spent on primary schools 
They argue that local rates bemg contributed by the great mass of Indian cul- 
tivators are local contributions, which m equity demand an equivalent from the 
Stite, tint, in the words of the Government of India, the provision of local 
rates docs not lessen the obligation of tho State to help those who help them- 
seh es, and therefore that it is important to see that a reasonable proportion of 
the provincial grant for education is assigned for primaiy schools They 
call special attention to the Despatch of the Secretary of State, dated 26th 
of May 1870, which was the outcome of long discussion with the Bengal 
Government That Despatch certainly enjoined the greatest caution in dealing 
with higher education, and it rcfeired to the poverty of many of the students 
m the Bengal colleges and high schools , but it was prefaced by the following 
general remarks M In the hnef remarks which I shall offer on your Despatch, 
**I would he understood as approving generally of the mam principle which 
** runs through it> namely, that the Government expenditure should, as far 
" as possible, be reduced with reference to the education of those who are well 
"able to pay for themselves and should bo mainly directed to the pronsion of 
*' in elementary education for the misses of the people " TFhafc constitutes a 
reasonable grant has never been determined, but it is obvious that m a Province 
like Bengal, where there is no local fund for education to depend on, more must 
bo done by provincial revenues than elsewhere The Table shows that, while 
in tho Haidarabad Assigned Districts more than half the provincial (assign- 
ment for education 1$ given to primary education, and xn the Central Provinces 
more than a tlurd, Bombay and Coorg give 30 per cent , the North Western 
Provinces 23 per cent , Bengal 22 per cent , and the rest of the Provinces 
between 18 and 14 per cent "We are, however, unable to pass over our reference 
to the Haidarabad Assigned Districts without further explanation From the f or^ 
-warding letter which covers the Report on education m these Districts we extract 
tho following remarks ** The cess was originally an education cess, but is now 
part of a local cess connected with village police Education, however, did 
not lose by the change, and it receives a larger share now than formerly On 
every 0 £ re venue paid by each field one anna three pies or five pice are 
*' levied Of this revenue one-fifth forms the school cess The cess income fop 
» education in 1 88 j -82 amounted to Rs 1,0 1 ,08 1 and each District was credited 
« with its own share The administration of the fund is, however, peculiar 
" and demands notice A hard and fast rule is laid down, that primary educa* 
"tion in Government schools is not to receive more than Rs 1,30,000 a year 
» It is also assumed that Rs 53,660 of the cess income are available for this 
« purpose to which the Local Government adds from general revenues the 



u 
tc 



172 



nrroitT or the epucvtioet commission. 



[CHAP. TV, 



u balance to make up Rs. 1,30,000. The rest of the cess income is set aside " 
** for school buildings* If the cess income increases, so as to be able to contri- 
bute more than Its. 53,660, then the provincial assignment proportionately 
u decreases" TVe have no information which would show us whether the 
whole of the cess is annually spent on school buildings* But in Chapter IV 
of his Report the Director of Public Instruction suggests that the balance of 
the cess money, Us. 47,000, now devoted to buildings, &c.» should be given for 
the extension of primary education, and the provincial grant be raised under the 
terms of the Government of India Resolution No. 60, dated 1 ith February 1871. 
It seems probable that the very large share of provincial educational funds, 
53 per cent., which is given to primary education in the Haidarabad Assigned 
Districts, is paitially accounted for by the financial arrangement described above, . 
- — an arrangement which treats a local fund income of Bs. 1,01,081 as if it were 
an income of Rs. 53,660, Our Recommendations will, however, if they are 
adopted by the Local Administration, introduce a change in this respect. The 
whole local fund income will in the first place be credited to the school fund 
and will he %upplemented by a provincial grant, The proportion of the whole 
expenditure borne by local rates will then be increased, and that charged to the 
provincial grant be pro tanto diminished. 

223, The Cost of Education in primary Schools —The following Table 

gives the average annual cost of educating each pupil in the piimary schools 
of each Province. It includes, except for Bengal and Assam, the expenditure 
upon primary classes in secondary schools ; and thus it appears that in the 
Punjab provincial funds bear some part of the cost of primary education, 
although we have explained elsewhere that in that Province primary vernacular 
schools are not assisted or maintained out of provincial revenues* The inclu- 
sion of the^e primary classes, and of schools iu which English is taught to 
pupils under primary instruction, will explain the comparatively large cost of 
educating a pupil in the aided schools of the Punjab and the Iff orth- Western 
Provinces, It will be observed that the cost of educating a pupil in the pri- 
mary cesssfhools of Bombay is very little mexe in the case of boys* schools, 
and much less in the case of girls' schools than the cost in aided institutions. 
This is explained by the large average attendance in a departmental school in 
Bombay, which economises the attention of the masters and other incidental 
expenses. With these few remarks wo subjoin the following Table, 



1 



FRDUmr EDTTCATTOJT 



173 



BLE No. lOr-Stetcment sltotcmg the acetage* annual cast of educating each pupil in primary 

schools tn the official year iSHt 82 



■aatrj ooU for 

(3 tU 

TorUL 



1 



Total 



To*il* 



Tor ax 



1 



lit Paov 

SCE3 



{ 



O rl* 
T0T*L 

Tot it 



rttoji 
ToriJt 



TlJTlL 



[ Total 



ft D p 

6 0 to 
5*o 



Tort to 
l*ruvLn l»l 



hi 

Lnrtil Hit* » 



Hun rlp*l 



6 1 It 



4 5 » 
607 



Rap 

O 13 9 
Mi 3 



o IS 3 



t t 3 
< n 5 



470 



403 



403 



I i 8 



3 M 3 



3 M 3 



3 10 6 

4 7 5 



096 
3 a ft 



ft a j> 
3 7 10 
o 13 t! 



363 



2 6 to 
4 1 it 



2 8 I 



ft a P 
083 

I 4 t 



0 9t 



029 

0 i 9 



Tot Hi w*t. 



Cost to 
Food* 



ft d f 

4 5 9 



4 ir 11 



416 
10 4 it 



029 



603 



2 ID O 

11 7 4 



2 10 9 

o 14 t 



3io s 



4 nr S 
4 « S 



4 J* 7 



0 10 4 



a 6 6 
o 9 t 



c 6 8 



314 1 

555 



3 :5 * 



208 



2 0 S 



015 9 



0 IS o 



2 10 3 



Z 12 9 



0 3 3 

047 



0 3 3 



2 15 8 
a 2 10 



2 15 1 



o J2 o 

t 13 3 



10 12 2 
10 12 8 



10 12 3 



7 6 9 
12 12 6 



2 13 5 



0 7 5 



t o 1 

249 



167 



o 10 7 
3 6 n 



0 11 6 



4 5 2 
3 *3 o 



4 2 7 



3 13 6 
3 4 3 



0 12 9 



219 

4 9 J 



2 3* 



308 



208 



3 4 9 



3 4 9 



6 I 7 
10 9 3 



one 



0 11 0 



624 



3 8 11 
5 to 



392 



2 3 0 



0 5 4 
O ft 1 



0 5 5 



2 3 9 



303 
J 4 3 



0 o 4 

1 74 * 



4 5 7 

5 10 7 



4 6 5 



0 !4 9 

1 13 10 



206008 



297 

3 1 1 



015 4 



964 



300 



2 « 2 
13 0 9 



308 



2 IS 0 

S3" 



302 



14 6 0 



79a 



4 1 3 
7 2 10 



425 



1 3 4 
360 



1 4 3 



0 5 7 
o 9 ti 



058 



3 5 *J 
780 



4 4 5 

0 12 2 

3 o U 



0 13 1 



o 4 j3 
o to 4 



3 p ti o 4 d 



3 1 11 
11 3 w 



3 7 1 



o TO 6 
3 r 8 



O 12 1 



Cost to 
L<ki1 Rat ?i 



ti 



ft a p 

■ S I 

002 



1 3 11 



044 



o o 10 



Cant to 
Muti Lrri 



Rap 

0 3 3 
032 



Us * dst> Schools 
try dib isiTici 0* 



TdUl cost 



la 



3 o 8 
8 5 I 



tout 14 

Man pjtf 



J? £ 



0 3 3 



O O 2 



O t 2 



0 3 3 



0 0 2 



0 0 2 



Q o 8 



005 



o 3 i° 



0 15 



1 9 2 
I 10 2 



r 9 ^ 



o o C 



o 6 



o S 0 
o t 3 



o 4" 



0 0 S 



266 



4 5 C 

5 8 9 



467 



o o 1 
0 1 4 



001 



272 
7 4 4 



005 
0 j 11 



2 9 10 



o 9 it 
038 



o 7 11 



o 0 S 



964 

640 



8 10 11 



o47 



o 10 11 



o 6 it 



0 1 9 
o?S 



0 1 11 



0 14 9 



0 14 9 



082 
2 3 S 



o 9 t 



005 
t 7 6 



010 




2 13 X 
7 3* 



308 



I 12 9 
1 ' 5 



1 to 2 



002 
017 



003 



44 



^ EEPOttT OP THE EDUCATION COHHISSIOK. [CHAP. IT* 

124 [Recommendations Recapitulated Tho Recommendations which 
have been disced in detail in the course of this Chapter may now be presented 
in a complete form as follows :— 

TFe recommend that — 

(j) primary education be regarded as tho instruction of the masses through 
tho vernacular in such subjects as Trill best fit them for thei* position in life, 
and be not necessarily regarded as a portion of instruction leading up to the 
University : 

(2) the- upper primary and lower primary examinations bo not made 
compulsory in any Province : 

(3) while every branch of education can justly claim the fostering care 
of tho State, it is desirable, in the present circumstances of the country, to 
declare the elementary education of the masses, its provision, extension, and 
improvement, to he that part of the educational system to which the strenuous 
efforts of the State should now bo directed in a still larger measure than here- t 
tofore : 

(4) an attempt be mad© to secure the fullest possible provision for an 
extension of primary education by legislation suited to the circumstances of 
each Province : 

(5) where indigenous schools exist, the principle of aiding and improving 
them be recognised as an important means of extending elementary education : 

(6) examinations by inspecting officers be conducted as far as possible 
\n stlit, and all primary schools receiving aid bo invariably inspected tn situ ; 

(7) as a general rule, aid to primary schools be regulated to a large extent 
according to the results of examination ; but an exception may be made in 
the case of schools established in backward Districts or under peculiar circum- 
stances, which may be aided under special rules : 

(8) school-houses and furniture be of the simplest and most economical 
kind : 

(9) the standards of primary examination in each province be revised 
with a view to simplification, and to the larger introduction of practical sub* 
jecls, such as native methods of arithmetic, accounts and mensuration, the 
elements of natural and physical science, and their application to agriculture, 
health, and the industrial arts ; but no attempt be made to secure general uni- 
formity throughout India : 

(10) care bo taken not to interfere with tho^jecdom of managers oJ aided 
schools in the choice of text-books : , 

(11) promotion from class to class be not necessarily made to depend on 
the results of one fixed standard of examinations uniform throughout the 
Province ; 

(12) physical development bo promoted by the encouragement of native 
games, gymnastics, school-drill and other exercises suited to the circumstances 
of each class of school : 

(13) all inspecting officers and teachers be directed to sec that the teach* 
ing and discipline of every school are such as to exert a right influence on the 
manners, tho conduct, and tho character of the children, and that for tho 
guidance of the masters a special manual bo prepared : 

(14) the existing rules, as to religious teaching in Government schools, 
be applied to all primary schpols wholly maintained by municipal or local fund 
boards : 

{15) the supply of Kormal schools, whether Government or aided, be so 
localised as to provide for the local requirements of all primary schools, whether 
Government or aided, within the DhhJoa under each Irspeclor : 



CHAP. IV.] PRniAKY EDUCATION ^5 

i « ° 6) /*? ?l rst r Cl3 ^ S m P~*«M funds signed for primary education 
he the cost of its direction and infection, and the provision of adequate Normal 
schools : 

(17) pupils in municipal or local board-schools be not entirely exempted 
from piyment of fees, merely on the ground that they are the children of rate- 
payers : 

(iS) in all board-schools a certain proportion of pupils he admissible as 
free students on tho ground of poverty; and in the case of special schools, 
established for the benefit of poorer classes, a general or larger exemption from 
payment of fees be allowed under proper authority for special reasons : 

(19) subject to the exemption of a certain proportion of free students 
on account of poverty, fees, whether in money or kind, he levied in all aided 
schools; but tho proceeds bo leffc entirely at the disposal of the school- 
managers : 

(20) tho principle laid down in Lord Hardinge's Resolution, dated nth 
October 1844, be lc-affirmed, L e. t that in selecting persons to fill the lowest 
offices under Government, preference be always given to candidates who can 
read and write : 

(21) tho Local Governments, especially those of Bombay and the Uorth- 
WcstcrnProTinces, bo invited to consider the advisability of carrying out the 
suggestion contained in paragraph 96 of the Despatch of 1834, namely, of 
making some educational qualification necessary to the confirmation of here- 
ditary village officers, such as patels and lambardars : 

{22) night schools be encouraged wherever practicable : 

(23) as much elasticity as possible be permitted both as regards the hours 
of the day and the seasons of the year during which the attendance of scholars 
is required, especially in agricultural villages and backward Districts ; 

(24) primary education bo extended in backward Districts, especially in 
those inhabited mainly by aboriginal races, by the instrumentality of the De- 
partment pending the creation of school-boards, or by specially liberal grants, 
fn-aid to those who are willing fo sot up and maintain schools : 

(25) all primary schools wholly maintained at the cost of the school- 
boards, and all primary schools that are aided from the same fund and arc not 
registered as special schools, be understood to be open to all castes and classes 
of the community : 

(26) such a proportion between special and other primary schools be main- 
tained in each school-district as to ensure^ pioportionate provision for the edu- 
cation of all classes : 

(27) assistance he given to schools and orphanages in which poor children 
are taught reading, writing, and counting, with or without manual work : 

(28) primaiy education he declared to he that port of the whole system of 
public instruction which possesses an almost exclusive claim on local funds set 
apart for education, and a large claim on provincial revenues : 

(29) both Municipal and Local self-government Boards keep a separate 

school-fund : 

(30) the municipal school-fund consist of — 

(a) a fair proportion of municipal revenues, to be fixed in each case 

by the Local Government ; 
(fi) the fees levied in schools wholly maintained at the cost of the 

municipal school- fund; 

(c) any assignment that may be made to the municipal school-fund 

from the local fund ; 

(d ) any assignment from provincial funds ; 



17G 



HEP011T OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION, 



[CHAP. IV, 



(e) any other funds that may be entrusted to the municipalities for 

the promotion of education. ; 
(/) any unexpended balance of the school-fund from previous years : 

(31) the Local Board's school-fund consist of — 

(a) a distinct share of the general local fund, which share shall not 
be less than a minimum proportion to be prescribed for each 
Province ; 

(i) the fees levied in schools wholly maintained at the cost of the 
school-fund ; 

(e) any contribution that may be assigned by municipal boards ; 

(d) any assignment made from provincial funds ; 

(e) any other fnnds that may be entrusted to the local boards for 

the promotion of education ; 

(f) any unexpended balance of the school-fund from previous years: 

(32) the general control over primary school expenditure be vested in the 
school-boards, whether municipal or rural, which may now exist or may here- 
after be created for self-government in each Province : 

(33) the first appointment of schoolmasters in municipal or board-schools 
be left to the town or District boards, with the proviso that the masters be certi- 
ficated or approved by the Department, and their subsequent promotion or 
removal be regulated by the boards, subject to the approval of the Department * 

(34) the cost of maintaining or aiding primary schools in each school- 
district, and the construction and repair of board-school-houses, he charges 
against the municipal or local board-school- fund so created : 

(35) the vernacular, in which instruction shall be imparted in any primary 
school, maintained by any municipal or local board, be determined by the 
school committee of management, subject to revision by the municipal or local 
board : provided that if there be any dissenting minority in the community, 
who represent a number of pupils sufficient to form one or more separate clashes 
or schools, it shall be incumbent on the Department to provide for the estab- 
lishment of such classes or schools, and it shall be incumbent on such ^ucici- 
pal or Local Board to assign to such classes or schools a fair proportion of the 
u hole assignable funds : 

(36) ^lunicipal and Local Boards administering funds in aid of primary 
schools adopt the rules prescribed by the Department for aiding such schools, 
and introduce no change therein without the sanction of the Department, 



CHAPTER V 



SECONDARY EDUCATION* 

225* Definition of the Term,— Secondary education, as the term is under- 
stood in India, may bo generally (though*not in all cases accurately) described 
as that \rhich leads up from the primary to the collegiate course* But though 
its standard is everyK here higher than that of primary education, no definition 
can be framed Trhich will exactly cover tho subjects of secondary education in 
all Provinces. Its higher limit is, indeed, precisely defined by the matriculation 
standard of the Universities, since that standard has hitherto been regarded not 
only as the introduction to a course of collegiate study, but also as tho final 
standard of secondary schools. But the starting-point of secondary education 
necessarily varies with tho varying limits of primary instruction, as that is 
understood in different Provinces, Not is the varying stage at which secondary 
education begins the only element of difference; other and equally marked 
differences are found to exist in the character of tho instruction itself* In somo 
Provinces the course in secondary schools is framed with exclusive reference to 
the University matriculation standard,* in others, independent standards and 
courses of instruction are also found* In some Provinces, but not in all, instruc- 
tion in English forms n necessary part of the course ; in others, tho study of an 
oriental classic is required, either as an alternative with English or as an inde- 
pendent subject ; in others, again, elementary science is prescribed* In every 
Province, history, geography, and either geometry or algebra or both, form part 
of the course> though one or other of the first two subjects h sometimes 
taught in primary schools of the better class. But with all tbeso differences, 
there is a dear line of distinction between secondary and primary education, in 
that the character of the former no longer bas exclusive reference to ths practi* 
cal requirements of the student in after-life. In however small a degree, it 
begins to he definitely associated with what is understood as liberal education, 
and with the exercise of the liigher faculties of thought. These arc tho lines by 
which the character of secondary education has been determined in all countries, 
and along which its development should manifestly proceed 

Another requirement of at least equal importance should always ho kept in 
view. In the word^ of the Resolution appointing the Commission, " the great 
" majority of those who prosecute their studies beyond the primary stage will 
<( never go beyond tho curriculum of tho middle or at furthest of the high 
tf< schools. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the education they 
" receive should he as thorough and sound as possible/ 1 In the course of this 
Chapter ^ve shall enquire how far middle and high schools in India satisfy tho 
condition of giving an education, sufficient and complete in itself, to pupils who 
proceed no further. 

226 Instruction in high Schools —The variety of standard above noted 

is, however, practically confined to the lower dirision of secondary schools,— that 
is, according to the existing classification, to middle schools- The course in the 
upper diyision— that is, in high schools-is governed throughout hy the standard 
of the matriculation examination in which it ends. That standard, it is true, 
is not precisely the same in the different Universities of India, and to this extent 
the course of instruction in high schools will he found to differ. Hut as regards 

4S 



178 



KEFOTIT OF THE EDTJCAMOK COIIMISSKW. 



tbe progress of education in high schools, these? differences are not important 
enough* to prevent an accurate comparison of Province \ritk Province. There 
are, indeed, differences of another kind, which will he explained in detail 
hereafter ; and of which it is now sufficient to say that while in one Province a 
high school contains only the two highest classes reading for^ the Entrance 
examination, and in another the four highest classes, in a third it includes pupils 
in every stage of progress from the alphabet to matriculation, — that is, it in- 
cludes a high, a middle, and a primary department. But if we leave out of sight 
these differences of range, and confine our attention to the highest standards 
taught in high schools, it will appear that throughout India these standards 
present no wide variations, 

227. Instruction in middle Schools .—It is very different with the course 

of instruction in middle schools. In these schools not only does the curriculum 
vary from Province to Province, hut even within the limits of the same Pro- 
vince douhle standards and courses of instruction are sometimes found. The 
former variation arises from the wider or narrower range of the course in 
different Provinces in primary and in high schools, hy which the inferior and 
superior limits of middle school instruction are respectively determined* The 
latter variation is due to another cause. In many Provinces it has heen felt 
that the requirements of pupils whose education is to terminate at the middle 
stage are different from those of pupils who will pass on in due course to the 
high school and the University Entrance examination. The standard has accord- 
ingly heen modified in two different directions to suit the separate requirements 
of these two classes of pupils. In the first case, the middle standard is a 
development of that for primary schools, complete in itself and not looking 
to any higher standard. In the second case, it is ancillary to, and determined 
hy, the standard of the high school to which it leads, 

228. Connection of the different Classes of secondary Schools —The 

following diagrams will show more clearly the general character of secondary 
schools, together with their relation to primary schools, in the chief administra- 
tive divisions of India, In each case the course of instruction is assumed to 
advance from class I, the lowest primary class, to class IX or X, that of the 
matriculation standard ; — 



Madras, 



Vernacular Schools. 



High School 



Middle School 



Primary School , 



VII 
VI 
V 
IV 

III 
II 
I 



f VI (Entrance examination), 
I V 

Upper IV (Middle School examination). 
Lower IV 
III 

II (Upper Primary examination). 
I (Lower „ „ }, 



In vernacular schools, which are examined by fixed standards and are 
generally aided according to the results of examination, English may he 
optionally taught, as a language only, from class III upwards. In English 
schools, English is taught as a language from class I, and as the medium of 
instruction from the Lower IVth. In the corresponding classes of English 
and vernacular schools, the standard of instruction is practically the same 



CIUF. V*] SECONDARY EDUCATION. ]jg 

Bombay. 

Primary Moot* fj^rnactclar). Mitldh School*. m$l StUoh. 

VII (Entrance examination). 
VI 

V (Pablfc Service eiamina- V 
tiOHj Upper Grade}, 

IV IV 

III (High School Admission 
Standard) , 

VI (Public Service Eiamin a- II 
tion, Lower Grade). 

V I 

IV (tipper Primary Standard), 
lit 

II (Lower Primary Standard), 
I 

^ The ordinary primary course terminates at standard IV, after passing 
which pupils &ro admissible to middle schools* and the ordinary middle course 
at standard III, whence, they may proceed to high schools. But a 5th and a 
6th standard (still confined to instruction in the vernacular) are added to the 
coarse in primary, and a 4th and a 5th standard to that in middle schools, in 
order to meet th§ requirements of pupils who desire a fuller course of instruc- 
tion, vernacular and English respectively, in the schools in which they are 
reading, without joining those of a higher class* The certificate of having 
passed these extra or supplementary standards is recognised as entitling the 
holder to enter the public service in different grades* In vernacular schools as 
they are now classified, English is not taught. In middle schools it is taught 
mainly as a language* In liigher schools it is taught as a language and is also 
the medium of instruction. 

The system in tho Central Provinces closely resembles that of Bombay, on 
which it was founded. Its character ivill be seen from the f ollowin g diagram : — 

Central Provinces. 

Class. Primary Schools muh BcUolu B ■ * ^ 

[f ernacuC&r}* 



High f IX 
Section iVIH 



Middle 
Section 



Primary 
Section 



VII 




II 

I 

IV (Middle School standard) 

VI . . in 

V . . IT 

IV I (Upper Primary standard) 

III (Lower Primary standard), 
j I Occupying- half a year each. 



No pupa can begin tho study of English until lie haa passed the lower 
primary vernacular examination. Classes I to III (vernacular) form the 
lower primary branches of middle schools, the lowest class of which reads the 
upper primary course. Village primary schools have four and sometimes five 
classes, and town primary schools hare five at least and sometimes six Accord- 
ing to the view expressed in the Beport of our Provincial Committee for the 
Central Provinces, "The town vernacular schools might m fact be called 
"middle schools," were it not for the absence of a standard of examination 
corresponding to that prescribed for middle English schools. English is taught 
in all the classes of a middle school, and is usually the medium of instruction. 



180 



REPORT OF THE EDTTCATIOK COMMISSION* [CHAP 7 



Bengal and Assam* 

Primary Schools, 



Middle Schools* Sigh Schools, 

IX (Entrance examination), 

Yin 

VII (MWdle School esami- VII 
nation} , 

VI . VI 

V (Upper Primary esamt- V * . * • Y 
cation), 

IV IV .... IV 

III (Lower Primary examinft- HI * ■ • .III 
titm). 

II ..... H .... II 

I . * • • • I • . . + I 

In each class of schools the course is distinct throughout, and is determined 
from the tegimaing hy the final standard of each school, Tvhich is fixed so as to 
meet the requirements of different classes of pupils. The lower and upper 
primary standards have no relation to the subjects of instruction at any part of 
the cousre in a middle or a high school, Again* the final standard of a middle 
school is complete in itself, and has no resemblance to that of the corresponding 
class in a high school. Pupils in middle and high schools are subject to no 
general examination other than that by the final standard of their class, namely, 
the middle school and Entrance examinations respectively. In primary schools 
the vernacular alone is taught. Middle schools may bo either English or ver- 
nacular, the only difference being that, in the former, English is taught as a 
language in the upper classes m addition to the full vernacular course. In 
high schools English is generally employed as the medium of instruction, and 
is taught from the lowest class. In a few high schools, however, the vernacular 
is used as the medium of instruction in all except the four or five highest 
classes. 



North-Western Provinces and OutEhu 

Vernacular Schools, 
High Section 

Middle Section 



JSnghsk Schools* 
f IX 

■ t VIII 



_ CVII (Middle School examination) 
1 VI . . 



Upper Primary Section . £ ^ (Upper Primary examination) 



Lower Primary Section 



( III 



III (TiCHret Primary examination) 



VII 
VI 

V 
IV 

III 
II 
I 



The vernacular subjects in corresponding classes of English and vernacular 
schools are almost identical. TJp to the middle school standard, English is 
mostly taught as a language only. Each section is for purposes of classifica- 
tion treated as a separate school. 



Punjab, 



High School 



Middle School 

Primary School, Upper 
Division, 



Vernacular Department, 

V . 

IV . 

III . . 
II . 
I . 

v . 

IV . 



•{ 

. { 



English Department, 

V 
IV 

III 
II 
I 

V 
IV 



Primary School, Lower Division 



III 
JI 
I 



CHAP. V.] SECONDARY EDUCATION. 1 gi 

NoEngU&fatoiie^ In the higher 

classes of English schools, English is taught as a language, in addition to a 
course of study which is common to both classes of schools ; and in vernacular 
schools mathematics and some other subjects aro taught instead of English. 

S29. General Beview of the Eise of Secondary Education —The 

differences of system that are disclosed in the preceding paragraph are explained 
and justified by tho different circumstances amid which secondary education of 
the modern typo took its rise in the various Provinces of India. We proceed to 
gire a brief historical review of these circumstances ; dividing our review into 
three periods, (a) before 1854, (*) from 1854 to 1871, (c) f rom 2871 to 1882. 
Each period is marked by a distinguishing character of its own, which is common, 
more or less, to all the Provinces of India, 

Before 1854,— During the first period, winch may he roughly taken as 
beginning in tbe most advanced Province with the year £820, the desires of the 
people set more or less strongly in the direction of English education, as being 
that which would qualify them for the most lucrative and honourable employment. 
This tendency was confirmed by the Resolution passed by the Government of 
Xord "William Bentinct on 1835, which decided in favour of education in English 
and tho vernaculars, in preference to the oriental classics. After that declaration 
of educational policy, the establishment of English schools and colleges became 
the main object of the efforts alike of Government, of the missionary bodies, 
of charitable individuals, and of the natives themselves associating together 
for that purpose- These efforts, so far as they came at all under the influence 
and control of Government, were subject to the supervision of honorary Hoards, 
Committee^ or Councils of Education, to whose zeal and success in discharging 
tho di IB cult duties which they had undertaken, the Despatch of 1854 paid 
a well-earned and cordial tribute. 

1854 ft? 1371, — iha&B&spattik tkaGomtvE Djjwfcms hid stresses ih& 
fact that the efforts of the Government had been too exclusively directed* 
towards the maintenance of colleges of a high standard, and towards providing 
a small number of natives of India* drawn for tho most part, as the Court sup- 
posed, from what would be called in England the higher classes, with the means 
of acquiring a very high degree of education* It proceeded to point out that the 
attention of the Government should now be also directedt towards conveying to 
the great mass of tho people useful and practical knowledge, suited to every 
station in life. This result would be attained if there existed, in every District 
of India, schools " whose object t should be not to train highly a few youths, but 
" to provide more opportunities than now exist for the acquisition of such an im- 
" proved education as will make those who possess it more useful members of 
" society in every condition of life/* In using these words the Court of Directors 
had in view not merely the extension of primary and elementary schools, on the 
necessity of which maiked and repeated stress is laid, but also the increase of 
schools of the class which are now called secondary* " T7e include§ in this class 
" of institutions those which, like tbe zillah schools of Bengal, the district Gov- 
* f eminent Anglo-vernacular schools of Bombay, and such as have hem established 
"by the Baja of Bnrdwan and other native gentlemen in different parts of 
" India, use tho English language as the chief medium of instruction ; as well 
" as others of an inferior order, such as the tehseelee schools in the Korth- 
" Western Provinces, and tbe Government vernacular schools in the Bombay 
"Presidency, whose object is, however imperfectly it has been as yet carried 
"out, to convey the highest class of instruction which can now bo taught 

* Paragraph 3* + P^graph 4 1 . J P«*gwpi 42 § Pa^pl* 43 44 



1 fc 

jgg . EBPOET OP THE EDUCATION C01GIISSIOX. [CHAP, V* 

t( through the medium of the vernacular languages, We include these Anglo. 
u vernacular and vernacular schools in the same class* because we are unwilling to 
(t maintain the broad line of separation which at present exists between schools in 
■* which the media for imparting instruction differ/ 1 The attention of Govern- 
ment was thus directed, not only to the provision of instruction through the 
i ernacular languages for the great mass of the people, but also to the increase * 
of schools of secondary instruction ; and although later Despatches* recalled 
attention to the urgent claims of primary education, yet it is not surprising 
that the outset of the period under notice is chiefly distinguished by the ex- 
tension of secondary schools — a tendency which made itself felt, more or less ia 
different Provinces, up to its close. 

1871 to 1882. — Towards the close of the period just described, successive 
reviews of the progress of education in India, undertaken by the Home author- 
ities, drew prominent attention to the need of extending elementary education 
among the masses of the people. Accordingly throughout the next period, from 
187 1 to 1882, in which the control of education was transferred to Local 
Governments, the extension of secondary is much less marked than that of 
primary education, for the support and development of which local cesses had 
been raised in most Provinces* It should be here stated, and will be shown 
at length hereafter, that any comparison of progress between the first and 
the last year of this period becomes a matter of extreme difficulty owing 
to four causes : — (1) the more definite classification of primary and secondary 
schools m accordance with the standards prescribed by the Government of 
India, which resulted in the transfer of a great number of schools from one 
class to the other; (2) tlie separation of the middle departments of high 
schools, and of the primary departments of high and middle schools, and their 
exhibition as separate schools with corresponding separation of expenditure; 
(3) the exclusion of schools for Europeans and Eurasians from the Tables of 
attendance and expenditure for 1881-82; (4) special differences of classifica- 
tion affecting the North-TYestern Provinces and Oudh. But notwithstanding 
these sources of uncertainty, it may still be possible to trace and exhibit the 
main lines of the policy followed in each Province with regard to secondary 
education. , 

230. Secondary Education in Madras : Before 1854 —The Board 

of Public Instruction, appointed in 1826, established, in addition to nearly 100 
elementary schools in the Districts, a training school in Madras wliich in later 
years became the basis of the high school of that town, The University Board, 
which ultimately replaced the Board of Public Instruction, opened two pro- 
vincial schools of the sam<i standard as ih& "Madras Kigh School, one at Cu&fta^ 
lore in 1853, and one at Eajamahendri in 1854. The missionary bodies were 
working with much greater success towards the same end; and before 1849 
they had opened a large number of secondary schools in which English was 
taught, besides vernacular schools chiefly of an elementary character. Pachai- 
yappa's Central Institution was established at Madras in 1842, out of the accu- 
mulated funds arising from a native bequest for charitable purposes ; and in 
1854 this school with its two branches was educating about a thousand pupils. 

Madras: 1854 to 1871— Towards the beginning of this period there 
were, under the management of Government, four high and seven middle schools, 4 
educating in all 1,631 pupils. Of the four high schools, three were afterwards 
raised to the rant of colleges, A scheme was set on foot for the establishment 
of 100 vernacular "talnka" schools, to serve as models; but owin^ to the 
indifference of the nath e community to vernacular education other than that 

* 7th April 1355, 14th December 1S63; 251b April 1864 



CnA?. V.] ' SECONDARY EDTTCWIO^. Igo 

provided in the indlgtnouq schools it *as afterwards found expedient to add 
instruction in the English languago to the regular vernacular course. Meanwhile 
the grant-in-aid system * as being introduced, for tho encouragement of private 
effort in tins class of education. In 1S59 the Director of Public Instruction 
wrote as follows : « In all our educational operations, the eventual resort to the 
« grant-nvnid system as the main course of action should bo steadily kept 
« in view .... Although it is probable that the time is still far distant 
" when it will be possible to dispense with tho limited number of Government 
" schools which have been or are likely to be established, I would view these 
" schools rather as pioneers, and as models to be followed and eventually to he 
"superseded by others established on the grant-in-aid system." In 1870-71 
there w pre r 4 lugh and 67 middle schools under Government management, and 
40 high and 523 middle schools under private bodies, together educating 43,700 
pupih, including about s 1 ,ooo pupils in primary classes. .Every District except 
one had a high school, either Government or aided. The grants to aided 
schools increased at a much more rapid rate than the expenditure on depart- 
mental institutions. The requirement of the Despatch of 1854, that stress 
should be laid on the vernacular languages, was met by the exclusion of English 
from the two lowest classes of primary schools, and by the adoption of the 
vernacular as the medium of substantive instruction in the three classes nest 
abo\o them. 

1871 to 1882.— In this period, the liberal policy of previous years was to 
some extent reversed. There was a serious loss in the number of secondary schools, 
and tho reduction fell with oxclusivo weight ou aided institutions. Government 
and aided high schools for boys increased from 52 to 69, the inciease being equally 
divided bet* eon tho two classes of schools. In aided middle schools for boys 
there was a loss of 200, while- Government institutions of tho same class in- 
creased by 66. The number of aided middle schools for girls also fell from 83 
to 18, Tvhilc the Department itself established one high and three middle 
schools of this class, Tho remarkable decrease shown in the number of middle 
schools is ascribed in a great measure, by our Provincial Committee for Madras, 
to tho introduction of a more accurate system of classification. Stillj there is 
good ground for believing that dming the period under review thcro was an 
actual and considerable decrease in tho number of aided middle schools It is 
to be noticed that the reduction in the numbers ict timed was coincident with 
the elaboration of proposals lor altering the grout-ia-aid rules m the direction 
of greater stringency, a change which was carried out in spile of rigorous 
protests on the part of managers of aided schools. The salary-grant system, 
by which the grants to secondary schools were chiefly regulated, had been 
settled in 1*865 ; and in 1S73 Government announced its intention of transfer- 
ring to primary education some portion of the funds until then devoted to 
secondary* Large reductions were accordingly proposed in that year, and again 
in 1875, In the existing rates of aid* The expenditure from Provincial reve- 
nues upon aided schools fell in the period under review from Us 2,38,000 to 
Us. 77,000, the last amount, however, excluding expenditure on schools for 
Europeans and Eurasians and on attached primary schools, The more accurate 
classification of schools to which reference has * been made as explaining the 
apparent decrease in the number of secondary schools and in the expenditure 
on them took place in 1875^76 ; and in that year the Government expenditure 
on aided secondary schools accordingly fell from Ks. 1,96,000 to Rs, 1,53,000. 
In the three following years it ranged between Ks. i,35>° 00 and Rs - ^9,000; 
in 1S79-80 it fell to Ks, 1,15,000; in 1880*81 to Ks 90,000; and finally in 
1881-82 to Bs 77,000. There is therefore reason to believe that other causes, 
in addition to imsater accmacy of classification, tended in these later years to 



BErOItT Or TIIE EDUCATION COMMISSION*. 



ditninish the number of middle schools, Fear of reduction in the rates of aid, 
followed Viy actual reduction as the rules came gradually into force, appears to 
have had no slight influence in retarding the progress of middle education. 
The unaided schools returned for 1881-82 included isliigli and 299 middle 
schools for hoys, and 23 middle schools for girls, educating together 4,929 
pupils; and the large number of unaided schools appears to shoiv how ill. 
adapted the new grant-in-aid rules were to the encouragement of private 
enterprise- The number of pupils in secondary schools of all classes shows a 
large apparent decrease ; but if the necessary coirections are made on account 
of the two causes above specified, it will appear that there was little actual loss. 

The reductions -which we have mentioned as having been made in the 
amount of grants-in-aid, though arresting the progress of aided education, 
had a useful effect in bringing about an increase in the scale of fees. Com. 
mittces, including Government officers and the managers of aided schools, were 
appointed to consider the rates of fees in schools of every class, with the 
result that, while the fees in all schools irere raised, higher rates were fixed for 
Government than for aided schools, and for schools in the town of Madras than 
for those in the mofussih 

231. Secondary Education in Bombay: Before 1854— The history of 

education m Bombay, from near the close of the first quarter of the present 
century to the end of this period, is chiefly a record of missionary enterprise 
and of the operations of a private society. Tluough the efforts of the Mission- 
aries were for the most part confined to elementary vernacular education, yet 
at various places in the Districts English schools and schools for the training 
of teachers were opened between 1820 and 1840, In the town of Bombay 
it self j the Anglo- vernacular school established by Dr. John TVilson in 1832 
(which in later years became the Eree General Assembly's Institution), and 
the Robeit Money School established in 1837, testified to the efforts of mis- 
sionary bodies The Bombay Native Education Society was established in 
1823. TVith the assistance of Government in aid of liberal private contri- 
butions, it applied itself to the task of establishing vernacular schools through- 
out the mofussil, and of compiling and distributing improved school-hoots. 
The Society also opened in 1825 an English school in Bombay under a 
European head-master, which soon rose to a state of high efficiency; and 
it subsequently established schools in three other towns* In 1840 the Society 
Rave place to the Board of Education, which then ccf 01 ward played a leading 
pirt in the histoiy of educational progress, as the central organising body 
directing and supervising the extension of education of every class through- 
out the Presidency, Besides undertaldng the control of vernacular educa-* 
tion, the Board established a number of English schools, which were regarded 
as forming an essential part in any complete system of national education. 
The entire management of the Elphinstone Institution in Bombay was also 
entrusted to the Board. Sir Erskine Perry succeeded to the presidency of 
the Board in 1843. He was a strong advocate of English schools and of the 
theory of "downward filtration;" and during the nine years that beheld 
office the number of English schools under the Board was doubled. After his 
retirement in 1852, the efforts of the Board were mostly directed to the exten- 
sion of primary schools ; but it was fat from neglecting English education, and 
when it laid down its office in 1855, there was an English school in every 
District but one of the Presidency. The direct efforts of Government in 
secondary education were confined during this period to the establishment of 
the school departments attached to the Poona and Elphinstone Colleges. 

1854 to 1871,— At the outset of this period there were, under the direct 



CHAT V] SECONDARY JSUtfCATrOV jgs 

control of the Department, 20 English schools, high and middle, including 7 m 
ffatite States, there were also 10 aided and inspected schools of the^samc 
class under private managers , and 12 unaided schools, chiefly Under mission- 
ary bodies, whose efforts the Department at the time steadily refused to aid 
UheseAa schools educated altogether 5 600 pupils, and they were accepted 
as sufficient lor the immediate needs oE the Presidency In these earlier years 
the attention of the Department was confined to consolidating and co ordmatm" 
the existing system, which provided for the establishment and support of (1) 
indigenous schools, (2) primary schools in towns and in villages, (3) taluka or 
middle schools, English md vernacular, and (4) high schools The course m 
each class of schools was intended to he complete in itself, though at the 
sime time f acilities t\ ere offered to pupils desiring to pass from my school to 
one of the next higher cla^s In the later years of this period, from i86 0 to 
1871, greater attention was paid to the claims of secondary education, The 
teaching staff of high schools was strengthened , definite standards of instrue 
tion and examination weie laid do™ , and an entranco test wis prescribed 
for all Government high and middle schools The number of Government 
secondary schools rose from 23 with 3,183 pupils, to 147 with 9,045 pupils 
lherc was a considerable increase in the number oE secondary schools in 
Native States, which though maintained from the revenues of those States arc 
managed hy the Department The grant in aid sjstem of payment by results 
was introduced m 1865 , and missionary institutions were then for the first 
time made eligible for grants in aid The system was soon declared to be suit 
able only for schools of secondary instruction, m the promotion of which Gov- 
ernment might reasonably demand fuller co operation and a readier lnitiatn c 
on the part of those who wero to he "benefited by it Still, from one cause 
or another ^ very little advantage was taken by the people of the oppor- 
tunities of education which the system afforded The limited operation of the 
scheme was charged partly to the want o£ enlightenment of the native com- 
munity, and partly to the numerical weakness of the missionary bodies In 
1870 71, the immherof secondiry schools receiving aid, including 18 schools for 
Europeans and Eurasians, was only 41, of which 8 were middle schools for girls 
The total number of secondary schools increased from 42 with 5,609 pupils, to 
209 with 15,527 pupils Compared iwth som& other Province*, therefore, the 
development of secondary education in Bomhay during this second period must 
he pronounced to have heen weal. , on the other hand, the policy of the 
Government was arowedly and strongly directed during the samo period to the 
claims, and its efforts to the extension, of primary education 

1871 to 1883.— The operations of the Department m regard to secondary 
education during this period may be «een from the following statement In 
1870 71 there were under the direct control of the Department 10 high schools, 
47 middle schools of the first grade, and 90 middle schools of the second gride 
In accordance with the policy of ultimately supplying each District with a 
high school, the number of high schools was increased from 10 to 19 Of the 
47 first grade middle schools, 13 were either raised to or amalgamated with high 
schools, 5 had hecu so amalgamated prior to 1S70 71, 10 were closed, and 6 
ncu ones opened , there remained, therefore, 25 independent schools of this 
grade Middle schools of tho second grade are described as « v crnacular schools 
"with an attached English class " Thopolicy of the Department has been to dis 
courage schools of tins kind unless the people come forward to bear the addi lorn! 
cost of their maintenance. They are the first to feci the effect of agricultural 
depression , and owing to the inahihtv of the people to provide the salaries of 
the English teachers, the number of second grade middle schools fell, to about 



ISC 



HEPOILT OP THE EDUCATION COMJIIISSON 



[CHAP t 



45 between 1873 and 1879 In tho next three years, -when the country 
had recovered from the effects of famine, the number again rose to 86, 
this increase having been effected without entailing any extra cost on the 
Government Hence the general effect on Government schools of this class was 
that those for the maintenance of which Government is directly responsible, 
rose from 52 (10 high and 42 middle) to 61 (19 high and 42 middle), while 
those of a lower class, in which the extra cost is met by the people themselves, 
fell from go to 86 The total expenditure on Government secondary schools 
rose from Rs 3,48,000 to Ps 3 82 000, the whole of the increase being met 
by increased fees The number of hoys in Government schools increased 
during this period from 9 045 to 1 r,i 70, primary departments being in each 
case excluded Efforts weie made to give a more practical turn to secondary 
instruction by the establishment of agricultural and drawing classes in many 
high schools 

As regards aided schools, the state of the Provincial finances in 1875 led 
the Government to reduce the total allotment for grants in aid to Bs 70 000 
The reduction was not, however, intended to be permanent, and after 1878 as 
the pressure caused by the famine was lightened, the grants were again consider- 
ably increased m order to meet the mci eased demands arising from the greater 
number and efficiency of aided schools A comparison of the first and last years 
of the period from 187 1 to 1882 shows that the giants to aided schools of second 
ary instiuction for natives only increased fiom Its 28 048 to Rs 59 642, and the 
number of pupils receiving such instruction in aided schools from 4 662 to 
5561 During the same period, the grants to schools for Europeans and 
Eurasians increased from Rs 49508 to Rs 64,718 The number of aided 
middle schools for native girls increased from 3 to 9, and the pupils in them 
from 198 to 555 The expenditure from public funds on the education of 
1 1,200 pupils in 147 Government schools was Rs 2,19 657 , while that on the 
education of 5 600 pupils in 53 aided schools was Rs 59,642 

On the whole the expenditure from public funds on Government and 
aided schools for secondary instruction showed no great increase during the 
period under review, at the same time there "was an increase of 25 per cent 
in the number of their pupils The number of unaided schools also largely 
increased, from 39 with 1820 scholars in 1870 71, to 66 with 6,527 scholars in 
1881 82, these being mostly schools under departmental management in 
Native States A marked feature in the Bombay secondary system is that 
the schools, though few in number, have a much larger average attendance 
than m any other Province of India, being between two and three times as 
large as m Madras or Bengal This fact is of importance in comparing the 
different systems m the point of view of economical working 

232 Secondary Education in Bengal —In dealing with secondary edu- 
cation m Bengal, it should be explained at the outset that middle and high 
schools in this Province contain children reading from the lowest primary 
classes The attendance in secondary schools will therefore appear far larger 
than in those Provinces in which a different system prevails The necessary 
adjustment will be made hereafter, when we come to compare the figures for 
different parts of India , but meanwhile it will be sufficient to say that in 
Bengal 39 per cent of the pupils in high schools, 78 per cent in middle 
English schools, and 83 per cent in middle vernacular schools, arc in the 
primary stage In the other Provinces of India most of these pupils would bo 
classified under primary and not under secondary instruction 

Before 1854 —The establishment in 1 8 1 7 of the Hindu College of Calcutta, 



CHAP T J SECOHBAIIT EDUCATION 187 

by the voluntary contributions of wealthy Hmdus, defined the direction in which 
the desires of the native community had by that time set The lan*e hearted 
benevolence of David Hare, and the missionary zeal of Dr Duff, tended alike 
to the same end, namely, the spread of English education In 1817 the School 
Book Society was established by private effort, wvth the object of preparing and 
distributing text-books m English and the vernacular, and it shortly ^ftcr 
received a Government grant of Es 500 a month, which it enjoyed for 60 
years The General Committee of Public Instruction was appointed m 1823 
and soon began that controversy between the ndvocates of English and of 
oriental learning, which was finally settled by the publication Jof llacauhy's 
celebrated Minute The pobcy of Lord TOliam Beutmck and his successors 
was to increase the number of English colleges and schools , and the Council 
of Education, which in 1842 took the place of the General Committee of 
Public Instruction, aimed at providing each District with an English school 
In 1855 the newly formed Department of Public Instruction reccned charge 
of 47 Anglo vernacular schools with 7,412 pupils, besides, 26 vernacular schools 
of the middle class, the remnant of the 101 "Hardinge" schools that had 
been set up under the Council of Education 

1856 to 1871 — This period is characterised by the remarkable develop- 
ment of the grant-in aid system, which was readily accepted by the people of 
Bengal as a means of providing themselves, beyond the necessarily limited range 
of the Government system, with the secondary schools that they required 
"Within a year and a half of the pronmlgatiou of the rules, the whole of the allot- 
ment for grants in aid was taken up by 79 Anglo vernacular and 140 ♦verna- 
cular schools, chiefly m the metropolitan Districts The grant in *ud system 
steadily advanced m popularity, and by 1862 63 it had far outstripped that of 
departmental schools m the field of secondary education In 1850 71, the 
number of Government high English schools* had increased to 53 with 10,100 
pupils, the middle schools, almost entirely vernacular, were 217 with 12,400 
pupils The aided system covered a much wider area, and included So high, 
551 middle English, and 769 middle vernacular schools There were also 19 
high and 94 middle schools that were unaided , but they furnished no de 
tailed returns to the Department The expenditure by Government in aiding 
1,400 secondary schools for boys, with 68000 pupils, amounted in 187* to 

3 3i»ooo The Government expenditure on 370 secondary schools under its 
own management, with 22,500 pupils, amounted to Us 2,80000 Throughout 
this period very liberal provision was made by Government for scholarships 
linking the lower schools by a progressive chain to the higher, and the higher 
to the colleges The cost of these scholarships to Government was Its 1,43,000 
in 1870 71, and almost from the first they wero open to competition by pupils 
in. schools of every class, Government, aided, and unaided 

1871 to 1882.— During tins period, namely, in 1874, thcProvmcc of Assam 
was separated from Bengal, carrying with it 125 secondary schools Between 
1870 7 r and r88r 82 the number of Government and of aided secondary school* 
alike decreased , the former from 270 to 245, the latter from 1,400 to 1,370 The 
decrease was duo to the following causes (1) the separation of Assam (a) 
the return of schools for European boys under a distinct heading , (3) the 
stoppa^ooi all new grants and the withdrawal of many old ones in 1870 71 , 
(4) tho reduction of the grant in aid allotment m 1876 77, necessitated by 
the pressure arising out of the famine m Bchar , (5) the measures taken 
in the later years to prevent the multiplication oE inefficient schools, which 
resulted in the transfer of some to the vernacular chss, and m the withdrawal 
of grants from others The reductions in 1870 71 which, m tlio words of the 
Director, " caused such widespread distrust of the intentions of Government 



186 



ILErOKT OF TEE EDUCATION COMIIIISSON 



[CHAP T 



45 between 1873 and 1879 In tho next three years, when the country 
had recovered fiom the effects of famine, tho number again rose to 86 , 
this increase having been effected without entitling any extra cost on tho 
Government Hence the general effect on Government schools of this class was 
that those for the maintenance of which Government is directly responsible, 
rose from 52 (10 high and 42 middle) to 61 (19 high and 42 middle), whde 
those of a lower class in winch the extra cost 13 met by the people thcmselres 
fell from 90 to 86 Tho total expenditure on Government secondary schools 
rose from Its 3 48 000 to Its 3 82 000, the whole of the increase being met 
by increased fees The number of boys in Government schools increased 
during this period from 9 045 to 1 1 170, primary departments being in each 
case excluded Efforts were made to gn e a more practical turn to secondary 
instruction by the establishment of agricultural and drawing classes in many 
high schools 

As regards aided schools, the state of the Provincial finances in 1875 led 
the Government to reduce the total allotment for grants in aid to Us 70 000 
The reduction uas not however intended to be permanent, and after 1878 as 
the pressure caused by the famine was lightened the grants were again consider 
ably increased in order to meet the increased demands arising from the greiter 
number and efficiency of aided schools A comparison of the first and last years 
of the period from 1871 to 188" shows that the grants to aided schools of second 
ary mstiuction for natives only increased from Us "8 048 to Its 59 64" and the 
number of pupils receiving such instruction in aided schools from 4 662 to 
5 561 During the same period, tho giants to schools for Europeans and 
Euiasians increased from Its 49508 to Rs 64718 The number of aided 
middle schools for native girls increased from 3 to 9 and the pupils in them 
from ig8 to 555 The expenditure from public funds on the education of 
11 200 pupils m 147 Government schools wis Its 2 19 657 f -while that on the 
education of 5 600 pupils in 53 aided schools was Ks 59 642 

On the whole the expenditure from public funds on Government and 
aided schools for secondary mstiuction showed no great increase during the 
period under review at the same time there was an increase of 22 per cent 
m the number of their pupils The number of unaided schools also largely 
inci eased from 39 with 1820 scholars in 1870 71, to 66 with 6,527 scholars in 
1881 82, thc*e being mostly schools under departmental management m 
Native States A marked feature m the Bombay secondary system is that 
the schools though few m number have a much larger average attendance 
than m any other Province of Indn being between two and three times as 
large as m Madras or Bengal This fact is of importance in comparing the 
different systems m the point of view of economical working 

232 Secondary Education 111 Bengal —In dealing with secondary edu 

cation in Bengal it should be explained at the outset that middle and high 
schools in this Province contain children reading from the lowest primary 
classes The attendance in secondary schools will therefore appear far laiger 
than m those Provinces in which a different system prevails The necessary 
adjustment will be made hereafter, when we come to compare the figures for 
different parts of India , but meanwhile it will be sufficient to say that in 
Bengal 39 per cent of the pupils in high schools 78 per cent m middle 
English schools and 83 per cent in middle vernacular schools, are m the 
primary stage In the other Provinces of India most of these pupils would be 
classified under primary and not under secondary instruction 



Before 1854 —The establishment in 1 8 1 7 of the Hindu College of Calcutta, 



CHAP V] SECONDArT EDUCATION 2§7 

by the voluntary contributions of withy Hindus, defined tlie direction in winch 
the desires of the native community had by that time set The hr-e hearted 
benevolence of David Hare, and the missionary zeal of Dr Duff tended alike 
to the same end, namely, the spread of E nglish education In 1817 the School 
Book Society Tvas cshhhshed by private effort with the object o£ preparing and 
distributing text-books m English and the vernacular, and it shortlv after 
received a Government gnnt of Its 500 a month, which it enjoyed for 60 
vcars The General Committee of Public Instruction was appointed in 1S23, 
and soon begin tint controversy between the advocates of English and of 
oriental learning, n Inch was finally settled by the publication Jof* Macauhy's 
celebrated Minute The policy of iord William Bentmck and 'ins successors 
■was to increase the number of English colleges and schools, and the Council 
of Education, which m 1842 took the place of the General Committee of 
Public Instruction, aimed at providing each District with an English school 
In 1 8^5 the newly formed Department of Public Instruction received charge 
of 47 Anglo vernacular schools with 7,412 pupils, besides 26 vernacular schools 
of the middle class, the remnant of the 101 " Hardinge " schools tint had 
been set up under the Council of Education 

1856 to 1871 — This period is characterised by the remarkable develop 
ment of the grant in aid system, w Inch -was readily accepted by the people of 
Bengal as a means of providing themselves, beyond the necessarily Umi ted range 
of the Government system, with the secondary schools that they required 
TVitlim a year and a half of the promulgation of the rules, the whole of the allot- 
ment for grants in aid was taken up by 79 Anglo vernacular and 140 .verna- 
cular schools, chiefly m the metropolitan Districts The grant in aid system 
steadily advanced in popularity, and by 1862 63 it bad far outstripped that of 
departmental schools in the field of secondary education In 1870 71, the 
number of Government high English schools' had increased to 53 with 10 loo 
pupils, the middle schools, almost entirely vernacular, were 217 with 12,400 
pupils Tlio aided system covered a much wider area, and included 80 high, 
551 middle English, and 769 middle vernacular schools There were also 19 
high and 94 middle schools that were unaided , but they furnished no de 
tailed returns to the Department The expenditure by Government m aiding 
1,400 secondary schools for boj s f with 6S,ooo pupils, amounted in 187 1 to 
Us 3 31,000 The Government expenditure on 270 secondary schools under its 
own management, with 22 500 pupils, amounted to Its 2 So 000 Throughout 
this period very liberal provision was made by Government for scholarships 
linking the lower schools by a progressive chain to the higher, and tho higher 
to the colleges The cost of these scholarships to Government was Its 1,42,000 
m 1870 71, and almost from the first they were open to competition by pupils 
in schools of every class, Government, aided, and unaided 

1871 to 1882 — During tlus period, namely, in 1874. the Province of Assam 
was separated from Bengal, carrying with it 125 secondary schools Between 
1870 71 and 1 88 1 82 the number of Government and of aided secondary schools 
alike decreased , tho former from 2 70 to 245, the latter from 1,400 to i,37° Tte 
decrease was due to the following causes (1) the reparation of A<sam, (2) 
the return of schools for European boys under a distinct heading , (3) the 
stoppage of all new grants and the withdrawal of many old ones in 1870 71 , 
(4) the reduction of the grant in aid allotment in 1876 77, necessitated hy 
the pressure arising out of the famine m Bebar , (5) the measures tuen 
m tho later years to prevent tho multiplication of inefficient schoo s wutcn 
resulted in the transfer of some to the vernacular class and m the witlidrawai 
«f grants from others The reductions m 1870 71 which, in the «™ ?V 
Director, « caused such Widespread distrust of the intentions of Go; crnmem 



■j£ S uepokt or TltD EDUCATION commissiov [chap t 

" that it can only be described as a state of actual panic/' but the effects of which 
we more seriously felt in the two following years, wo made in coasc 
quence of the desire of Government to transfer grants from secondary to 
primary education In 187071 no girls' schools were specially returned as 
secondary, m 1881 82 the necessary classification wis made The girls' schools 
of tins class were, at the later date, 2 high, 5 middle English, and 15 middle 
vernacular All but four were aided schools, md together they educated 
1*051 pupils Taking all classes of racoided schools together, it appears that 
duungthc period from 1870 71 to 188 1 82, the number of high schools increased 
fiom 133 to 209, and that of middle schools from 1,537 to 1,682 The 
expenditure from public funds on 245 Government schools for secondary 
mstiuction, with 27 000 pupils, fell from Us 2,80,000 to Us 2,53 000 The 
pubhc expenditure on grants m aid to 1,370 secondary schools, with 84 000 
pupils, fell from Us 3 31,000 to Us 2 99 000 The reduction in the grant in 
aid allotment duung the Eehar famine was not again fully made up, owing to 
the constant and /latterly) the increasing demands made upon the State funds 
by primary education 

233 Secondary Education in the North- Western Provinces and 

Ottdh Before 1854 —The H orfti Western "Provinces were cieated a distinct 
Government in 1843 When m that year the Local Government received from 
the Council of Education the control of educational iff airs, in defining its future 
policy it pointed to the diverse conditions that prevailed m Bengal and in the 
North Western Piovmces, as showing how little encouragement was offered by 
the encumstances of the Upper Prot mces to English education and how small, 
comparatively, was the success that might bo expected foi English schools 
It therefore Tesolved to lay special stress on the cultn atym of the vernacular 
languages, and to employ them largely as the medium of instruction At that 
time there were, besides the three colleges of Benaies, Agra, and Delhi, with their 
attached school departments, nine ibiglo vernacular schools, of wl ich letter 
all but three had disappeared m 1854, — namely, those at Eareli, Sagar, and 
A]mn The cause of this senous decline m the number of schools may be 
traced to the attempts, often injudicious or premature, that were made to 
establish English schools after the issue of Lord William Bentmck's Resolution 
The schools that survived at the close of this period were, if few in number, 
well organised and successful 

1854 to 1871 —"During tins period improvement went on hand m hand with 
giadual extension , and in 1S67 68 there were 31 Government schools m the 
North Western Provinces and Oudb, of which 8 read up to the matriculation 
standard and were therefore high schools, the remaining 23 being middle 
schools In 1871 theie were 88 high and middle schools under the control 
of Government, educating together 11,500 pupils There were at the same 
time 182 high and middle schools, with 16,200 pupils, receiving grants ln- 
aid It is to be observed, however, that the title of many of the middle 
English schools to be so classed lay solely m the fact that a little English was 
taught m them in addition to the vernacular course Of another order were 
the tahsili schools, in which a sound vernacular education was given to such a 
standard as would justify their inclusion in the rank of secondary schools The 
system spread and flourished, so that in 1865 there were in these Provinces 
r jme 18 000 scholars in schools of this class In 1869, however, an increase 
fhe rate of fees was followed by a sensible diminution in the attendance 

Llas° n?mal grant UWUd were modlfiedm l8 5 8 > and were not unfavour- 
^0 the managers of missionary schools, whose principle it was, while 
^ fees whenever they could, to admit many pupils free of cost Still, the 



crui\ v.] second* ur education jgjj 

system to slow in making its Tvay among the people. In tS6o, when flic- 
Government expenditure on education iras about 9 } hkhs, only lis 16000 
were given in grants In 1864, under a more libeml code of rules, the amount 
granted to 72 schools and colleges was Us. 80,000; and in 1870^1 3 » insti 
tutions received Rs, 1,76,000. But tho great majority of these schools wcrr 
still under the management of missionary bodies ; and of genuine native effort 
in the promotion of secondary education there was little trace. At the head* 
quarters of most Districts, Government high schools had been established ; 
but in some cases there already existed an aided school which was thought to 
be adequate to tho needs of the locality, 

1871 to 1882,— The figures for this period show very extensive changes 
in the provision of secondary education. The number of Government scIitoIs 
appears to have risen from 88 to 522 ; but the increase is actually due to a 
mere change of classification. Por 1S70-7 1, tho tahsili schools, then numbering 
273, were returned under primary instruction, on tho ground tint tho vas* 
majority of their pupils were in the primary stage. "Por 1881-82, these schools 
(though not their primary pupils) are rightly returned as secondary. Again, 
the 455 middle vernacular schools of 1881-82 include a large number (not 
less than 200) of lialkabandi schools which have reached the middle stage of 
instruction, and which are now no longer distinguished in the returns from tahsih 
schools of the same rank. The number of advanced halkabandt schools is not 
Known for 1870-71, but two years later they weie returned at 342. There 
is, therefore, little ground for supposing that the departmental system has 
been extended within this last period ; though owing to ordinary processes 
of development, the so high and 35 middle English schools of 1870-71 had 
increased in 1881-82 to 25 high and 42 middle English schools, In aided 
schools the losses were severe* The number of English schools receiving 
grants fell from 182 to 56. But it should be noted that of tho 182 schools 
returned in 1870*71 as aided* 75 were in reality departmental schools receiv- 
ing a sm$U grant-in-aid for the maintenance of an attached English chss 
Schools of this character were, however, soon found to be unsatisfactory ; 
and the grants for the support of the English classes were withdrawn from a 
large number* A similar decrease took place in tho number of aided schools 
for girls, which fell from 26 to 3. Generally, it miy he noticed that the 
grant-in-aid system made very little way with tho people, and that 11 hate* or 
advance there was in secondary education was* due to the success of the 
Government schools. In 522 scliools of this class 6,500 pupils were educated 
at a cost o£ Ks. 2,25,548 to public funds; In 66 aided secondary schools, 
2*700 pupils were taught at a cost to public funds of Its. 53*442* The 
returns for 1881-82 give only 5 unaided secondary schools in these Provinces, 
educating 50 pupils. 

* 

. 234. Secondary Education in the Punjab— Up to the year 1S61 tho 

number of students learning English did not fcxeeed 4,500. "Within the next (he 
years the number had increased to more than 13,000 The belief that a knowledge 
of English would kad to profitable employment hid got abroad; and it was 
ruled "that an elementary English class might be opened in any vernacular 
school, if the people would guarantee a subscription of Its. 15 a month, to he 
met by an equivalent grant from Government In 1S66 there mis at the head, 
quitters of nearly every EMriet a Government or an aided mission school of a 
superior diss. Tito grant-in-aid rules uoxr in force bid been sectioned 
in the previous vcar; and in 1S66 there were tS schools of the higher and 
5- of the middle cla«s receiving grants-in-aid. fletwecn 1S66 and 1871 the 
number of En-lhh students greatly decreased. It had been decided to reqmrc 

3 15 



100 



rrroRT or tiie education cojihissiov 



[cn\r t 



an elementary knowledge of the vernacular before allowing a boy to begin the 
study of English, and the totil number of scholars learning English m the 
Punjab rapidly fell to below 8,000 m 1871 , of these, the gieat majority were 
pupils m middle schools The studj of English, it was held, had then been 
pltced on a sound footing, not only by the orders just quoted, but also by the 
regulation that the vernacular was to be employed as the medium of instruction 
up to the middle school examination, instruction through English being confined 
to subjects above that standard In 1871 there were, under the management 
of Go\ eminent, 4 high and 97 middle schools, English and vernacular, there 
were also 10 high and 37 middle schools receding grants m aid The total 
number of pupils in them was 14,800, but excluding the primary departments 
the number of boys attending clashes for secondary education was estimated 

at 2,314 

During the following period, from 1S71 to 1882, the number rose to 6,200 
There was a sufficient improvement m the standaid of attainments, and the 
promise of Government to reserve a share of official appointments for these who 
had passed the middle school examination, made these schools more popidar 
On the whole, however, there was little independent desire for education except 
as leading to employment, and the grant m aid system made but little wny 
Many of the schools classed as aided weie vntually undci departmental manage 
ment though partly maintained from local funds In 1881 82, the Govern 
ment schools for secondary instruction were 10 high and 53 middle English 
schools, besides one high and 125 middle schools of purely vernacular instruction 
These educated 4 974 pupils, at a cost to public funds of lis 1 99 043 The aided 
system included 12 high and 22 middle Engbsh schools for boys and one middle 
school for gnls, educating altogether 994 students, at a cost to public funds of 

31,569 No unaided schools are returned for 1 88 1 -82 

235 Secondary Education in the Central Provinces* — In these Pro- 
vinces theie weie in 1 86 1 62 only one Government high school (that at Jabal 
pur) and 3 unaided middle schools, educating together 1,046 pupils By 1870 71 
the number had increased to 4 high schools (2 Government and 2 aided) and 52 
middle schools (44 Government and 8 aided) , together tlusy educated 6,758 
pupils In the last period there was a slight decrease m the number of school* 
In 1882 there were 5 high schools (one Government and 4 aided), while the 
number of middle schools had fallen to 48 (38 Government and 10 aided) 
The expenditure fiom pubbc funds on the education of 2,101 pupils m Govern 
ment schools was Its 58,947, and on that of 671 pupils m aided schools 
Us 14,1 16 Theie were no unaided schools 

236. Secondary Education m Assam — la A«=sam, as in Ecng-d high 

*ind middle sehools contain full primary departments On its separation from 
Uengal in 1874, the Province carried with it 9 high schools with 1,435 pupils, 
and 116 middle schools with 5,344 pupils In 1882 the high schools had 
increased to 11, and the pupils in them to 2,264 Middle schools fell from 
1 16 (26 English and 90 vernacular) to 81 (37 English and 44 vernacular) , but 
their pupils increiscd to 5 913 During this period the efforts of the Depart- 
ment w ere directed towards making the schools more efficient and self support- 
mg, and many middle schools, which had not proved successlul in that 
class, were reduced to the next lower stage In 1881-82 the cost to public 
funds oE the education of 3,403 pupils in 29 Government Bchools (9 high, 2 
middle Em>hsh, and 18 muldlo vernacular) -n as TLs 39,827, and of that of 
4 085 pupils in 54 aided schools (1 high, 28 middle English, and 25 middle 
vernacular) was PvS 18,833 One high and 8 middle schools were unndcd 

237. Secondary Education in Coorg— An Anglo- vernacular school was 



CUAP- Y*3 



SECOND VI1Y EDUCATION* 



opened by Government in 1857 at llerkara, aud was placed under the charge 
of the head of the Basel Mission, to whom the general direction of education 
nas entrusted- To the building of a new school and hoarding-house the people 
of Coorg subscribed a sum of nearly Us 10,000. Subsequently it uas deter- 
mined to establish in each of the fire talukas an Anglo- vernacular school, to 
serve as a feeder to the Ccntrd School at McrKara, These last, though gn ing 
instruction in English, arc classed as primary schools. By [882 the MerLirt 
school had been raised to the Entrance standard ; and in that year it educated 
*57 P^P 1 ^ in high and middle departments at a cost of lis 7,518 to the 
State. 

238* Secondary Education in Berar,— Two English schools were opened 

in 1862 at Amraoti and A\ola, These were raised in 1866 to the status of high 
schools ; and there were also at that time five middle schools teaching English 
In 1871 the two high schools educated 208 pupils, and the middle schools 
then increased to 44, contained 31638 pupils, including primary departments 
Between 1871 and 1882 there was no alteration in the number of high schools; 
but it was found that the number of middle schools was greatly m excess or 
the requirements of the people, and the majority were reduced to the primary 
class. In 1881-82 there were 29 such schooU, imparting a course of instruc- 
tion extending oyer six classes, in the two highest of which Eughsh was taught. 
In all the schools there were 1,033 pupils, educated at a cost of Its 53,197 to 
the State* 



192 



EEP0UT OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION 1 



239. Statistics of Secondary Schools in 1870-71 and in 1881-82.-Thc ' 

Tallies &Uw in detail the number of secondary schools and scholars in 1870-71 and in. iSS 
and tLcy mil be found combined on a single page in Subsidiary Tabic No 1 of V 
Education at the end of this Report All umided schools known to the Department are 
in the Tables — 

I— HIGH AND MIDDLE SCHOOLS IN 1870-71 






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v.] 



SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

IL— HIGH AJvD SCHOOLS IN rSSi-Ss. 



193 




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HErOILT OF ME EPTJOATIOK COMMISSION. 



[chap. t. 



240. Changes of Classification between 1871 and 1882.— Before pro- 
ceeding to tho remarks which tlio above Tables sj<rgcst, it may "be well to 
present in a summary form the leading results uliicli they exhibit. These 
results may be shown as follows : — 



JEgJt and Middle Schools. 







. 












Schools* 




School* 


Seliotan 


GflYemtaeDt 
Aided 

Unaided + 


• * 

* * 


• * 
■ 


780 
2,251 


Cg 690 
1,820 


690 


C2.525 
II I,Ol8 

40,534 




Total 


• • 




204*29* 


3,916 


2H,077 



A point wliicli at once engages attention is that, ulrile between 187 1 
and 1882 the number of secondary schools increased from 3,070 to 3*916, the 
number of pupils in them shows a much smaller proportionate increase, 
namely, from 204,294 to 214,077* It must not, however, be supposed that the 
actual increase is limited to that which the figures show. The returns must 
be understood in connection with n circumstance, now to be explained, which 
makes any comparison between the figures of 1871 and those of 1882 a matter 
of extreme difficulty. In the former year, the high schools in every Pro- 
vines contained pupils in tlio middle stage of instruction, and in some they 
also contained pupils in tho primary stage. In every Province also, with the 
exception of Bombay, the middle schools contained pupils in the primary stage* 
By the Resolution of Government dated 6th January 1879, in which revised 
forms of return were prescribed for the Education Department throughout 
India, it was ordered that the middle, or the middle and primary, departments 
of high schools should be shown as separate schools, the primary departments 
of middle schools being similarly treated. Again, middle schools were uni- 
formly defined as those in which the pupils arc reading for a standard two 
years below that of matriculation ; and thus no recognition was given to those 
schools which taught a course independent of University standards. After 
much correspondence the separation of the lower departments was effected in 
every Province except Bengal and Assam. On the part of Bengal it was urged 
that the proposal to split up tho schools in the manner indicated was based 
on the general assumption of relations between different classes of schools 
which had no existence in that Province, and that it would olve an entire 
lemodelling of the educational sj stem. The force of these representations was 
admitted. The Government of India had no desire that the new educational 
forms should be so applied as to require a revision of the educational system, 
and a re-classification of all middle and Ion er schools in Bengal ; and they were 
satisfied that such a general alteration of system should not be made merely as 
an incident of the alteration of the statistical forms of return. The various 
classes of schools in the several Provinces had, it was allowed, grown up in 
widely different circumstances; and they could not be compressed every wheie 
into the same mould. Consequently, while in other Provinces the middle and 
primary departments have since 1871 been shown as separate and integral 
schools, thus making any comparison of the number of schools and pupils a 
matter of great difficulty, a further element of disturbance is introduced by 
the exceptional treatment sanctioned in the case of Bengal, The general effect 
of the re-classification of schools on the statistics of secondary instruction can* 
however, he shown without difficulty. The number of secondary schools at 



CHAP- V.] 



SECOTJDAILY EDUCATION, 



195 



once received a nominal increase equivalent to the number of middle depart- 
ments broken off from high schools,— that is, an increase equal to the cxistin- 
number of high schools, The number of pupils suffered an immediate dimi- 
nution by the transfer to the returns of primary education of the primary 
departments of middle schools, and in $omc Provinces of high schools, Within 
the region of secondary education it self, the numher of pupils in high schools 
was reduced by the numher of those in the middle departments, while the 
number in middle schools received an equivalent addition. 

241* Comparison of Schools and Pupils in 1870-71 and 1881-82 — 

The statistics may now he considered in tho light of these explanations. 
For the sake of simplicity the comparison will he confined to schools for boj s, 
and will exclude the minor Provinces of Assam, Coorg, and Bcrar. Though 
the Tables above given make no distinction, in case of Bengal, between pupils 
in the high, middle, and primary departments, yet the departmental returns 
enable m to separate i for high and middle schools in 1882, the number of 
pupils reading in the secondary stage of instruction, as understood in that 
Province- We have accordingly in the figures here given for 1882 excluded 
all pupils in the primary stage of instruction in Bengal ; and in order to carry 
out the comparison more completely, we have also represented the middle depart- 
ments of high schools in Bengal as separate institutions. In Bombay, primary 
pupils are excluded from the figures of 1870-71 as well as from those of 
1881-82. The returns from the N 01th -Western Provinces and Oudh make no 
distinction between high and middle schools, and no comparison under these 
subordinate heads is possible, We obtain, therefore, the following summary 
statement of schools for boys in 1870-71 and 1881-82 : — 











MtDDLt ScHOOl** 


Torxt Si c-o* hut School 




1870-71 


18B1 


&i 


tSyQ»71 




1 3j*-? r 






Fa pile 


School* 




School* | 


Pupils. 


Schools 


Papllg 






1 _ 


FnpQi 




S3 


tr t ttr 


Si 








ill 


fS j£J 


5S3 








Binnhar * * » * , 


to 




4* 








109 


I47>* 








it joj 


Bengal* . . * . 




13^33 
















9UUS 


9 tf}6 


4< Wo 












»■ 






H 


}&? 










14 




>1 


53s 


134 


1J t£l 


too 


5 375 




14 (tl 


'+3 




Central FtotIdco* , 


* 


777 


S 


3" 


5* 




43 








Hi 


J 77" 


Toxjj. » . 


1 




3*4 


n,ti6 1 


M°9 




•1847 


1 


i 









• Ttre tfffttrtf tat- tSr^T' iifrduda Aj*sjuti. 

The foregoing statement shows that, in the five selected Provinces for irhicJi 
tho returns are complete, the number of high schools has increased from 224 
to 364. The numher of middle schools has increased fiom 2,409, or, if the 
middle departments of high schools be added, from 2,633 to 2,847. T ° the 
numher of schools should btrictly be added the 1 1 high and Si middle school* 
leturocd for Assam in 1881-83, the figures corresponding to which in 1870-71 
were included in the returns of Bengil. Altogether for the Provinces named 
in the Table, excluding the NorthAVestcrn Provinces and including Assam, 
there is a real increase in the eleven years of r S i high and 295 middle schools. 
It is certain that the number of pupil* his al*o increased, though the increase 
cannot be precisely computed, since we have no means of estimating for most 
Provinces the number in the middle and primary departments of high and middle 
schools in 1 87 1 . The on) v Provinces w Inch aiford the matcrmN for a compan- 



HETOJIT OT THE EBUCATlOU COMMISSION. 



son are Bombay, in which the primary departments have been excluded from the 
returns of both years ; and Bengal and Assam, in winch they havo been included 
in both. An exaninntion of the detailed 2hbles given abore will sho^r that ia 
Bombay the number of high schools has advanced within this period from 20 
with 5,114 pupils, to 48 with 7,993 pupils ; and that of middle schools from 
186 with 10,215 Pupils to 209 with 14,7*0 pupils. Hence the number of 
secondary schools for boys has risen by 23 per cent , and that of their pupils 
by 48 per cent- In Bengal and Assam the number of high schools for boys 
was in 1871, 133 with 18,782 pupils; besides 19 unaided schools, the number 
of whose pupils is unknown- In 1882 the number had risen to 218 with 
46,011 pupils; the primary departments being included in each case. The 
number of middle schools for boys in the two Provinces together rose during the 
same period from 1,537 with 72,363 pupils (excluding 94 unaided schools), to 
1 ^43 with 100,313 pupils; primary departments* which comprise the large 
majority of the pupils in schools of this class, being again included. But, 
except in the thice Provinces named, no estimate can be framed of the increase 
in the number of pupils in secondary schools ; we shall therefore confine our 
attention to the number of schools of that class t and proceed in the next 
paragraph to regard them under another aspect, 

243- Relative Increase of Departmental and other Schools, between 

1870-71 and 1881*82. — An important question which requires notice in this 
connection is, how far the increase above referred to was due to the direct 
operations of Government, and how far to private effort, aided or unaided* 
To the consideration of that point we now turn, It has been seen that the 
total number of secondary schools rose from 3,070 in 1S7 J to ^gt6 in jSSj- 
The former total included 1 20 girls* schools, and the latter 8u The circum- 
stances of this decrease in the number of girh* schools will be noticed below ; 
for the present it will be convenient to confine our attention to schools for boys, 
the number of which rose nominally (since at the later date middle departments 
were reckoned as separate schools, and at the earlier date but few unaided 
schools were returned) from 2,950 to 3,835- This apparent increase of 885 
schools was distributed as follows; Government schools increased from 780 
to 1*357* aiie ^ schools decreased from 2,131 to 1,813, and unaided schools (so 
far as shown in the returns) increased from 39 to 665. TYe are therefore met 
by the somewhat remarkable fact that within the period in question there was 
a decrease of more than 300 in the number of aided schools, against an increase 
of nearly 600 in that of Government schools. It will be presently seen that 
more than two- thirds ot the increase in Government schools is merely nominal ; 
but in order to bring out the facts more clearly a summnry statement of 
the fluctuations ioi high and middle schools separately will now be given 
for the different Provinces of India, with the exception of the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh, the returns for which do not admit of a complete separa- 
tion, and to which we shall again recur. 



A- — High Schools- 



Feq ripen 


1E71 




Govern 
went 1 


Aided j 


Unaided* 1 


, Tatil 


Govern 


Aid M 






Madras , % 
Bombay . , 
Bengt^ ani Assam 
Punjab 

Central Provinces 


14 
TO 

S3 
4 

2 


8 
So 
10 

* 2 




53 
20 

133 
14 
4 


19 

£o 

TI 
1 

3 


47 

U 

97 
13 

4 


12 
15 


.. . — 

Si 
48 
218 
23 
5 


Total 


S5~ 


13S 


3 




226 


116 


174 


83 


37S 



chap, v] 



SECOUBAUT EDUCATION. 



B — Middle Schools 



107 





1S7 c 




(8Si 




meat 


Aided, 






went \ 


AldiKL 


LdlMM, 






67 


4*5 


23 


■H A A 


133 




299 




romUy 


137 


12 


37 


186 




3^ 






Eeti£iil and Asesm 








1537 


212 






< 743 




97 


37 




134 


1 3 


22 




"00 


Ctntml EVot ncea 


44 


8 






33 


10 




45 


Jiiuot Provinces 


45 






45 


O 






To 




607 


1782 

i 


6S 


z 454 


719 


1576 

1 


572 


2 867 



The first of these Tahles shows that Government Jngn scnoois increased, 
by <u and aided high schools hy 36 ^ the Provmces of Madras, Bombay, 
Bengal with Assam, and the Punjab, the list of Government schools was in- 
creased by from 7 to 9 m each case, either in pursuance of the declared 
policy of providing each District with a high school, or hy the gradual rise 
of middle schools Aided high schools increased hy 1 7 m Bengal, 9 m Madras, 
6 in Bombay 2 in the Central Provinces, and 2 in the Punjab Furthermore, 
the recognition accorded to private effort contributed to the establishment of 
lar-e numbers of high schools without the assistance of a grant m aid Schools 
of this class are often opened in the hope of receiving ■ a grant hereafter, and all 
are directly benefited, in most Provinces at least, by the advice and encourage 
m nroTinspecUng ofucers, and in Bengal, Assam and the Central Provinces, 
by the open competition for scholarships Thus the establishment of even un- 
aided schools in uicreasing numbers may be regarded as a measure, not only 
rftta^SEtf of privato D effort, but also m some Provinces of the recognition 
and support accorded to it by the Department 

.hc second Table shows - ^™ ^ [l^l^ol 
Government middle schools but a — of g ^ ^ ^ 

,11 Provinces other than ^^^^^L number of 2 6 4 This 

increased by 8* and aidc \™' *™ , eyery ^ school had an attached 
calculation, however, assumes thatin ib 7 o 7* every 

middle department, wh 1C h which added 
ment schools the increase 1 confined to Madras other Provinces there 

respectively 66 and 81 schools to the ^ ^ numbcr of 

„ a shght decrease in the number Th heavy ^ 

aided middle -bools shown m m an earlier of the 

stances of this reduction have been duc fo & ^ 

present Chapter, in '^Sf 1 ™ tom'to the behef that the 

accurate classification, although g» rf ncy was t 

revision of the grant in aid rules mtn tbo othcr Pr0Tince s the 

without its effect m checking private cn <"T ^ mi ddlc schools in the 
changes are shght, the greatest being a loss of 15 « 



was 



196 



EBPORT Or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION 



[CHiT, V 



son are Bombay, in which the primary departments haro been excluded from the 
returns of both years ; and Bengal and Assam, in which they havo been included 
in both- An examination oE the detailed Tables given above will show that in 
Bombay the number of high schools has advanced within tliis period from 20 
Trith 5,1 14 pupils, to 48 with 7,993 pupils ; and that of middle achooU from 
186 with 10,215 pupils to 209 with 14,710 pupils. Hence the number of 
secondary schools for hoys has risen hy 25 per cent , and that of their pupila 
by 48 per cent* In Bengal and Assam the number of high schools for boys 
was in 1871, 133 with 18,782 pupils; besides 19 unaided schools, the number 
of whose pupils is unknown. In 1882 the number had risen to 21S with 
46,011 pupils; the piimary departments heing included in each case. Th& 
number of middle schools for boys in the two Provinces together rose during the 
same period from 1,537 7 2 j3 6 3 pupils (excluding 94 unaided schools), to 
1,743 with 100,313 pupils; primary departments, which comprise tlia large 
majority of the pupils in schools of this class, being again included* But, 
except in the thiee Provinces named, no estimate can be framed of the increase 
in the number of pupils in secondary schools; we shall therefore confine our 
attention to the number of schools of that class, and proceed in the next 
paragraph to regard them under another aspect. 

242- Relative Increase of Departmental and other Schools, between 

1870-71 and 1881-83. — An important question which requires notice in this 
connection is, haw far the increase above referred to was due to the direct 
operations of Government, and how far to private effort, aided or unaided, 
To the consideration of that point we now turn* It has been seen that the 
total number of secondary schools rose from 3,070 in 187 1 to 3,916 in 1S82. 
The former total included 120 girls' schools, and the latter 8u The circum- 
stances of this decrease in the number of girls 1 schools will be noticed below; 
for the present it will he convenient to confine our attention to schools for hoys, 
the number of which rose nominally (since at the later date middle departments 
were reckoned as separate schools, and at the earlier date hut few unaided 
schools were returned) from 2,950 to 3,835. This apparent increase of 885 
schools was distributed as follows : Government schools increased from 780 
to 1,357, aided schools decreased from 2,131 to 1,813, and unaided schools (so 
far as shown in the returns) increased from 39 to 665. TFe are therefore met 
by the somewhat remarkable fact that within the period in question there was 
a decrease of more than 300 in the number of aided schools, against an increase 
of nearly 600 in that of Government schools- It will be presently seen that 
more than two-thirds of the increase in Government schools is merely nominal ; 
but in order to bring out the facts more clearly a summary statement of 
the fluctuations foi high and middle schools separately will now be given 
for the different Provinces of India, with the exception of the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh, the returns for which do not admit of a complete separa- 
tion, and to which we shall again recur. 



A.— Higix Schools, 



Pflorurcjtf 






1S71 






Govern 
meat 


Aided 


Unaided* 


Total 


meut 


Aided. 




TotoL 


Bombay . 
Beagi 1 tad AtattQ * 
Punjab 

Central Provinces * 
Minor Prxmiices * 


14 

to 

S3 

4 
2 
2 


3 1 

So 1 
iq 
• a 


t 


S3 

20 

133 
14 

4 

2 


*9 
6t> 

11 

1 

3 


47 

M 

97 
12 

4 


13 
'5 

* 


Si 
46 
2iZ 
33 
5 
3 




85 


138 


3 


226 


116 


174 


ss 


37S 



C1IAP. V ] 



SECONBAliY EDTJCA.TTCPN 



B — Middle Schools 



197 





197 










G runt 
moat. 






i 0 £L, 


Dl tit 


AiilCtL 




Tft it 


Matins 


6; 




Q 

0 




133 




2^ 


^37 






12 


37 


l86 


I s 








Bengal *nd Ajfiam 


217 






> 537 


212 


1309 




<743 




97 


37 




134 


178 


22 




200 


Ccntrnl Prom<iC& 


44 


s 






38 


10 






11 nor Prov n«is 


45 






45 








10 


Total 


607 

1 


17S2 


65 


2x454 


719 


1ST* 


572 





The first of these Tables shows that liovernnieni nign scuoois increased 
1,V -ii and aided high schools by 36 In the Provinces of Madras, Bombay, 
Ben-al with Assam, and the Punjab, the list of Government schools was in- 
creased by from 7 to 9 in each case, either in pursuance of the declared 
nohcy of providing each District with a high school, or by the gradual rise 
of middle schools Aided high schools increased by 1 7 in Bengal, 9 in Madras, 
6 m Bombay 2 m the Central Provinces, and 2 in the Punjab Furthermore 
the lecogmtion accorded to pnvate effort contributed to the establishment of 
large numbers of high schools mthout the assistance of a grant in aid School, 
of this class are often opened m the hope of receiving - a grant hcrea ter , and all 
are directly benefited, in most Provinces at leist, by the advice and encourage 

oicers and in Bengal, Assam and the Central Jrovin cos, 
bv the open competition for scholarships Thus the establishment of even un- 
,Tded schools in increasing numbers may be regarded as a measure, not only 
of Se Sty of private effort, but also m some Provinces of the recognition 
ind support accorded to it by the Department 

The second Table shows an apparent increase of 1 i s hi the number of 

ovulation, however, ^f^e m Eomhay In Go, cm 

middle department, which was not always ttte cas ^ 
mcnt schools ft. — »d»»d t pm ^ 

lespectively 66 and 81 schools to the list x ^ ^ of 

„ , slight decrease m the J™ ^ed to JIadras The cream. 

•uded middle schools shown in the ™^ ^ ^ p^pl, „f the 
stances of tins reduction have been fc k , iac toa roore 

present Clnptcr, m winch > M™ ^tto^for iJW that the 
iccurate classification, alt lion B n fe™ (Whon oE ffrca ter stringency ins not 
revision of the grant in aid rules in the ^ otlic ; ProTinccs tht 

without its effect ^ checlang pnvatc cntcrp ded mi{lcllc schools m tht 

changes are shght, the greatest being a loss .5 

VvLn ^ „ ^ f/1TT1 Provinces and Oudh it lias ilread} been 

As regards the Korth ^f^J^te number of Comment schools 
shown that the large apparent increa c in tl0n adopted for the 

was due almost entirely to different modes 60 



198 



HEPOET OT THE UTrtJCAKO^ COMMISSION, 



[CHAP. y. 



two years compared ; and that the decrease of 1 26 shown in the number of 
aided schools was, in the case of 75 of them, merely the abolition of the 
English classes attached on the grant-in-aid system to certain Government 
vernacular schools The reasons which in the opinion of the Department 
rendered this course advisable are given in tho following extract from the 
annual report of the Director of Public Instruction for 1877: "As it was 
"pronounced needful to retrench, there is no question but that tho withdrawal 
* ( of aid from subscription Anglo-vernacular schools outside sudder stations has 
" caused less harm and less retardation than if any other class of schools had 
"been concerned. No doubt they represented a certain amount of effort made 
" by the people themselves to obtain a better class of education for their children 
" than could he had in the vernacular schools, and this is tho sole reason why they 
" were aided in the first instance ; but it has been found in the majority of cases 
" that the effort was unwillingly sustained or fraudulently counterfeited. Even 
"under the most careful inspection, than which nothing is more difficult to main- 
u tain when Secretaries of Committees and inspecting officers are often changed- 
"there was always a feeling of uncertainty as to whether the teachers received 
" their share of pay from the subscription funds, or whether the fee entries in 
"the accounts weio bond jide transactions. The teachers dare not complain, 
"because if the school was closed, they lost their living ; and they preferred to 
e £ mate a false affidavit to ruining themselves or compromising the tahsildars or 
t( other people by whoso influence these schools were established/* The passage is 
instructive as showing how in many Provmces tho same doubts and difficulties 
arose on the first introduction of the system of grants-in-aid; and it also leads 
to the reflection whether greater care at the outset in selecting the schools or 
classes to which aid should be given, might not in time have led to a consider- 
able expansion of the system 

It thus appears that in Bengal and Assam taken together, and in the 
Central Provinces, departmental and aided agency supply respectively much 
ths wbl% \KQ^a?tioa o£ the, TOunbex o£ seooB&tty fcchools as tEby did eleven 
years ago, while the standard has sensibly risen. In Bombay, aided private 
effort has made considerable progress, though the number of aided schools is 
still very small compared with those of Madras and Bengal, We shall here- 
after see, however, that small as the number of schools is, they arc largo and 
well-attended ; and that in the spread of secondary education, Bombay is in no 
wise behmd other Provinces. In the North-Western Provinces, the Punjab 
and Madras, departmental agency lias to a large extent taken the place of 
private effort, — a fact which is the more remarkable in the case of Madras, 
since in no other Province of India has the capacity of private effort to provide 
the means of advanced education been more clearly shown. 

243- Girls' Schools in 1870-71 and 1881-82.— The summary statistics 

of girls* schools are shown in the following Table : — 







1S70-71, 


18S1-B2. 


Schools 




Schools 


Scholars 


Government 


■ * * 




t m « 


6 


325 


Aided 


■ * 




6,162 


5o 


M37 


Unaided t 




7 


267 


25 


309 




Total 


120 


6,429 


8l 


2,071 



19" 



CHA3*. V.] SECOKDARt EDTJCATtOX, 

The GoTerameut schools are confined to Madras and Bengal. lathe 
former Province there are one high and three middle schools of this class, two 
of them being in tho town of Madras; in the latter the Beth ano School of 
Calcutta teaches in its school department up to the matriculation standard, and 
a new middle school has been opened at Dacca. In aided schools the fluctua- 
tions are more serious. Schools of this class for native girls aro confined to the 
five chief Provinces of India. In Bombay and the Punjab alone has there been 
an increase; in the former of 6 schools and in the latter of one. The girls' 
schools of Bombay have an exceptionally large attendance, averaging over 60 
pupils each. In Bengal there are now 18 secondary schools ; but as in 1870-71 
girls* schools were not classified, it cannot be stated how many of the 18 schools 
were then secondary. In Madras middle schools have fallen from 83 to 18, and 
in the Nbrth-TTestem Provinces from 26* to 3. The loss in Madras is ascribed 
iy our Provincial Committee to a more accurate classification of middle and 
•imary schools ; and it has also to be remembered that schools for European 
e, *ls are excluded from the returns of 1881*82. Still there is ground for 
believing, as already explained in the case of boys' schools, that the loss is not 
altogether nominal, — a belief winch derives some support from the fact that 
in 1881-82 tbere were 23 middle schools for girls in Madras receiving no 
grants-in-aid. In the North-Western Provinces the reduction is a real one. 
The attempt to educate girls had, it was maintained, been prematurely made ; 
and when, in 1876 the financial position of the Government became suck as to 
render economy essential, it was "believed that the abolition of a large number of 
girls* scbools was one of the measures that could he taken with least prejudice 
to education. Secondary and primary schools suffered alike in the redaction. 
Unaided secondary schools for girls are confined to Madras and Bengal ; in tho 
former Province there are 23, and in the latter two, one of these being a high 
school in Calcutta. 

The number of secondary schools is not, however, an accurate measure of the 
progress of female education, as tested by the number of pupils. In Bombay, 
for example, the secondary schools for girls are so large that, although few in 
number, they contain more pupils than those of any other Province. The 
number of girls returned as being in the secondary stage of instruction in every 
Province of India are here given : Madras, 389, Bombay, 555; Bengal, 211 ; 
KortVWestem Provinces and Oudb, 68 ; Punjab, 8. These figures are of 
course subject to whatever corrections miy bo necessitated by the different 
range of what is known as secondary education in different Prorinces. 

244. Summary View of the Spread of secondary Education through 

private Effort.— In regard to tho spread of secondary education in depart- 
mental schools, the chief Provinces of India exhibit no great differences ; it 
is in connection with schools under private management that the differences 
come into prominence. Here we should note that there arc two points of im- 
portance to be considered ; the number of schools, and the numher of pupils, 
which will be seen to bear no uniform relation to each other in the various 
Provinces of India. Our first consideration will be the number of the schools 
which, whetiier aided or unaided, arc maintained by private. effort. The num- 
ber of sucli schools, as distinguished from tho number of pupils attending 
them, is evidently of importance as indicating, in the first place, the desire of 
the people to rely on themselves for the spread of secondary education, and in 
the second place the willingness of the Local Government to aid .their efforts 
over a large area, and at that early stage at * hich ; oid is most helpful. In : i w 
respect the cliief Provinces of India exhibit the widest differences, even after the 
statistics of population arc taken into account. The fact that the 68 millions 



200 



EXPORT OP THE EDUCATION, COMMISSION, 



[CHAT. T 



of Ben<nl maintain,* with or without aid from Government, 157 high and 
1,489 middle schools, while in the British districts of Bombay with 16J millions 
the people support only 22 high and 49 middle schools, would appear to point 
to differences either in the wants of the people and their efforts to supply them, 
or else in the policy of Government with regard to private effort in this branch 
of education. Unaided schools in Bombay^ to the number of 7 high and 4 r 
middle, are not here reckoned, because they are maintained from the revenues of 
Native States and therefore afford no indication of purely private effort. Madras, 
with nearly 31 millions, supports 60 high and 545 middle schools under private 
management,— rather more than one-third of the number in Bengal, while the 
population is nearly one-half ; and it is significant that of the secondary schools 
maintained by private effort in Madras more than half are unaided, while the 
proportion is only one-sixth in Bengal. The Punjab, with 19 millions of 
people, has 12 high and 23 middle schools receiving grants-in-aid; and the Cen- 
tral Provinces, with 4 aided high and 1 o middle schools to a population of 9^ 
millions in British Districts, are far below the level of other Provinces in private 
enterprise , but it may be noted that in these two Provinces no unaided secondary 
schools have been returned. Though the statistics of the North-Western Provinces 
are not given in a sufficiently detailed form for exact comparison, yet the 6 1 Eng- 
lish and 7 vernacular schools maintained by private managers may be approxi- 
mately distributed into 26 high and 45 middle schools ; and this, with a 
population of 44 millions, must be regarded as indicating either very great 
apathy in the matter of private effort or a disinclination in the Department to 
cncoiuage it. 

We now turn to the connected question of the number of pupils. In this 
point of view it is important to notice that the attendance of pupils in the 
secondary schools of Bombay, whether for boys or for girls, 19 far higher than 
in any other Province. Thus the departmental primary and secondary schools 
of Bombay have an average of nearly 80 pupils each ; while in Madras, the 
North- Western Provinces and the Punjab, the average is only 40, 12, and 26 
respectively. The special system of classification adopted in Bengal makes it 
difficult to institute any such comparison; but wherever the line of division 
between the upper and lower departments be drawn, it is at any rate clear that 
the average number of pupils in a secondary school in Bengal falls very far 
below that in Bombay* and probably below that in Madras. An even greater 
difference in the average attendance marks the girls' schools of Bombay as 
compared with other Provinces. The facts here noted point to a clear contrast 
of policy between Bombay and Bengal. We have seen in this and the pre- 
ceding Chapters that, as regards secondary education, the Department in 
Bombay aims at combining economy of expenditure with an £qual distribution 
of high and middle schools over all Districts It is obviously more economical to 
aid a single well- filled school than a number of small and scattered institutions ; 
and the attention paid to primary education in Bombay imposes on the Depart- 
ment the necessity of strict economy in education of a more advanced kind. 
On the other hand, this policy, it must ho admitted, fails to secure for private 
enterprise in secondary education that widespread encouragement without which 
the people cannot he expected to set up schools for themselves. Another point 
must bo noticed. The value of any such comparison as that instituted above 
is impaired by the fact that in different Provinces the range of what is under- 
stood as secondary education differs widely. Thus in most Provinces, as shown 
at the beginning of this Chapter, the secondary stage of instruction comprises 
■ four or five classes ; in Bombay the number of classes in the secondary stage 
extends to seven, and therefore includes a much larger number of pupils. These 
differences of system are sufficient to prevent any accurate comparison ; but 



chap v.] 



SECGlIJUIir EDUCATION 



201 



there arc grounds for believing that the proportion of pupils tinder secondary 
instruction to the population does not differ very widely in the three chief 
Piovinces of India. 

245. Expenditure on secondary Schools.— Full details of the expendi- 
ture on secondary schools in each Province, and of the average annuil cost o£ 
educating each pupil in schools of each class, are ghen m the two following 
Tables. 



nE poRT or Tnr education- coinnssiov. [, 

Expenditure on 



Aim* ttt^u* 



PTOT^CK 1^0 GUIDE OF ttHOOW* 



f 



HJJH1A9 



(for Clrli 



Fori I* 



Ttitfiia Corns 1 wm JlfctriM #fSic«»i« 
Scvoott 



S 

s 



4*5 
0 «!■ 



■3 



ft 



ft 



■ JT 

■ U 



5 



3 

J 

If 



i 



e 



ft 



BOH BAT 



/ Elian Stwoou For ft*f* 



FiiftlLA 



11 « 



EBNOiL 



{ 



JFw E^fi 



t 



Fw G rii 
For Boj* 

F«Gtft* 



Torn. 



f Fn F Ub 



T(rt*t 



•us* 



Mm **4*4*) 



V W PS5TINCES fIT(*« tin Mro-J'* T **** {*twtlu 



Term 



i) t i 

4,3** 



Mi 5*1 



1 



i*4*1 



ft 



f 

MS - 



4t 



fTI 



SJ'All 44 73 



4 J» 



M ft** 
■ 4*4 



I7*>4* 
Hi* 



ft 
41 117 



s 
i 

II 



IJ 

'XtJ* 



T 

r 



- 1 - 



r j > 












■ > n 








i* 


h m 










**J47 






1 «i 




















»fM*4 










i JT 










i 


■ 4 


J» 






















i 





^ for Girl* E** 



TOT*L 



Tot At 



rpjcii#h 
r i- pit *h 



Total 



COOBO 



lHmnn.1 Sc»ot)ti For Itoyi tngU»lx 



Torn 



Zoffttnh 



Ttrttt 



jo 9*4 

H-l- 



13 lit 



4J.SM 



5* ?9* 



414 



»**7 



r in 



7 



TOTAL FOE INDUt 



For Bot* 
For G * 



n 8 * 

41 3JS 



Si»53 



44 



6 fill t40 



44 



>1 



f «1 — 



4 I7» 



■,4** 



14 



144 



¥5* 



Si*** 



4Ar* 

17 e*4 



*7S 



so *j 



IH 



0404 



»3 



4? cM 



tt c4i 
41 19a 



*4.»St 



4sn 



■J 37 



»rj7 



1 Jit 

44« 



■4 t*j 



1 



«»*J7 



1444 



3"? 



1 Jf> 
1 



» S5» 



4,^ 



t 14 
1 gi 



*^*i^*4 



6S964 



7 3**«3* 
33. *« 



4tf«7 

■J *J 
33» 



f*44 4 



33 5* 5-»*,*?3 



**77 
*4 




**334fl 



T -LMluiittnf ^rltl*li na tud *U ^atlT* butt* tint nlminlakc tbtlr oww tjttfat fJo«*^» 



ion m 1881*82* 



SECONDARY EDUCATION, 



203 



^TAW" SCHOOLS • 



15 



1* 



4* 



444 



H 

sg 04* 
491 
1 fiJ* 

1 3»g 



3*355 



R 

* 54* 
1 us 

■437 



5*4 



*4T79 



33 



1 01 «4 



JM7» 
5« 13* 

453 



1 17 54* 



"4 



J5S70* 
"7*7 



*5 



4J 



*3 43 

09 I* 



M 97 



14 6j 



4S S5 

13 ja 



{25 1 6 79 



■b 

5 



d 

I 



19 



81 osS 

4<SS 

3 35S 
095 



13 



11 4<53 

339 
U3 



30 



21 



3 
8 



I 

si 

* o 



13 



R 

MP 
3 pp 0$D 
f 308 

141 



t 3S763 

B770J 
0 230 



"3 4*4 



311516 



TO 100 

I 

61 opo 

5 3SI 
3 334 



M*489 



10 974 

a3 319 



4*393 



i 11 56S 

12 000 

I 35 470 
>p5* 375 
* SOI 
3 611 



*«**S9 



&35 6*4 



«4 i*3oi 



a 415 1 47a 



1*3 



"4i5l 4 7" 




KM 



• 5**34 



ft ft+i 
3G03 

390 



1,08 iSfl 
07 394 
5 3^1 



ft 

■5* lU] 

* *34 

4 *9* 
90S* 



34 33 

55 4* 
5( 0* 

4 Jo 



if 

~ a 

IS 

fill 



c a j* 
* £ a 



3* 



*4 



Is 

» 

B #* ^ 

«4 ri Tl 

*> en. 



► 10,31345 



J 



6 53ifl7»« 47 64 



* to fltfi 



1* 195 



8631 

1 3 £01 

a+ 



4*47 SOS 
3 4 fl3 
J 3Q,03S 
1 (7 (Jo6 
t 408 
3" 



pa $15 

7* 5^3 
It 27* 



t Bo 7*4 



3,5* T53134 91 
» 9*>j I 3+ 6fl 



6 71 °3t T | 34 8a 



1715* 



57 10° 
3 057 
1,00,5°°" 

440 
10 15J 



1741 

17 7S1 
49 41+ 

8064 



6 p* 309 



*7 8+11 
1 00S 
a 10 



M976 



1 78 0T4 

j so &ia 

J IS 8S* 
S 33l 



49*5*3 



57 3*a 
159 



• S3 4St 

*S 4 !!l 

4.S* 13* 
3 93 440 



5* 43 
ai so 
39 51 

ip So 
tas* 
* Sj? 



6^133 



1 77*4* 7;** 



14 84a 

4S 333 



*3,tto 



5*333 

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S"7 



*7 989 



Bg0t 



0SS3 



3 '47 



1 03il£i*7P 
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28 IT? 
to S?3 
10 393 



5*359 43 33 1 5^ 3*3 



7t5iS 



a8s 



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Ci ^p 



d/171 

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a 4SP 



a 06 B41 1 6 & 1 

6T0jt«l 4*^4 

3 310 1 661 
4*7 



36*4984 s?8 



35s>6o 



70*5* 
3 37* 

3r4»* 

14 tjfl 



7 W 
94S 
109+ 

14 8s 



10 61J535 



-l 

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«l O V 

S » o 



iff 



14 08 



»6 So Slo 



3+3^ 



ts 77 eas 



3,10 Sofa I I73 



13 31^47 



14 3P5 
3 098 
Ooog 



*"5 



3*49* 



I 1S0 



JE3 
0 41s 



1*7*1 



2 i6m 
6 Ip3 



Jo 6(3 



TOM 

9*75 



* W ,1 ? f l 9 *» 



54*741 St *8 
3^13* I 15 10 
3* *G 14 



u 131 



11 817 

41 336 



53.153 



9103$ 

*7>77 
371 



4**4 



'^5*1 



»**597 



* 3* M 1 4* 5* I 7 *7r33t 

1 13?«5 

1 «4,30Q 1 35 73 1 7 3P5*» 

5*33 I J3*| *° ^ 
113^04 



44 



44 



144 
014 



954 



* 19*391 37*^ 



1 678*1 1J37 



} 5i9 



803 



i? 70 



ao 70 



10 jff 



33 73 



*^ d. 
b D d 

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to 

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del Pit to &[ tbc eir«n 
dittm on bafM pp*, 
*cholnTihipa tod mU- 
cdLoaeoca objects 



b Inelnsite of tba *(t«a 
nioal schools 



10 34 



«9 5: 



17 16 



17 79 



4 Thaeiptitidlturoftn bo Id 
fogs and ftchohnhtpt 
(Ka. j$oti) cannot bna 
dJ&tr1;tit#d aiooo; thfl 

^rjiizhfKils Ithuth^rc- 
fors been exolitdad from 
COJirmCkS 3—13 buttn 
trlndod In (□luimu a j — 



</Onii1f*mout3t Tu? 8 wen 
Ironi Provincial fundi 



17 03 



18 11 



63 43) 



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48-50 



3704 



3»4-3 

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503 
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5*1510! *7* 



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19 ■* 37 77 
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10 87 G*J [30*9 
6313* 1*3 79 
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J 3M3$> 



Ifi 39 



19 0a 



« IncIxtdJufT txpcDd far* 
on Traluft>£eb5*i**for 

Sl^iooIb *ndou Scholar 
shps B Tiding* *nJ 

SlidtUe EagUdh »cnwt>^ 



ji 43 



41 10 



9S15 



3? 83 



10 ;s 



/ Including Ha. i.wjfpom 

1 Rd.a073 nCepfil *n<i 
B*. 300 la the N^W 



3S ttf 



u 10 



20 i 



nrronT of inr educvtiov commission 
Ate rage anmtal Co* I § of Educating each Fitful tn jSS/*S2 



[ 



cm? 



U A PIUS 



TllQH Schools 



far ilo/i F)J?H*h 



{ FnpUti 

AfU>JJlB^CllOOU ^ 

Orlij 
\ ait Vnoou 

For Boj* F th 

For liojt Engliih 
Girt* Entfud 




W PROVINCES «rof Ilronro 



far Uoji j 
Oirli J 

lv 



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inn i*l t*4< »Ko4iJ fwf 
to I r?* □ tat »^ 



77 * 
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503 14 * 



1 ft to £ goo It 



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ft # / 



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r *> Boy, 



AS3AM 



CENTRAL PB0TINCE5 } Hwh Sc "~» 

tMiiJDi^ Schools 

COOEQ rtt»H»eiwtt 

ED DISTriCTS 1 

v N(D£le Schools 



ForBojt Ep^A 

fFji&luh 
*. Boy, J 

m Bo/* 

B*,ft Engl sh 
Sop EogiUli 
English 

For Boji 



1^ 



^ 4 11 it>, o 5 j p 



t IS 



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t% t 4 0 S 5 ^ 



6S 6 S 



AVERAGE T0J\ WDlAf 



f For Bojft 



6S 4 



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1ST 



0 4° 




CHAT* V] SECOVBVrr EDUCATION 



20', 



246 Different Sources of Expenditure —Prom the first of these Tables 

a few salient facts may bo extracted, though their value is impaired by the fact 
that m the expenditure on secondary education in Bengal and Assam is included 
the cost of educating the pupils in primary classes, who constitute a very Iar»e 
proportion of the whole attendance It follows, not only that the figure:, for 
these two Provinces are affected by considerations which do not apply to the 
rest of India, but also that any avenges for the whole of India are in one 
direction mcicased, and in another diminished, by the inclusion of the statistics 
for Bengal and Assam The total cost of a high school in Bengal is much 
greater, and the average cost of each pupil much less, than m those Provinces 
in wluch a high school contains only the upper classes Hence the result 
of including the figures for Bengal and Assam wdl be on the one hand to raise 
the percentage of expenditure on secondary education, and on the other to 
reduce the average cost of educating each pupil The necessary correction can 
bo applied by comparing the statistics of the several Provinces "With these 
explanations the following summaries may be noticed The totalamount spent 
from all sources on secondary education in India in 1881-83 was Ra 40,27,000, 
or 22 per cent of the whole expenditure , Bs 15,66,000 being paid f roxn Pro- 
vincial revenues , Us 1,95,000 from local and municipal funds, Rs 13,14000 
from fees , and Rs 9 52,000 from other private sources The proportion borne 
by the total expenditure from all sources on secondary education to the total 
expenditure on education of all kinds is much, abovo the average of 22 per cent 
in Bengal and Assam, where it rises to 28 and 38 per cent respectively , but m 
these two Provinces a largo amount of u hat is elsewhere called primary is 
included m and charged to secondary education The proportion borne by 
Provincial revenues to the total expenditure in secondary schools, which is 
39 per cent for the whole of India, varies from 28 and 34 per cent m 
Madras, Bombay and Bengal, to 55 and 69 per cent w the Punjab and the 
NorthVWcstcm Provinces , in the other Provinces it vanes from 49 per cent 
in Assam to 98 per cent m Bcrar The contributions from Local and 
Muuicipal Punds to the support of secondary schools show wide and si gm- 
ficant variations , from one per cent of tho total cost of secondary education 
in Bengal, and two per cent m Madras, to 10 per cent in the Ceutral Pro 
vmccs, and 24 per cent in the Punjab In Bombay and the North Western 
Provinces the proportion is 7 and S per cent respectively, while in the minor 
Provinces littlo or nothing is contributed from this source There can bo no 
doubt that while municipalities should he induced to recognise their public 
duty m this respect, as they certainly do not appear to do in Bengal and 
Madras it « still possible to go too far, and to expend on secondary education 
funds tint might more usehulj bo devoted to the education of the poor m 
large towns In this vien it is right to notice that the bulk of the expenditure 
on sccondarv education from Municipal and Local Punds in the Punjab is 
devoted to middle, and chicQv to middle vernacular schools , these funds aKo 
hear one third of the cost of the Lahore Training College Tho percentage of 
fees to total expenditure, which is 33 for the whole of India, mcs to 48 in 
Madras , in Bengal, Assam, and Bombay it vanes in that order from 40 to 35 
per cent , ulule in the Central Provinces, the Punjab, and the 2wrth \\ extern 
Provinces it falls to about 10,9 aud6pcr cent respectively It u ill ho Do- 
wned that the fuss realised maided «*condarj schools amount to confer- 
abb mor, m Assam, vhcro houcver these schools contain attached pnmarj 
departments than in tho *orth T\ otcrn Provinces, Oudh, and the Punjab 
taUn all together The contributions from « other sources, chiefly <ul«cn P - 
terns and to some extent endowments arc behest in Bengal and Bombay, 
with =S and 27 per cent, rcspectuclj of the total expenditure, whdc m the 



20G rrrorT op mr ehochtion commission [ctup v. 

other Provinces it mhos from 12 and 13 per cent m the Punjab amlthc Central 
Provinces to 20 per cent m Madras In Bombay ho^er, tlio proportion of 
* 7 per cent includes tho largo contributions inadc by Native States for the 
maintenance of their o^n schools, and is therefore no indication of the extent of 
ponuhr support Taking * fees ' and « other pn\ ate sources * together, it will be 
seen tint in Madras and Bengal tlio contributions of tho public to the cost of 
secondary education amount to about 63 per cent t and in Assam to 50 percent 
In the other Provinces the proportion is much lower 

247. Average annual Cost of educating each PapiL— The second of 

tho foregoing Tables slums that tho total annual cost of educating abo) in a 
Go\tmment high school, u Inch ts lis 46 for tho whole of India, varies from 
Rs 24 in Assam and Rs 34 in Bengal to lis 163 in the Punjab and Rs 239 m 
Bcrar In an aided high school tho cost for tho whole of India is Its 33 f vary- 
ing from lis 21 in Bengal and Bs 26 m As<nm to Rs 89 in tho Central Pro 
vinces and Rs 98 in tho Punjab In an unaided high school the atcrago cost 
of R* i3\ariesfromRs S andRs 9 m Assam and Bengal to IK 73 lnBomba), 
The Ion rate in Bengal and Assam, where the a\erage cost ts grcatlj reduced 
by the primary departments of high schools, suggests a reason whj such com- 
panions must always bo received with caution Thus in Bengal, when a high 
school contains nine or ten clashes, the total annual cost of each bo\ m a 
Government school is Rs 34, in Bombay, whero there arc four classes, it is 
Rs 59, and in Madras, where there arc onlj two classes, it rises to II* 77 For 
Coorg Madras, tho Central Pro\ inces, and the Punjab an accurate companion 
can be made, and it will be seen that tho cost of educating each boj in a 
Government or aided school increases in the order in which tho Trounces have 
been named, the cost in the Punjab King exceptionally high High as it 
is, however, it is exceeded m the two Government high schools of BLi-ar, 
where a boy s education costs annual]) Rs 239, of which no less a share 
than Rs 236 is paid for him by the State In comparing the figures for middle 
schools similar caution must ho used, for a middle school, which commonly 
contains three classes, has from two to five classes in Bombay and se\ca 
(including the primary department) in Bengal, while it has onh two classes 
in tho Northwestern Pomuccs and Oudh The cost of each pupil m an 
aided school can be best elucidated by comparing it with the cost of a Gov- 
ernment school in the same Province In the whole of India, the cost of 
educating a pupd in an aided high school is 72 per cent of the cost of his cdu 
cation in a Government high school , the North- W ester n Provinces tlio Punjab, 
and Bengal being belov* this average , and Madras, Bombay, and the Central 
Provinces above it It will also be seen that tho cost of a girl s 1* fir higher 
than that of a boy's education , the difTLrcnco Iwing much the greatest m the 
case of high schools maintained bj Government 

248 Initial Standards in secondary Schools— On a compendious 

review of the course of study in secondary schools or departments throughout 
British India it may be generally htatcd that fiom tho time of hi* enhance 
upon the secondary stage a scholar icceives instruction in the following subjects 
English the vern icular, arithmetic gcogiaphy and histor\ , rind that after a 
period of study extending o\er tue vcais three of which ;uo pawd m the 
middle stage and two in the high, hp is brought up to the matriculation 
standard of the Univeistty These general statements arc, however, subject to 
largo modifications in their application to different Provinces, as regards alike the 
contents of tho course, the p nod during winch it is studied, and its rdihon to 
the course below it Tor example, English may ho generally regarded as tho 
subject nhich specially characterises the beginnings of secondary as distin- 
guished from primary education In some Provides, however, Bu-Iish is 



ClUP. V»] 



seco^dakt Education. 



207 



taught in pnmary as well as iu secondary schools ; in others it is not a necessary 
part of tho course c\cn in secondary schools, but may be replaced by a classical 
language, or mathematics, or elementary science. Similar differences prevail as 
to tbenumberof classes comprised in a secondary school. In Bombay the course 
in secondary schools extends over seven years, three being spent in the middle 
and four in tho high school. A comparison of the courses, however, shows that 
the initial standard of middle schools is considerably lower than the initial stand* 
ard of secondary instruction in other Provinces, which corresponds more nearly, 
though not precisely, to the third standard of middle schools in Bombay! 
Understood in this sense, tho period o£ secondary instruction may in Bombay also 
bo taken to extend over five years, one being spent in the middle and four in the 
high school. In Bcrar, where tho courses are also governed by the Entrance 
standard of the Bombay University, the middle-school course occupies three years, 
and that of tho high school two years. In Bengal and Assam, where the 
courses in corresponding classes of different schools to some extent overlap, 
the secondary course may also be regarded as extending over five years, three 
in the middle and two in the high school. The same is explicitly the case in 
the Punjab and in Coorg. In the North-Western Provinces the course 
occupies four years, and in tho Central Piovinces six years, but in neither case 
do the Provincial Beports supply the initial standard of middle schools, so that 
the materials for an exact comparison are wanting. It will, however, be con- 
venient, in oider to furnish a more precise idea of what is generally understood 
by secondary education, to present in a tabular form a comparison of the 
initial standards, as above understood, of middle schools in which English is 
taught, in the three Provinces of Madias, Bombay, and Bengal. In Madras 
and Bengal this standard is reached after a five or sis years' course in one 
school, in Bombay after a seven years' course in two schools. 

Initial Standards of Instruction in Secondary Schools. 



Rob j ten 



I, English 



2 Veroacuhr langTJa^e 



3 Arithmetic 



4 Geography 



5 History 



6 Additional subject* 



$t*wt*rd&f the W* 
Cta tf of English Schools 

Third Enshsb. Reader , vrcit 
1B£ dictation, and gram- 
mar, trauskhon into En 
glish it nil the vernacular , 
dial guesinlheReaderto 
ho leartitby heart, know 
hdge of English to lie 
tested by sentences out- 
side the text hook 

Four tli Raider, and short 
poctieal pa*sa£t*s not pre- 
V lously studied p dictation 
anjjl gritnciar , recitation, 
of poetry. 

To compound rule* and 
vulvar iructions, easy 
decimaU 

Europe mnps tolje&hown 



Portion of ths history of the 
«\ rid (Agncul ture may 
be substituted foi history 
in rural schools } 



Standard of tfta3rd* 
Clatt of Middts Schools 

Thud English Trader t vtnt 
ing, spelling, and simple 
parsing m English t 
translation into FngUsh 
and the vernacular , re- 
citation of poetry 



Prescribed portions of 
standard authors t m prose 
and poetry , dictation and 
grammar, recitation of 
iOo hues of poetry 

To decimals, compound 
proportion, and discount 

Asia and India in detail, 
elementary KtoowMge 
of the worn map of India 
to be drawn from memory, 
w?th political dmsi&n* 

India to 1856 



Standard ofth$ 5th % Ctes* 
of Middle aiid ITtgh 
S hools 
Fourth English Reader, die- 
tation and grammar tramu 
latirm into English and 
the vernacular, retttatita 
oi select piecea of poetry. 



Proflfe and poetical Heads* f 
dictation and grammar. 



To vufgar and decimal 
fractions and proportion, 
native m*thodj o( &ni\ 
nitfltc 

Atri and India in dettti * 
^encril knowledge of tb.e 
wotld t map of JleugaL 



CengJ 



Euclid to I 36 
MeaptiratK'n of linen and 

native method a of mernta* 

ration. 

The Mmtary Primer with, 
an additional Uit>book 



lbs <?ba*e* mi* wet™«l torn ths bottom of tfc* tcliooL 



c> og REPORT Or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION, [CHAP. V, 

These standards, it will be observed, do not greatly differ. The Bengal standard 
covers a wider field than that of Bombay, but the latter within its narrow 
area is more complete. In Bombay the following subjects may also be option, 
ally taken up by students of middle schools : (a) free-hand drawing ; (&) model 
and object drawing; (<?) practical geometry. Schools in which drawing k 
taught are examined once a year, and a prize is given to any scholar who passes 
in the first grade* 

It should hero be noticed that our Bombay colleagues take exception to 
the comparison of standards made above J and they urge that, owing to the 
greater attention paid to the vernacular in secondary schools in Bombay, a 
student necessarily remains a longer time in the secondary stage of instruction 
in that Province than in others in which the attention of pupils is more exclu- 
sively directed to English and the subjects of the University Entrance course. 
They consider that the lowest and not the third standard in middle schools should 
be taken as marking the beginnings of secondary education in Bombay ; and 
they regard the former standard as being equivalent, except in the single sub- 
ject of English, to tho standards given in the above Table for Madras and 
Bengal, The practical hearing of tho argument here put forwaid is that, in 
comparing the number of secondary pupils m different Provinces, no deduction 
should be made on account of those reading in the two lowest classes of a 
middle school in Bombay, Calculated in this way, the number of pupils in 
secondary schools in Bombay would, in proportion to the population, be above 
that of any other Province. We have already expressed the opinion that no 
accurate comparison is possible ; and for those who wish to pursue the subject 
further, the Bombay standards are given in detail at page 1 14 of the Bombay 
Provincial Report. 

249. The Place of English and the Vernacular in secondary 

Schools, — In those schools m which English is taught, it may either be taught 
as a language merely, all substantive instruction in other subjects being imparted 
thiough the vernacular, or it may itself be used as the medium of instruction. It 
will be seen that wide differences prevail in this respect- Again, the description 
of secondary schools given in the preceding paragraph applies only to those schools 
in which English forms part of the course. That subject, however, is not every- 
where regarded as a necessary element in secondary instruction ; and in many 
Provinces, schools in ^hich English finds no place are included in this class. 
The latter practice appears to have derived its origin or sanction from the principle 
enunciated in paragraphs 43 and 44 of the Despatch of 1854, in which Anglo- 
vernacular and vernacular schools were included in the same class, and the 
standard of instiuetian, in whatever language conveyed, was declared to be the 
most important element in classification In Madras, middle vernacular schools 
form part of the recognised system^ though the large majority of middle 
schools include English in their course. English is also taught as a neces- 
sary or optional part of the course in primary schools. In the lowest class 
of middle schools it is taught as a language only ; in the higher classes of 
these schools and in high schools! it is the medium of instruction. In Bombay, 
there is nothing exactly corresponding to a middle vernacular school, since 
middle schools are defined by the teaching of English, But some approach to 
it is found iu the addition of a fifth and sixth standard to the ordinary course 
in primary schools, after the examination which qualifies for admission to 
a middle school has been passed. If "middle school instruction " is understood 
to mean that which leads on to a high school, these standards will form no part 
of it, since they have been devised with exclusive reference to the requirements 
of candidates for the public service But if by middle or secondary mstruc- 



CHAT. V] SECOMJAST EDTFCATIOV 9Qg 

tion is meant that which earries primary instruction to a higher point, the fifth 
and sixth standards, though taught m a primary school, may so far he regarded 
as belonging to the secondary system In all middle schools the vernacular is 
the solo medium of instruction , in higli schools English takes its pbee In 
Bengal, the greatest value is attached to middle vernacular schools, which are 
regarded is the strength of the secondary system , and equal stress is laid on the 
employment of the vcrnacuhr is the medium of instruction Until six years 
ago, English wns the medium of instruction m all middle English schools But 
in 1877, when the advantages of a different method had for some time 
engaged the attention of the Department, the course in English schools was 
assimilated to that m vernacular schools , English was taught as a language mere 
Iv, in addition to the full vernacular course , and all substantive instruction in 
middle schools has sine© been imparted m the vernaculai In the middle 
departments of high schools in Bengal the old system still prevails In these 
schools, in all of which English is taught from the lowest primary class, the 
text books are all English, and aiithmetic, history, and geography are taught 
through the medium of English A movement, however, has lately been set 
on foot in Bengal, with the object of confining the use of English as the 
medium of instruction to the foua or five highest classes leading up to the 
Entrance examination , and the plan has been tiled as an experimental measnre 
m a few Government and aided schools In the North-"Western Provinces 
there is a well marked class of middle vernacular schools, in which English and 
algebra are replaced by equivalent subjects in the vernacular In middle 
English schools all instruction in the lower classes is conveyed through the 
vernacular In the Punjab the same distinction of secondary schools into 
English and vernacular exists , and it applies not only to middle but to high 
schools In middle schools, equivalent subjects are substituted for Engbsh , 
while the course in vernacular high schools is determined by the Entrance 
standard of the Punjab University Our returns show only one high school 
of this class, that at Jalandhar , but in fact the Government high schools at 
Jolandhar, Ludluana, and Delhi have both English and Vernacular Depart 
ments, to which may perhaps be added the school classes of the Oriental College 
at Lahore In middle English schools the vernacular is the medium of instruc- 
tion The Central Provinces follow an entnely different Bjstem There are no 
middle vernacular schools properly so colled , and the nearest equivalent is found, 
as in Bombay, in the addition of a fifth and sixth class to the four elates of an 
ordinary primary school Again, throughout the secondary course English is 
employed as the medium of instruction Coorg follows tile example of jtfadras, 
and Assam that of Bengal In Berar there are no vernacular secondary schools, 
and English is employed as the medium of instruction throughout 

250 The Vernacular as the Medium of Instruction —A consideration 

of the diversities of practice exhibited m the preceding paragraph suggests the 
following observations with regard to the employment of the vernacular as the 
mediurnof instruction in secondary, or at any rate in middle, schools The 
opposite practice is defended in the Iteport of the Central Provinces Committee 
m the following words " Instruction [in middle schools] is given usually 
" through English Every effort is made to teach English as a living language 
"It is felt that a boy well grounded in English and having a good acquaintance 
" with one of the vernaculars, may, after he leaies school, carry on Ins own edaca 
" tion Boys well grounded in these languages pass more easily and with greater 
" success through then* high school course than those less perfectly acquainted 
" with English " In the same way, it was formerly contended in Bengal that to 
convej instruction m history, geography, and science through the nicdwm of Eng- 
lish, and with English text-books, nas to teach the pupds Engbsh as uell as the 

53 



210 



KEPOET OF TUB EDUCATION COMMISSION 



[chap V 



special subjects of study, and, by enlarging then stock of English words and forms 
of expression, to prepare them more thoioughly for the Entrance examination and 
the subsequent University course The more English reading they got, the better 
EBghsh scholars they would be , while the study of English was continued long 
enough to enable them to profit by instruction in other subjects conveyed 
through that language The force of this argument is denied by some , though 
it may be accepted so far as it applies to the method of instruction in high 
schools— understanding that term to signify the upper classes reading for the 
Entrance examination By the time a pupil arrives at that stage of instruc 
tion, he may be assumed to have advanced so far, both m English and in other 
subjects, as to be able to profit by instruction conveyed in a foreign tongue 
The point is much less clear m the case of middle schools, m which, speaking 
generally, a pupil enters for the first time upon the study of history, science, 
and mathematics, concurrently with English If all these subjects are taught 
through English, instead of thiough the pupil's own vernacular,— just as, 
under earlier systems of instruction, Latin and Greek were taught to English boys, 
not through English but through Latin, — it is to be feared that his progress in 
them will he slow. Proficiency in English will, in fact, be gamed at the ex 
pense of his general education When, indeed, a pupil passes from the middle 
to the high school, a compensating condition arises m the fact that his greiter 
familiarity with English will enable him to advance with more rapid steps 
m his other subjects, which aro at that stage to be taught through Eng 
lish A similar consideration may be held to apply to those high schools 
m Bengal in which English is +aught from the earliest primary stage, and is 
employed as the medium of instruction almost from the outset Every pupil 
m these schools is practically reading for the Entrance examination , and the 
question of any disadvantage winch he might suffer if his education, so con- 
ducted, came to an end at an earlier stage, hardly arises It is different, how 
ever, with the course and the pupils in middle schools The question cannot he 
argued on the assumption that every pupil m a middle school goes on in due 
course to a high school , the reverse it, notoriously the case In Bengal, for 
example it is known that the great majority of the pupils of middle English 
schools complete their education therein Hence it becomes of the utmost 
importance to consider whether, to such pupils, the use of English or of the 
vernacular is most advantngeous -is the medium of instruction Tor them, at 
any rate, it would appear that tho employment of the vernacular is preferable 
A boy would in such a case receive a sound vernacular education suited to his 
station in life, and he would acquire a useful, if elementary, knowledge of 
English m addition To a hoy so educated even an elementary knowledge of 
English is of unquestionable value, not only by reason of the mental training 
which its acquisition has involved, but also in regard to his business or other 
relations with the outer world It may be added that the experience of the 
Education Department m Bengal offers a remarkable contrast with that of 
officers in the Central Provinces, as described in the passage quoted at the 
beginning of this paragraph That which led the Bengal Department first of 
all to consider the feasibility of the change was the marked superiority, at the 
Entrance examination, of those pupils who had joined the high school with 
vernacular, compared with those who came with English scholarships In Cal 
cutta again, where the freest choice is open, both to pupils in selecting a 
school, and to managers m determining what constitution will make their school 
most popular, it is found that all the great middle schools of the city are purely 
vernacular , and that a largo majority of the pupils m the Hindu school, ex 
eluding those who have been educated therein from the beginning, come from 
vernacular and not from English schools TVo have dwelt at some length on 



CHAP. V.] SECONDARY EDUCATION', 211 

tho example of Bengal, because it is in that Province that the question has 
been most f ally and frequently discussed, and the widest experience of oppo- 
site systems gained. Wo do not put forivard any definite recommend, 
atura on this subject, but at {he same timo we commend its consideration, in 
the light of the observations abore made, both to Local Governments and 
Departments, and in an equal degree to the managers of aided and unaided 
secondary schools. It is a question in the decision of which much must depend 
on local circumstances ; and hence the freest scope in dealing with it should 
be left to the managers of schools, whatever be the view which the Depart- 
ment in any Province may bo disposed to adopt. 

251. Schools exclusively Vernacular,— It has been shown that in 

several Provinces of India purely vernacular schools are either recognised or 
may bo regarded as forming part of the secondary system; and that in one 
Province, the Punjab, recognition is given to high as well as to middle 
rcmacnlar schools. We entirely concur in the principle which underlies this 
classification, and which has indeed been explicitly declared in the Despatch 
of 1854, that schools in which no English is taught may, if then* standard 
of instruction in other subjects is sufficiently high, be placed in the same 
rank with English schools. One point, however, it seems desirable to notice. 
In the North- Western Provinces and the Punjab, where, as in Bengal, verna- 
cular schools of secondary instruction are expressly recognised, the study of 
English is replaced by other equivalent subjects, such as a classical language, 
or a hisfher standard of mathematics, or both. We arc inclined to think that 
some such equivalent substitution would strengthen the middle schools of 
Bengal. Under present arrangements, the standard of middle vernacular 
schools in that Province is Iowa* than that of middle English schools by the 
whole subject of English; and accordingly, in the examination for middle 
scholarships, a higher limit of ago is fixed for English than for vernacular 
candidates. We would suggest that such a distinction is unnecessary ; and 
that if vernacular schools (or at any rate the most advanced of the class) arc 
to take their true place in the secondary system, tho course should be amplified 
by the addition of subjects forming a fair equivalent to English, — either Sans- 
krit or Persian (for a scholarly knowledge of the vernacular), or algebra (with a 
vioir to improved arithmetic), or both. These subjects form an important part 
of the course in Normal school's in Bengal, and no difficulty would arise on that 
score ; indeed, they once formed part of the middle school course, until Sir 
George Campbell's reforms in 1872 attempted to give a more practical character 
to the instruction in those schools. At the same time we are far from saying 
that the final standard for middle vernacular schools in Bengal (to be described 
in a subsequent paragraph) is not high enough to justify the inclusion of those 
schools under the head of secondary; and if the suggestion that we have made 
be adopted, it would bo for the Local Government to consider whether it should 
not be adopted as an alternative merely, so as to allow of that variety in educa- 
tional institutions wMnh, within necessary limits, is recognised as encouraging 
private cfFort and as facilitating educational progress. On this subject, also, we 
therefore make* no definite Recommendation. 

252. Middle Schools : their different Aims.-In the preceding para. 

graphs we havo described the character of middle schools at their initial stage; 
and we have shown that, alike in the standard and in the method of instruction 
there is no exact correspondence between different Provinces. We shall now 
show that as the coursoin middle schools advances towards its higher stages, 
the divergence continues and is even increased. As has been indicated m a 
previous paragraph, it arises partly from initial differences in the standard, and 



gjQ EEPORT OP THE EDUCATION COMMISSION. . [CHAP. V. 

special subjects of study ; and, by enlarging their stock o£ English words and forms 
of expression, to prepare them more thoroughly for the Entrance examination and 
the subsequent University course. The more English reading they got, the better 
English scholars they would be ; while the study of English was continued long 
enough to enable them to profit by instruction in other subjects conveyed 
through that language. The force of this argument is denied by some ; though 
it may be accepted so far as it applies to the method of instruction in high 
schools— understanding that term to Bignify the upper classes reading for the 
Entrance examination. By the time a pupil arrives at that stage of instruc- 
tion, he may he assumed to have advanced so far, both in English and in other 
subjects, as to be able to profit by instruction conveyed in a foreign tongue. 
The point is much less clear in the case of middle schools, in which, speaking 
generally* a pupil enters for the first time upon the study of history, science, 
and mathematics, concurrently with English, If all these subjects are taught 
through English, instead of through the pupil's own vernacular, — just as, 
under earlier systems of instruction, Latin and Greek were taught to English boys, 
not through English but through Latin, — it is to be feared that his progress in 
them will he slow. Proficiency in English will, in fact, be gained at the ex- 
pense of his general education. When, indeed, a pupil passes from the middle 
to the high school, a compensating condition arises in the fact that his greater 
familiarity with English will enable him to advance with more rapid steps 
in his other subjects, which are at that stage to be taught through Eng- 
lish. A similar consideration may be held to apply to those high schools 
m Bengal in which English is + aught from the earliest primary stage, and is 
employed as the medium of instruction almost from the outset. Every pupil 
in these schools is practically reading for the Entrance examination ; and the 
question of any disadvantage which he might suffer if his education, so con* 
ducted, came to an end at an earlier stage, hardly arises. It is different, how- 
ever, with the course and the pupils in middle schools* The question cannot be 
argued on the assumption that every pupri in a middle school goes on in due 
course to a high school ; the reverse is notoriously the case. In Bengal, for 
example, it is known that the great majority of the pupils of middle English 
schools complete their education therein. Hence it becomes of the utmost 
importance to consider whether, to such pupils, the use of English or of the 
vernacular is most advantageous as the medium of instruction. For them, at 
any rate, it would appear that the employment of the vernacular is preferable, 
A boy would in such a case receive a sound vernacular education suited to his 
station in life, and he would acquire a useful, if elementary, knowledge of 
English in addition. To a boy so educated even an elementary knowledge of 
English is of unquestionable value, not only hy reason of the mental training 
which its acquisition has involved, but also in regard to his business or other 
relations with the outer world. It may be added that the experience of the 
Education Department in Bengal offers a remarkable contrast with that of 
officers in the Central Provinces, as described in the passage quoted at the 
beginning of this paragraph. That which led the Bengal Department first of 
all to consider the feasibility of the change was the marked superiority, at the 
Entrance examination, of those pupils who had joined the high school with 
vernacular, compared with those who came with English scholarships. In Cal- 
cutta, again, where the fieest choice is open, both to pupils in selecting a 
school, and to managers m determining what constitution will make their school 
most popular, it is found that all the great middle schools of the city are purely 
vernacular ; and that a large majority of the pupils in the Hindu school, ex- 
cluding those who have been educated therein from the beginning come from 
vernacular and not from English schools. We have dwelt at same length on 



raAr ' V.] SECONDARY EDTJCAttOJf. 2X1 

tho example of Bengal, becauso it is in that Province that the question has 
been most fully and frequently discussed, and the widest experience of oppo- 
site systems gained. We do not pat forward any definite recommend- 
ation on this subject, hut at the same time we commend its consideration, in 
the light of the observations above made, both to Local Governments and 
Departments, and in an equal degree to the managers of aided and unaided 
secondary schools. It is a question in the decision of which much must depend 
on local circumstances ; and hence the freest scope in dealing with it should 
bo left to the managers of schools, whatever be the view which the Depart- 
ment in any Provinco may be disposed to adopt, 

251, Schools exclusively Vernacular.— It has been shown that in 

several Provinces of India purely vernacular schools are either recognised or 
may be regarded as forming part of the secondary system ; and that in one 
Province, the Punjab, recognition is given to high as well as to middle 
vernacular schools, "We entirely concur in the principle which underlies this 
classification, and which has indeed been explicitly declared in the Despatch 
of 1854, that schools in uhich no English is taught may, if their standard 
of instruction in other subjects is sufficiently high, be placed in the same 
rank with English schools. One point, however, it seems desirable to notice. 
In the North- Western Provinces and the Punjab, where, as in Bengal, verna- 
cular schools of secondary instruction are expressly recognised, the study of 
English is replaced by other equivalent subjects, such as a classical language, 
or a higher standard of mathematics, or both, "Wo are inclined to think that 
some such equivalent substitution would strengthen the middle schools of 
Bengal. Under present arrangements, the standard o£ middle vernacular 
schools in that Province is lower than that of middle English schools by the 
whole subject of English; and accordingly, in the examination for middle 
scholarships, a higher limit of age is fixed for English than for vernacular 
candidates. We would suggest that such a distinction is unnecessary ; and 
that if vernacular schools (or at any rate the most advanced of the class) are 
to take their true place in the secondary system, the course sfiouW he amp/ifietf 
by the addition of subjects forming a fair equivalent to English,— either Sans- 
krit or Persian (for a scholarly knowledge of the vernacular), or algebra (with a 
view to improved arithmetic), or both. These subjects form an important part 
of the course in Normal schools in Bengal, and no difficulty would arise on that 
score ; indeed, they once formed part of the middle school course, until Sir 
George Campbell's reforms in 1872 attempted to give a more practical character 
to the instruction in those schools. At the same time we are far from saying 
that the final standard for middle vernacular schools in Bengal (to be described 
in a subsequent paragraph) is not high enough to justify the inclusion of those 
schools under the head of secondary ; and if the suggestion that wo have made 
be adopted, it would be for the Local Government to consider whether it should 
aot be adopted as an alternative meielv, so as to allow of that variety in educa- 
tional institutions which, witliin necessary limits, is recognised as encouraging 
private effort and as facilitating educational progress. On this subject, also, we 
therefore make* no definite Recommendation. 

252. Madule Schools : their different Aims.~ln the preceding para- 

graphs we have described the cliaracter of middle schools at their initial stage , 
and v, e have shown that, alike in the standard and in the method of instruction 
there is no exact correspondence between different Provinces. We shall nou 
show that as the course in middle schools advances towards its higher stages, 
the divergence continues and is even increased. As has been indicated in a 
previous paragraph, it arises partly from initial differences in the standard, and 



212 



llEPOrr OF THE EDIT CATION COMMISSION' 



[CHAP V. 



partly too (though in a much lower degree) from differences in the final standard 
of matriculation , hut chiefly from the different news that may be taken of the 
place and purpose of middle schools m the secondary system Are they to be 
regarded as feeders to high schools, their course of instruction being ultimately 
governed by the requirements of the Entrance examination ? or do they occupy 
an independent position, their studies having no relation to those prescribed by 
the University, and being determined by the separate requirements of pupils, 
whose education terminates at tint stage ? In most Provinces both alternatives 
are moie or less fully accepted The middle school, m one of its forms, leads on 
directly to the high school course , and m another (whether that form be ex- 
phcitly recognised or not as coming within the sphere of secondary instruction), 
it prepares pupils for a standaid independent of the University The mdepend 
ent status of middle schools is, however, more generally recognised in connec- 
tion with vernacular than with English education , and for the most part, a 
pupil learning English in a middle school must learn it in a way determined by 
the requirements of the Entrance examination But in some Pro^ inces the 
course of mstiuction m middle schools affords their pupils an opportunity of 
gaining some acquaintance with English independently of University standards 
In Bombay, for example, the fifth or final standard of middle schools, the 
passing of which m the first class qualifies a candidate for the upper grades of 
the subordinate public service, is theoretically identical with the coi responding 
standard of high schools, which is governed by the matriculation examination 
commg two years later But in practice important modifications are allowed 
Thus in those Government Anglo-vernacular schools which are called " mde- 
" pendent, 3 a standard History of India may be read mstead of the prescribed 
English authors , less time may also be given to the classical language, and 
more to the vernacular These provisions, coupled with the requirement of 
the u Sanitary Pinner " from all candidates for the public service, impart a 
certain degree of elasticity to the standard In Bengal, English may be 
optionally added to the course in any middle vernacular school f that course 
being altogether determined by the requuements of pupils who, without wish- 
ing to go on to the Umversitj , seek a better education than is given in nUige 
schools But m the middle schools of lladias the North Western Provinces, 
the Pun]ab a and the Central Provinces, there is no standard of English alto- 
gether independent of the Entrance examination 

253- Middle Schools independent of University Standards —Having 

regard to all these differences of practice, we aie of opinion that no advantage 
is gamed by insisting on uniformity in the course of instruction m middle 
schools , but that the adoption of an alternative standard or standards answers 
a real need In paragraph VJ of the Resolution appointing the Commission 
this question is referred torn the following terms "The great majority of 
*' those who prosecute their studies beyond the primary stage will nevei go 
" beyond the curriculum of the middle, or at furthest of the Jhigh schools 
" It is therefore of the utmost importance tiiat the education they receive 
"should be as thorough nnd sound as possible " The passage quoted touches 
another question, to be discussed hereafter, namely, the institution of a second 
standard m high schools for those pupils who do not intend to proceed to 
the University But it has an equal bearmg on the point which we are now 
considering, inasmuch as it declares the principle tbat the instruction in any 
class of schools should provide for the requirements of those who go no further 
Some pupils look forward to a University career, their instruction in the 
middle stage must, therefore, he governed by University standards There 
are others whose education, though going beyond the pnmary, will terminate 
at tbe middle stage f and m their ease no such requirement exists Some ot 



CHAP. T.] SEC£»TURT EDUCATION. 213 

these last may require elementary instruction in English ; others will not value 
it, or are not in a position to pay for it. In hoth cases alike the course of in- 
struction should correspond with the social status of tho pupils, and the general 
character of their occupations in after-life. They arc ahovc the status of the 
cultivator or the petty trader, and therefore require, since they have time for it, 
a course of instruction containing more liberal elements; they are not destined 
for a professional or literary career, and tlieref ore may rightly look for a more 
practical training, into which an elementary course of English may or may not 
enter. In this connection we may refer to the following passage from the evi- 
dence of a witness quoted in the Madras Provincial Report, page 94 : "There 
"is a large class of people, such as merchants with native constituents, who 
" care nothing for English. If there was an examination, not quite so hard at 
"first as the middle school examination, hut gradually raised to such a standard, 
"serving as a test for admission to vernacular appointments under Government, 
" a great impetus would be given to vernacular education." The Madras Pro- 
vincial Committee remarks to the same effect (Report, page 160): "The 
" middle school examination can be passed by a candidate ignorant of English ; 
" hut such candidates are regarded as exceptions, and must obtain special pcr- 
" mission. If the scheme wero eo modified as to give the same facilities to vcr- 
"nacular candidates as to those who know English, it seems probablo that a 
" considerable impetus would be given to middle school education in the verna- 
" cular, especially for pupils who do not go beyond," 

254. Final Standards of middle Schools. — VTith these observations 

we proceed to consider and compare tho final standards of middles cliools, distin- 
guishing vernacular standards from those which include a knowledge of English ; 
and in tho latter distinguishing those which are independent of, from those 
which are dominated by, the University course. 

Hatlras. — In Madras there is a single final standard for middle schools two 
years below the Entrance examination. It includes the follow ing subjects :— 

1. English : Eifth Reader, with dictation, translation, and grammar. 

2. Vernacular : composition, translation, and grammar. 

3. (o) Arithmetic : to compound proportion and simple interest. 

(b) Algebra : to end of fractions. 

(c) Euclid : Book I. 

4. Geography: Asia, Europe, and part of India; map-drawing. 

5. History: India (part), and England to Henry VIII. 

Bombay.— ^ Bombay tho third standard of middle schools is that for 
admission to the high school course of four years, and might therefore he sup- 
posed to mark the close of the middle school course. But it will be convenient 
to consider the fifth standard, which in middle schools is that of qualificafwrt 
for the upper grades of the public service, and in high schools comes hro renrv 
below matriculation, as mariang tho boundary between the middh; and the high 
stage of instruction. Tim standard is as follows, the examination bemg con- 
ducted in English throughout 

1 English: Standard authors; 100 pages of pro«e, 450 line* of poetry; 
dictation, grammar, translation, composition, and recitation. 
(a) Vernacular: a standard author, trai Nation, composition, grammar, 
and recitation. 

(J) Classical language : elementary Sanskrit, latin, or Persian.^ 



211 



BBPORT or THE EDUCATION COTH3IISSION 



[CTUT. T. 



3. (a) Arithmetic : to square and cube root. 

(&) Algebra: tho four rules (with Integral terms), 
(c) Euclid : Book I* 

4. Geography : the world, with special knowledge of British Foreign 

Possessions; general knowledge of other portions of the globe; 
map-drawing from memory of any country in Asia, 

5. History : history of India, and England to Henry YIIL 

6. Cuningham's Sanitary Primer, 

This is the standard in high schools, and hears a close relation to tho Entrance 
standard two years later. In " independent " middle schools, which read more 
exclusively for the public service examination, a standard history of India may 
he read instead of the English text-books, and the classical language may be 
replaced by a fuller course of tho vernacular. There are also optional subjects, 
such as agriculture, theoretical and practical, and drawing. 

The vernaculai* standard, qualifying for the lower grades of the public ser- 
vice, which is the sixth or final standard of p^ mar y schools, but which vre 
have referred to as belonging in one aspect to the secondary system, includes 
tho following necessary subjects* to which elementary drawing and practical 
agriculture may be optionally added : — 

1. Vernacular - Sixth Reader; grammar and recitation; letter- writing 

in the local character and reading the current hand. 

2. (a) Arithmetic : tho whole ; native accounts and book-keeping. 
(&) Euclid : Book I. 

3. Geography: general, and elementary physical ; India in some detail; 

map-drawing. 

4 History : India and its government, 
5. Sanitary Primer. 

It may he repeated that the only ground for referring to this standard under 
the head of secondary instruction lies in the fact that it is two years beyond the 
standard of admission to middle schools (or ordinary primary standard), and 
corresponds in point of time to the third standard in such schools. On the other 
hand, as the latter standard has been treated in the preceding paragraphs as that 
which marks in Bombay tbe beginning of secondary instruction, and as there is 
nothing in the subjects enumerated above which is really inconsistent with 
primary instruction as commonly understood in its higher stages, there is no 
actual necessity to regard the standard in question as coming within the 
secondary system. Moreover, it has always been regarded by the Government 
of Bombay as marking the highest development of their primary system, and 
as giving effect to their policy of providing in village schools a good elementary 
education suited to the wants of a progressive society. Taking this view of the 
case, there will practically he only one standard for middle schools in Bombay, 
o£ winch English forms a necessary part. 1 

Bengal, — In Bengal a very different method is pursued. There are three 
separate standards for pupils in middle schools or departments of schools, of 
uhich two include English and one is purely vernacular. One English and 
one vernacular standard are complete in themselves, and have no relation to 
any higher course. We shall first describe the standard that marks the close 
of the middle stage in high schools, two years below matriculation— 

i, English: Robinson Crusoe or other similar book ; Poetical Reader ; 
translation and grammar. 

• Tux fuller deUilu tee paragraph 173, Chapter TV, 



CHAP. T.J SECOSfDAE-T EDUCATION. ' 215 

2, (a) Vernacular; or 

(b) Sanskrit: Bijnpath, Part II; and Pafra-kaumadi, Part II. 
Translation and re^translation of vernacular. 

3. (a) Arithmetic: to proportion and interest 
(£) Algebra: first four rules. 

(0) Euclid : Books I and II. 

4- Geography: general; map-drawing. 

5. History : CreighWs Some or other historical primer. 

For independent middle schools reading, not for any high school standard 
hut for that of the middle scholarship examination, the following subjects aie 
prescribed : — 

English: Xethhridge's Easy Selections from Alodern English Litera- 
ture, or any book of a similar standard of AiMculty; translation, 
dictation, grammar, lccitation of poetry, 

2 t Vernacular: composition and grammar. 

3, (a) Arithmetic : the whole, and native arithmetic, 
(6) Euclid : Book I. 
{c) Mensuration ; to triangular areas, 

4- Geography: general and physical, with special knowledge of India; 
map-drawing, 

5, History : India, and outlines of general history. 

6. Additional subjects : preservation of health, and the "Sanitary Pri- 

" mer/' in addition to one of the following- 
fa) Elements of natural philosophy, 
(6) ft hotany* 

\d) t} chemistry. 

In middle vernacular schools the course is the same, with the exclusion of 
English, In schools of both classes, no te^t-books are prescribed in English or 
in the vernacular language* 

North- Western Provinces and Gudh.— The following are the subjects 

of the Anglo-vernacular middle class examination, corresponding to the 7th 
standard of English schools, and two years below matriculation : — 

1* English: Lethhridge's Easy Selections; dictation, translation, and 
grammar* 

2. (a) Vernacular; or 

(#) Sanskrit or Persian. 

Vernacular translation and composition. 

3. (a) Arithmetic: fo decimals and compound proportion, 
(fi) Algehra: to easy simple equations* 

Euclid: Books I and II 

4. Geography : India and general. 

5. History: India to 1857. 

& Additional subjects ; physical geography, and the " Sanitary Pri- 
"mer." 

In middle vernacular schools, the following are substituted for English 
and algehra : a fuller course in Persian, Urdu, or Hindi; more advanced arith- 
metic; mensuration ; and a primer of physical science or physiology- 

Punjab -The final standard of middle schools is the third, which as in 



216 



HEPOE/T OT THE EDUCATION COMMISSION 



[CHAP. V, 



previous cases is two years below matriculation- The English standard com- 
prises the following : — 

1 . English : Lethbridge'fl Easy Selections ; Poetical Reader ; transla- 

tiou and grammar* 

2. (a) Urdu: dictation and essays. 
(J) Persian selections. 

3. (a) Arithmetic : the whole, 
(6) Mensuration - 

4. Geography : the world. 

5. History: India. 

6. Optional subjects : Arabic, Sanskrit, or elementary physics 

In the middle vernacular examination, Euclid and algebra are substituted 
for English. This alternative standard is, it will he remembered, not strictly 
an " independent u one, as it is governed by the requirements of the matri- 
culation, examination of the Punjab University, to be passed two years later. 

Central Provinces. — As in Bombay, there are no middle vernacular 
schools; but the addition of a fifth and sixth standard to the ordinary 
course in primary schools may be held to supply their place. This standard 
includes the following subjects, the course in Hindi schools being taken as a 
type . Selections from the Ramayan, with dictation and grammar ; the whole 
of arithmetic ; the first hook of Euclid, algebra to simple equations, and men- 
suration; geography, general and physical, with map-drawing, the history of 
India, Hindu and English periods , and the elements of physical science. This 
is a good standard, and the schools in which it is taught may he fairly regarded 
as coming within the sphere of secondary education. 

The middle schools properly so called are those in which the course ter- 
minates two years below matriculation In these schools English is a neces- 
sary part of the course f and^ as before stated* English is also the medium of 
instruction. The subjects of instruction are given below : — ■ 

1 . English : Eoyal Reader No. Ill ; grammar, dictation, and compo 

sition. 

2. (a) Vernacular: as in the fifth class of primary schools. 
(6) Sanstrit or Persian, where the staff is able to teach it, 

3. (a) Arithmetic: the whole. 

(6) Algebra : to simple equations, / 
(c) Euclid : to L 33. 

4. Geography of the world, and map-drawing ; elementary physical 

geography. 

5. History of India : Muhammadan period. 

Other Provinces. — The course in middle schools of 'the other Provinces 
of India presents no special points of interest- The middle schools of Coorg 
generally Tesemble those of lladras, with the exception that Huxley's Intro- 
ductory Primer of Science forms part of the final standard, Assam follows 
the lead of Bengal with some modifications, and Berar that of Bombay. 

255. Middle Schools ; Summary —On the whole, we find little complaint 

or cause of complaint with regard to tho course of instruction given in middle 
schools throu ghout India Differences there are, but they are only such as naturally 
follow from the independent growth of separate systems under diverse conditions s 
and we see no advantage in any attempt to secure uniformity by reducing to 
a common type systems differing in detail but of acknowledged value. We 
attach the highest importance to what is described, in paragraph 10 of the 
Resolution appointing the Commission, as " that freedom and variety of cduca- 



cmr. v,] secoxjuet education. 217 

« tioa irliick is an essential condition in any sound and complete educational 
"system;" and Tre entirely concur in the view therein expressed that "it is 
"not a healthy symptom that all the youth of the country should he east as it 
" Tvere, in the same Government educational mould. " TVe desire to confirm and 
enforce that principle by repeating the suggestion already made, that the 
interests of pupils desire education above the primary standard Tvill be 
more fully seeured, if a difference is recognised between those who look to the 
matriculation examination and a subsequent career at the TTniversity, and 
those whose education stops short of the matriculation standard. It may 
he said that in general they represent two different social classes, with differ- 
ent aims in life, and therefore with different requirements in the way of educa- 
tion to fit them £ot their respective callings. The bearing of these remarks will 
bo more fully seen when we come to consider the question of an alternative 
standard for high schools different from that of the University* 

256. Pinal Standards of high Schools-—^ hare now noticed the 

various points in which the several classes of middle schools throughout India 
differ from one another, and we have seen that they exhibit nothing like uniform- 
ity or approach to a common type. 'With high schools, however* this diver- 
gence comes practically to an end. The course in every high school is deter- 
mined by the matriculation standard of one or other of the Indian Universities, 
and it is only in so far as these standards differ from one an of her that any 
divergence is found. It remains therefore to 'compare those standards- 
Madras. — The standard comprises the following subjects : — 
{x.) English* — One paper on the prescribed text-hooks ; the other con- 
taining a passage from tbe text-books for paraphrase, and questions 
on the language generally* 
QriiONAL language* — The list comprises five classical languages 
(Oriental and European) and sis vernacular. One paper con- 
tains questions on the text-books and on the grammar and idiom 
the Issgusge selected ; the other eossist* passages Jar 
translation from and to English into and from that language, 
and in the case^f vernacular languages, of original composition* 

(3.) Hathematics — > 

(a) Arithmetic, including proportion, decimals, and interest. 

(b) Algebra, to simple equations. 

{c) Euclid, Books I— III, with easy deductions, 

(4.) General knowledge — 

(a) Tho History of India* 

(6) General geography, and India in detail, 

{<?) Bo^fcoe's Primer of Chemistry. 

(d) Balfour Stewart's Primer of Physics, 

Bombay— The standard comprises— 

(1.) English.— text-books are prescribed ; but the books usually rend 
in a high school are of the following kind : An easy play of 
Shakespeare; a book of ParadheZost or one of the shorter poems 
of Alilton; a poem of Cowper or TVordsworth, such as the Tatk or 
the JBrntrsion ; or a prose work such as an Essay of 3facauhty, 
or WasHngton Irving's SUtch-HooL The piper includes (a) one 
or more passages of English verse for paraphrase, or (as an alter* 
native) one or more passages in the candidate's vernacular for 
translation into English ; (fi) questions in grammar, composition, 
and analysis. 



55 



218 



REPORT OF THE EDUCATION COHM1S310N. 



[chap, t 



(2 ) Optional language. — The list comprises six classical languages 
(Oriental and European) and five vernacular, with French and 
Portuguese. No text-books are prescribed ; the paper is of a simi- 
lar character to the above* 

(3.) Mathematics — 

(a) Arithmetic, the whole ; the examples to be worked from first 

principles and not merely by rules, 
(J) Algebra, to simple equations, 
(c) Euclid, Books I— IV, with easy deductions. 

(4.) General knowledge — 

(#) History of England and of India, 

(i) Elementary geography, physical, political, and mathematical* 
(c) Elementary knowledge of the mechanical powers, 
{d) Elementary chemistry. 
(<?) Outline of the solar system* 

In English every candidate is also examined viva voce. 

Calcutta* — The standard comprises — 

(k) English* — A short prose text-book is prescribed, of which candi- 
dates are required td show accurate knowledge and understanding ; 
but they are expected to have read a much Wider course in English, 
One paper is confined to the text-book; the other contains 
general questions on grammar and idiom, 

(2,) Optional language. — The list comprises seven classical languages 
(Oriental and European) and six vernacular, including Burmese 
and Armenian. Text-boots are prescribed for each language; and, 
except in the case of thoss who tale up Greek or Latin, every 
candidate is required to translate, into some vernacular language 
of India* passages of English, of considerable length Mid diffi- 
culty which he has not previously seen* 

(3.) Mathematics — 

(0) Arithmetic, including proportion, decimals, and interest. 
(6) Algebra, to simple equations* 
(c) Euclid, Books I — IV, with easy deductions. 
{d) The mensuration of plane surfaces, including the theory of 
surveying with the chain, 

(4-) HlSTOUT AKD GeoGHAPHT — 

(a) History of England and of India, 
(5) General geography, 
(c) Physical geography. 

257. Comparison of the Standards in the different Universities — 

AVe do not think it necessary to go into any detailed examination of these 
standards for the purpose of estimating theic relative difficulty. In past 
controversies on this question, the Bombay educational authorities have main- 
tained that their standard is more difficult and requires a more advanced course 
o£ reading than those of other Universities, "We shall hereafter see that 
the course for the B.A, degree occupies only three years in Bombay, whDe 
four years are required in the other Universities, On the assumption, therefore, 
that the E JL standards are equivalent in the three Universities, the contention 



CHAP, V.] 



secondary education. 



219 



o! the Bombay authorities \s onld appear to be made out. It lias also been 
seen that the course in Bombay, from the alphabet to matriculation, occupies 
a longer period than in Madras or Bengal ; and in comparing the courses of 
instruction in middle schools and departments, we have generally pointed to 
a somewhat higher degree of difficulty as characterising the Bombay standards, 
both initial and final. On the other hand, it is alleged that pupils from schools 
in the Central Provinces, some of whom attend the matriculation examination 
of the Bombay and others of the Calcutta University, find the attainment of 
the B.A. degree a matter of equal difficulty, whether they have matriculated 
at Bombay or at Calcutta. There is, however, one feature of the matriculation 
examination in Bombay which is peculiar to that University, namely, the 
introduction of a vimf voce test ; and though that is a question, not of the 
standard but of its application, yet as it is alleged to bo fatal to 20 per cent, 
of those -who have already satisfied the written test, such a requirement cer- 
tainly increases the difficulty of passing. At the same time, the difficulty of 
standards is so much a matter of interpretation by individual examiners, that 
we regard it as an unprofitable task to attempt to compare in detail those of tlie 
three Universities. "We content ourselves with expressing the opinion that each 
of them affords a satisfactory course of instruction for students in secondary 
schools who intend to proceed to the University. "We note, however, that tho 
Bengal Provincial Committee have expressed the opinion that " the standard 
"of tho Entrance examination appears to be below that attainable in present 
" circumstances by high schools, and a reference might be made to the University 
"as to tho advisability of revising- and raising it, with tho object of strengthen. 
"ing the secondary schools of the country." It will be observed that tho course 
at Calcutta, while it includes mensuration, surveying, and a text-book of 
physical geography, has nothing of experimental science, differing in this point 
from the other two Universities. In Bombay a wide range of general knowledge 
is expected of a candidate, a requirement which has not satisfied all critics ; for 
example, Mr. Justice "West remarks, in speaking of this part of the course : 
"In physics and natural science the deficiency is simply lamentable, and general 
"information means general ignorance.'* Any -further consideration of these 
questions must, however, bo left to the Universities concerned. 

The course in vernacular high schools reading for tho Entrance examin- 
ation of the Punjab University is of a somewhat similar standard of difficulty. 
The subjects of instruction are — 

(1) Persian. 

(2) Arabic or Sanskrit. 

(3) History of England and of India. 

(4) Mathematics and elementary science. 

The text-books and the course of instruction arc vernacular throughout. 
Candidates are admitted to the examination without restriction as to their place 
of education, 

258. Proposals for an alternative Standard in high Schools.— 

Throughout India high schools have hitherto been regarded not only or chiefly 
as schools for secondary instruction, intended for pupils whose education will 
terminate at that stage, but in a much greater degree— it raiy almost bo said 
exclusively— as preparatory schools for those who arc to become students of the 
University. It has been seen that middle schools comprise two well-marked 

classes, those in which the scheme of studies is, and those in which it is not, 

governed by University standards. "With one exception which will be presently 
noticed, no such distinction exists in the case of high schools, in all of 
which the course of instruction is determined by the matriculation standard, 
which again is arranged solely with a view to subsequent University studies. 
• One of the questions put to witnesses before the Commission ran as follows : 



220 



REP0KT Or TEE EDUCATION CpmilSSION 



[chap, t 



" Is the attention of teachers and pupils in secondary schools unduly directed 
" to the Entrance examination of the University ? '* The replies to this ques- 
tion are singularly unanimous* It has heen felt in all Provinces, and urged 
hy many witnesses, that the attention of students is too exclusively directed 
to University studies, and that no opportunity is offered for the development 
of what corresponds to the "modern side " of schools in Europe- It is believed 
that there is a real need in India for some corresponding course which 
shall fit boys for industrial or commercial pursuits, at the age when they 
commonly matriculate, more directly than is effected by the present system 
The University looks upon the Entrance examination, not as a test of fitness for 
the duties of daily life, but rather as a means of ascertaining whether the 
candidate has acquired that amount of general information and that degree of 
mental discipline which will enable him to profit by a course of liberal or profes- 
sional instruction. In these circumstances, it appears to be the unquestionable 
duty of that Department of the State which has undertaken the control of 
education, to recognise the present demand for educated labour in all branches " 
of commercial and industrial activity, and to meet it so far as may be possible 
with the means at its disposal. The Honourable Mr Justice West, Vice- 
Chancellor of the University of Bombay, has expressed his views on this point in 
the following terms . "The preparation for ordinary business may with advantage 
" proceed up to a certain point along the same course as that for literature 
<( and science. It is a defect of our system, as I understand it, that it does 
" not provide for a natural transition to the further studies which may be the 
<c most proper for a man of business, nor even propose to encourage and conduct 
" such studies. "When a boy reaches the age of about fourteen bo may have 
,f plainly shown that he has not the gifts that would make him a good subject 
" for literary culture. His tastes or his circumstances may disincline him to 
*' be an engineer or chemist. He ought not then to be forced on in a line in 
M which failure is almost certain. He should be put to wovk+on matters that he 
" really can master unless quite exceptionally dull, such as arithmetic, rudiment- 
" ary economics, mercantile geography, the use of manures, or others determined 
" by the locality of the school and its needs* . - , The extension of this know- 
" ledge should be along those lines where it will bo grasped and incorporated by 
f( the interests and teachings of active life, Still it should be education, aiming 
" at making the mind robust and flexible, rather than at shabbily decking it with 
£< some rags of ' business information * or low technic skill. 3?or these different 
" aims the present system makes no sufficient or distinct provision," TVe do not 
attempt to define the course of instruction which might be imparted in^ 
schools of the kind suggested. The Departments in many Provinces have 
dealt satisfactorily with the question of independent courses in middle schools ; 
and it may well he left to them, in consultation with school managers 
and others interested in education, to determine the character and consfitu* 
tion of similar schools of a more advanced kind. Indeed, to attempt to 
fix a course for ,f independent " high schools would be to fall into an error 
of precisely the same character as that against which the proposal is directed ; 
it would be to substitute one uniform course for another* But what is now 
chiefly needed is variety ; so that the educational system as a whole may be 
such as more fully to meet the needs of a complex state of society. Not 
would the introduction of the proposed alternative course into high schools 
involve any great expenditure ; for the bifurcation of studies need not take place 
until the student is within two years of the Entrance examination, — that is> 
until he has been eight or nine years at school. Ilis studies in the middle depart- 
ment will be sufficiently practical to prepare him for those he will take up 
in the modern side, sufficiently liberal to fall in with those of the academical 
side It may be added that, with the establishment of these schools, full recog* 
nition would be given to the salutary principle that the course of instruction 



CHAP. V.] SECONDARY EDUCATION. , 221 

in schools of every class should he complete in itself. The Madras Provincial 
Committee draws attention to the fact that little more than half of those who 
pass the matriculation examination of that University proceed to the Erst Arts 
standard ; and though the disparity is less conspicuous in other Provinces— in 
Bengal, indeed, it is stated that more than 90 per cent, of those who matricu- 
late aro admitted to colleges— yet it is prohahle that in all Provinces the insti- 
tution of the alternative standard would meet the popular wishes and answer a 
real need. We therefore recommend that in the tipper classes of high schools 
there he tico divisions; one leading to the Entrance examination of the Zfni- 
vertities, the other of a more practical character^ intended to fit youths for 
commercial or non-Uterary pursuits. It will be observed that the considerations 
which we have adduced in reference to this Recommendation apply Tvith equal 
force to separate schools and to separate departments of schools. 

The single exception to which reference lias heen made is found in Bombay. 
In that Province children of agriculturists are encouraged by scholarships of 
• the value of Us. 4 a month to attend the model farms connected irith hiffli 
schools, for instruction in practical agriculture. The course includes chemis- 
try, physics, botany, physical geography and geology; besides which the 
student may take up land-surveying and physiology. There are also many 
drawing-classes, attendance at which is voluntary ; they are attached to Gov- 
ernment schools alone, but students of other schools are encouraged to attend 
them. Certificates of two grades are given ; and school-masters who hold the 
qualifying certificates and teach drawing in their own schools receive an addi- 
tional grant. 

259. Recognition by Government of accepted Standards.— As to the 

encouragement and recognition that may be afforded to the proposed alterna- 
tive course, different opinions have been expressed. The Bombay Provincial 
Committee believes that it would not bo possible to organise a " modern side " 
in high schools without the co-operation of the University. On tho other 
hand, a witness, whose opinions are quoted with approval by the Madras 
Provincial Committee, observes that it would be neither possible nor dcsirablo 
for the University to modify the matriculation exa mina tion so as to make it 
a test of fitness for the practical pursuits of life- But whatever action may be 
taken by the Universities on this question (a subject to which wo shall recur 
in our Chapter on Collegiate Education), it is at any rate clear that the 
Education Department in each Province can give efficient help towards the 
establishment of such schooK by declaring them eligible for grants-in-aid, and 
by instituting examinations to test the progress of pupils and giving certificates 
to those who pass. The success of these schools will, however, practically 
depend upon the market value of the education which they give. It is because 
we believe that a practical or commercial education of a high standard would in 
time acquire a real and independent market value, irrespective of any adven- 
titious aids, such as the recognition of tho certificate as qualifying for a Gov- 
ernment appointment, that we havo advocated the establishment of this class 
of schools. It is in tho last resort not to the University, nor to the Depart- 
ment, n« in any exclusive way to Government as the dispenser of pitronage, 
that these schools must loot for support. They will stand or fall according to 
the view which the employers of educated labour throughout the country may 
tike of their capacity to give a suitable training to youths intended for prac- 
tical occupations. Ia this point of view, much might be done to ensure tho 
public acceptance of the standard if tho Bailor Camp***, tin ■Binks , *>d 
other commercial associations or firms were consulted as to the kind of 
' education which in their opinion would be most useful to the cla ? of men 
they require. At the same time it is impossible to ignore tl* h*h laJuo 
Which the opinion of the country sets upon any certificate recognised as 



222 



t TEPOUT OF THE EDUCATION COIIJIISSIOK 



[CHAP T 



qualifying for admission to the public semce The lladras Provincial Com 
mittce quotes, as an accurate reflex of native opinion a reply given by one of 
the witnesses to the effect that no education will he appreciated unless it loots 
to an examination qualifying for Government employment We ire therefore, 
of opinion that recognition of this kind— not m any exclusn e way, but merely to 
the same extent that is desu able in the case of equivalent standards of instruction 
—should be accorded to the alternative standird that we propose to establish 
In any well organised system of public instruction the schools of the country 
should be capable of meeting the ordinary requirements alike of public and 
of private employers In considering what standard should be generally 
accepted as qualifying for the public service in its subordinate grades we 
have formed the opinion that the ordinary school standards are sufficient as a 
general rule, and independently of any special test that may be required 
in particular Departments TVe therefore recommend that when the proposed 
bifurcation, %n secondary schools ta cawetl oui, ike certificate of faming pamd 
bp the final standard, or tf necessary by any lower standard^ of either of the 
proposed alternative courses, be accepted as a sufficient general test of Jitness 
for the public service It will be understood that this Recommendation refers 
as a general rule rather to subordinate appointments, than to those offices of 
responsibility and emolument in which a high degree of intelligence is required, 
and for which a liberal education has been commonly thought necessary 

260 Misconceptions attaching to the Term 'High School— We 

have already shown at great length what different significations are attached to 
the term 'high school' In one Province it is understood as comprising two 
classes, m another four while in a third it contains pupils in every stage 
of instruction from the alphabet to matriculation We do not propose to alter 
as regards these differences any of the existing school systems wluch have been 
based on different models and have grown up in different circumstances 
Uniformity could not be secured except at a price out of all proportion to the 
advantages to he gamed It therefore becomes necessary to provide m some 
other way for the comparison of educational statistics in an accurate and 
intelligible form Accordingly we think it desirable to introduce mto the 
educational returns a Table showing the stage of advancement reached by 
pupils in all schools of general instruction, independently of the names that 
may be given to those schools in different Provinces A comparative state 
ment of the number of pupils m high schools is now altogether misleading, 
since many pupils who in most Provinces would bo shown as belonging to 
primary schools are in Bengal and Assam returned under high schools The 
proposed Table will supply the required correction and enable a true com 
panson to be drawn between one Provmce and another "We do not enter into 
any further detail upon this point, which has been discussed at length m the 
above sense by the Committee independently appomted for the Revision of 
Educational Tonus 

It is necessary to refer to another misconception to which the use of the 
term * high school ' is exposed In the discussions that have taken place in 
this country and still more in England as to the spread of Trhat is called 
high education in India the terms ' high school ' and * higli education ' have 
occasionally been treated as correlative It is hardly necessary to point 
out that, ths teim. ft4vws.at\fta * sa> {m ra \i has a feed signification 

at all, refers to the education given m colleges and is synonymous with 
' superior * or * University * education It seems undesirable to maintain the 
use of a term which is liable to an erroneous interpretation especially when it 
is remembered that in the earlier years following the receipt of the Despatch of 
iS 0 4, the term * high school wns applied and confined to institutions teaching 
to the First Arts standard,— that is, to second grade colleges as they are t now 



CHAP. V.] SECONDARY EBFCATTOiT. 223 

commonly called. Xn the Despatch itself (para. 43) schools of the class now 
called Li-h were ranked in the same class Trith purely vernacular schools, and 
were carefully distinguished from those institutions in which ' a hi-h decree of 
education ' was imparted, and which were to form the colleges affiliated °to the 
University. The only important division of institutions for general instruction 
is into the three classes of primary, secondaiy, and high or collegiate. Each of 
these main classes can be further subdivided, if necessary, into an npper and a 
lower section, a division that already exists in the case of primary instruction. 
Secondary schools may thus be conveniently divided into an upper and a lower 
branch ; and if the ■ high schools ' of the present classification be henceforward 
called 'npper secondary* or briefly * upper ' schools, little risk of confusion 
will arise. Middle schools, which will form the * lower secondary ' class, may 
retain their pie^ent name without inconvenience. We therefore recommend that 
high and iatddle schools he united in the returns under the single term Secondary 
schools' s and that the classification of pupds in secondary schools be provided 
form a separate Table showing the stage of instruction, whether primary* mid- 
dle t or upper i of pupils in all schools of primary and secondary education. 
This Recommendation will not interfere with the classification of secondary 
schools as ' upper ' and 'middle * respectively, if required by departmental con- 
venience. It only provides that in public returns required by the Government 
of India, the name ' high school ' shall be given to no institution in which the 
course of instruction does not go beyond the matriculation standard 

261. Bestilts of recognised Examinations —Having shown in the pre- 
ceding paragraphs what are the existing standards for middle imd high schools, 
as prescribed respectively by the Department and the University, we subjoin a 
Table showing the results of the authorised examinations, For those Provinces in 
which u double standard for middle schools exists* the results are amalgamated 
The figures, however, must be understood with the following important reserva- 
tion. The Table only shows the proportion of passed candidates to the number 
presented for examination; it docs not show the much more significant pro- 
portion of the number passed to the total number of students reading in the 
classes from ^hich tbo candidates came, This information was asked for by 
the Commission, but it could not be furnished by every Province* Yet it is 
clear that the latter proportion alone supplies a sufficient and satisfactory test 
of the general efficiency of the teaching. Probably in all Provinces a certain 
number of students are refused admission to the examination^ because they do 
not satisfy the preliminary test which each school generally applies in order 
that ill-prepared candidates may bring no discredit on it The provision is use- 
ful in the interests of discipline, hut it has its attendant drawbacks Thus it 
will often happen that a school in which the candidates for examination are 
carefully selected will show a better proportionate result than one in which the 
instruction is much more thorough, but which sends up all or most of its 
students. It may aho happen that in Government school, where fees are of 
less importance, boys unlikely to pass withdraw their names before examina- 
tion mom largely than in aided schools, which have a sufficient inducement 
to keep such" students and to make the best of them, Such a difference of 
practice, wherever it exists, would obviously tend to the disadvantage of aided 
schools, imanv tabulated statements drawn up in the form which wc have been 
compelled to adopt. Reference wiU again be made to this subject m Chapter 
VIII when we come to compare the efficiency of Government and aided 
behook It is sufficient hem to state that aided schools both high and middles 
in Madras b»e suffered by the adoption of the imperfect form sow given, and 
that aided hi-h schools in the Central Provinces have benefited ; in the other 
Provinces the two modes of estimating results present hut slight comparative 
differences. 



221 



EEFOET Or THE EDUCATION COMMISSION 



& to « co 
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CIIAr Vj SECONDARY EDtJCAHOX 935 

262 The Matriculation Examination.— An inspection of the Table 

shows that 7,423 boys from 4S9 schools presented themselves in tlie vinous Pro 
vinces, and that a 773 passed, at the rate of 37 3 per cent The largest number 
of candidates came from Itfadras, which sent 3,626 candidates from x 18 schools 
Bengal following nest with 2,100 candidates from 205 schools Bombay sent 
837 candidates from 45 schools, ind the North-Western Provinces 392 from 46 
schools There ivere altogether 2,218 candidates from 138 Government schools, 
2,424 candidates from 181 aided schools, and 2,120 candidates from 140 unaided 
schools, besides 661 private candidates Thus the average number of can- 
didates from each Government, aided, and unaided school Tras 16, 13, and 15 
respectively The average numbei that passed fiom each class of schools 
•was lespcctivcly 8 } 4 6, and 5 3 , the pioportion of suceessfnl candidates being 
49 4 per cent (or nearly one half) in Government schools, and 35 per cent (or 
rather more than one third) m aided and unaided schools The Government 
schools, therefoip, maintain the superiority due to the stronger establishments 
generally employed in them Of private students, 97, or only 14 per cent , 
pissed * Among Government schools, the proportion of success is greatest m 
the Central Provinces, with 69 per cent , and m Bengal with 58, and West 
in Bombay, with 38 per cent Among aided schools, the Central Provinces 
again stand highest, with 53 per cent of successful candidates , and Bengal 
and Bombay follow with 39 per cent Of unaided schools, those of Bengal 
arc the most successful, passing 46 per cent of their candidates •while the 
Punjab comes last, with 17 per cent The great success of unaided schools in 
Bengal is explained by the fact that high schools which receive no grants in 
aid are either maintained by some -wealthy man, or else are situated m popu- 
lous centics where there is an activo demand for education of that class, and 
where consequently the fee receipts are regular and large la either case the 
establishment is likely to he strong, and the school "well found On the other 
hand, many aided schools less fortunately circumstanced find it difficult, even 
with the help of a grant, to make hoth ends meet , and the comparative ineffi- 
ciency of the staff and general poverty of the school find their necessary result 
IB inferior success at the examination 

263 The Middle School Examination —The number of boys who pre- 
sented themselves for examination Tvas 17^96 from 2510 schools, and of 
these, 8,854, 01 5° P er cm ^ > WBre successful Madras again takes the lead, 
sending 6,436 candidates from 207 schools, white Bengal, with 1,361 com- 
peting schools, sends only 4,31s candidates It should of course be remem- 
bered that in Bengal the middle departments of the 207 high schools, con- 
tuning m those departments 19 143 pupils, aro not subject to this examina- 
tion Bombay, the North Western Provinces, and the Punjab sent respect 
lvely 2,450, 101, and 1,511 boys to the examination There were altogether 
6,453 candidates from 975 Government schools, and 8 433 candidates from 
1,535 aided and unaided schools, besides 2,710 private students The aver- 
age number of candidates and of successful candidates from each Government 
school was about 6\ and 4 respectively , from each school under private 
mimgement, about 5^ and 3 respectively The proportion of successful can- 
dtdates in Government and in private schools wis respectively 56 and 52 per 
cent It is thertforo manifest that Government schools lurv c no conspicuous 
superiority over private schools as regards the efficiency of the instruction in 
institutions of this class Among Government schools, the first place is 
taken by those of the Punjab, which pass 74 r« cent of their candidates , 
thon follow m oider Bengal, Bu-or, and the Central Provinces, with from 68 to 
63 per cent. Of schools under private management, the most successful ire — 
among aided schools, the Punjab, the Central Provinces, and Assam, with 62, 



226 



HEPOET or THE EDUCATION COMmSSION* 



[CHAP V 



54, and 48 per cent, of success respectively ; among unaided schools, the Punjab, 
Bombay, and Madras, with 69, 68, and 60 per cent- In Bengal, where the 
results for aided and unaided schools are not separated, the proportion of suc- 
cess is 70 per cent. 

264- Examination Of Girls-— The above results are for boys only ; those 
for girls may be briefly noticed. For the matriculation examination, one 
Government and two aided girls' schools in Bengal sent respectively three and 
two candidates to the examination, of whom all but one (from the Government 
school) passed. One girl candidate also appeared and passed from a school in 
the North-TVestern Provinces. For the middle school examination, 175 girls 
appeared from 16 schools, 2 Government and 14 aided. Of these, 84 passed, the 
percentage of success being 65 in Government and 49 in aided schools The 
candidates belonged to lladras, Bombay, Bengal, and the North-Western Pro- 
vinces, the first-named Province being credited with 32 successful candidates, 
and the last with 30, 

265. Race and Greed of Pupils- — The following Table shows the race 
and creed of pupils in secondary schools for natives The last two lines of the 
Table are of chief importance. They show the proportion, for high and middle 
schools, of each race or creed to the total population and to the school -popula- 
tion respectively. Hindus, who form 73 per cent, of the whole population, 
comprise 83 per cent, of the pupils at school ; while Muhammadans sink from 
a proportion of 22 per cent m the population to 11 per cent at school. 
The enterprise and the social position of Parsis a and the attention paid to the 
education of Native Christians, are illustrated by the fact that the former are 
35 times and the latter nearly 6 times as numerous in school as in the popu- 
lation, Sikh pupils on the other hand are only one-half, and " Others " only 
one-fourth, as numerous as their place in the population would lead us to 
anticipate. 



SCC0NBAT1T EDUCATION. 

Race and Creed of Tnpite in high and middle Schools* for xSSi-82. 



227 



tBOTIVCE iM) GRA&ES OF SCHOOLS, 



•a 



f ffwir (Tat San , English 
I Scm&oii: 1 „ GLfl* English 

/ Schools T f. . <- Enpiish. 

Turtiire Cm.tT<3* lorn UiBTtBs tn Sicoro 
nr t'CfftujLi 



pol rnplUof each nee or erted to Ike totnl number 





**7 




7« 


491 








•3 


t 


*3 


I 




*44 




3 47 



3 



X 



*3 H 



I 



r 



5 


6 


7 


1 

s 






*7 
















igt 


™S 












kj 3 


u 


l 


•* 


"7 


















■So 






* ?3 


i IS 


S3 



i8fiS3 



ia 



4£Si* } , English 



? 1 MtttDbH f „ Itots k End 

St&oots t *t GUla , English 



e orjmpili of tAch. race or creed to the total stunner 



i 





it3 




1,041 




*3 


43 


5 73* 




78* 




<iS« 








**r"57 


e 


3 










7 


S5S 






+4 


a 7»a 








»S4I 


73 oft 


#30 




»3>j 


6 14 


1 37 







fUc-aw j Far Iftf th 
SCHOOl,! 



(_ Vernacular 



„ Girls 



.ire et pnpll* or eieh rac* or creed to the total number 



77 

'77 

363 



1.««.473 



7 73a 

4 

It 



11 03 



ted ro ' 11014 if™^- : 



{Exjfrli^h 
_ _ Vrrflneu] 



.ffflorpupitjoffjjchractorc^d t* thfl total fioinber 



3 007 



7 303 



79 t* 



80J 
7B | 5 





i3i 




"3 












»&' 




3*9 










100 




4>7 


5^44* 




T47 




7 


34* 




143 


4 


A 


5*7 




i t ra4 








*+ 


79 


10 


S3 





157 
J? 



■3J 



J4I 



3 



03 



5 354 
3803 

4 



f ) Indimt* of (lid 
pup in in »tt4Lhnl 



4 "5 



10 



f Hie* fForBojB , EngU & h 

Ti*rtnsa CoLtifli ton Hums 01 Seoo* 

ipfof imptiof eichnca ot creed £0 ths toliJ number 
lit an tbtrolL* f 


396 

53 


01 
^4 

035 

1*4 


5* 

13 

J 




11 

r 

1 
7 

r 


5 
1 

** 


1 

4 

t 


4» 

■ «7t 

1704 
ft 

5* 




1 






46 


fi 


5 


6 026 


59 A3 








7* 


10 






p# papJJ* ©I fMii race cr mvjj t* tiff fatal aaniW 




130 






11 


SO 


10 


3*1 
M5i 


■437 


•47 1 






«4 


5* 




77* 


B7 9t 


8 pi 




->-L 


37 


tS3 









MX>3 
1,073 
>*4** 


301 
474 


Torn * 


6 437 


t 17a 


***f pupih&f fjchncj w crpsil ta tbe total nuitititt- 
w on tiia ro!U 


7S 71 


14 3) 




it* 

, > 


a 

■ 


Tori* 


154 


* 


» of pnpila «f t«h rso« or Creed to the total number 




'*7 



39 


3 


17 


***** 




«i 


4» 






i« 


355 


(*}li77 


*4* 


79 


"1 





) - ) 



04 



no 



*57 



(i) i^d r*r rent. ar « 



XSSSS } » »«" • w • 


5* 


1 




*• 




t 




1 Sl 




7 






3 




1 


■43 








■l-k 




J, 


I 


X 


WW 


w of pnpu s fr f w ^ ^ 4 total nttmbtr 


Sj7' 


1-C4 








33 


J3 




^ «"oot», l rt Cirta 

THijiirfi CotLiata to* JtlAita* j or Si 


54,970 

614 


3.433 

J3 
*7 


5 


1*544 


*7» 

jvs*7 
9 u 

6 


IS* 

ii 

474 


353 
33 

"2 


6*917 
•4ft 
**45,«44 
»*ft*3 

•7 




t.7*^ 


■3.»r* 




* 7*» 




775 | 


*-*47 






£y$7 


Irt5 


*7 













41Uth1jeii( j« Kite 



*C4 



■05 



3*' 



) - 



.»..,- " Tl , , u^ ^hrthuita^^incnrttian. V* Mlb fan I* r^<^ ^ MBtiitd i*b*Jj but b^(*rtiaii. 



HErOET OF THE EDtJCVTION CCniMIS3IO\ 



266. Langurges studied in secondary Schools —The <lf tails for each Prountoarc e 

the subjoined Tabic — 

Languages studied in ITtf/h and Zltddte Schools m jSSi 82 



PROVINCE A\P GEADE OF SCHOOLS 



MADRA3 



Tlton JFor Boy* Fnpl »tfi 
Schools 1 0 rl* usrl *h 



, MIDDLE 

* Schools 



TuAivivft Colli on fob Mi*Tsea or 

iSjTfJXtflXiET FCBOOL8 

TttTlL 



Jjschools j J 
J Middle f Boys 
(School* \ G rlfl 



EEVGAL 



!Hior (For Oots Fnjr *h 

Schools t Girls 1* npl ah 

Middle J 3 n tnt acuta 

Schools ) * _i_ (Fnffl sli 

Total 



W**- jess, 



OTOE (s en oo t ft f utrla >Vemu^br 



Tom 



PUNJAB 



J 



Schools 



Schools 



{ " 



Vernacular 



TEAiNiwa College fob Masters or 
Becondat Schools 



CFNT1UL J Schools } Vor Bo ' 8 
PEOmCES 1 Middle > ~ a 
(schools f B °y a 



Fuji 



AS 3 MI 



^Schools 



Boy. {^tf* 



COOEG 



use. } f « b ^» 

J MIDDLE 1 « 



DISTSICTS 1 Middle 



1 Middle > 



Total 

Ellfcl ah 
English 

English 
Total 



[HrGH JFot Boys 
Schools \ G tU 
Middle J Bays 
Schools I Girla 
TBiimNa Colleqeb for Masters 
ot Secondary Schools 



Tot l 



fi Excluding VStni, E>i * E 



I)KrAnt«rrTAL 

SCltOOLB 


AlDlD Sen VJLH 


U*<AIpED HcnOOt,*. 


En£l ah 




Ycnifv- 
ctilar 






\ cran* 


Fnffl ill 


1 


1 ma* 






4 


3 


6 


7 


S 


9 


10 


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tin torrtd 



CHAT. V.] 



SECOKDARI EDUCATION. 



229 



267. The foltoiriog Statement summarises the results of the fore-oW 
Table as regards the languages taught in h igU and m i dd l B sc hoo3s for SJ^* 



High Scnoois, 



Aided * 
Unaided 



Total 



Miptme Schools, 



Aided 



Total 



ToUl 
leholart 




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1 


24975 

20407 


24,840 

17.515 


7><>99 


12^75 


65,199 


i 61/ J BB 

— 1 * 






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767 




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131,900 



In Government high schools practically every pupil learns English ; in 
private, especially in unaided, high schools there is a perceptible proportion 
of scholars not learning English. The Table also shows the varying proportion 
in which classical languages arc studied in Government and in private high 
schools. In those of the former class more than half the pupils learn a classic; 
in aided and unaided schools the proportion is only one-third* It will he re- 
membered that m the three Universities of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, 
students are allowed the option of taking up either a classical or a vernacular 
language at the Entrance examination, But while in Madras only one 
student in six takes up a classical language, in Bombay nearly three-fourths of 
the candidates do so. It should, however, be stated that the University of 
Madras allows a vernacular language to he taken up for the higher examina- 
tions on the apparent ground that some of the languages still spoken in 
Southern India possess an ancient literature the study of which, combined with 
that of English* affords an adequate mental discipline. The Bengal Provincial 
Committee states that the numher of those who take up a vernacular is steadily 
and rapidly decreasing, and that in a few years the number will probably 
hecome so small as to justify the Calcutta, University in making a classical 
language compulsory at the Entrance examination. Middle schools exhibit a 
similar difference in this respect ; the proportion of pupils learning a classical 
language falling from 20 per cent, in Government to 4 per cent, in private 
schools. The proportion of pupils learning English is greatest in unaided 
schools ; and there is little doubt that whatever view the Department may take 
of the proper relation of English to the vernacular in middle schools, the most 
popular constitution of these schools is that which assigns a prominent place to 
English instruction. The proportion of pupils learning English is much the 
lowest in aided schools— a fact which is explained by the large number of 
middle schools in Bengal in which English is taught to few pupils or none. The 
vernacular is learnt by 9 1 percent, of the pupils in middle schools; and there 
is no great difference in this respect between Government, aided, and unaided 
schools. 

The following Statement shows for each Province the number of pupils 
who learn English* (a) in secondary schools, (5) in institutions of all classes. 
It Trill be remembered that the secondary schools of Bengal and Assam include 

53 



230 UEPOUT or THE education cosnrrssrov [chap t 

primary departments, and that all pupils in high schools learn English from 
the lowest primary class — 



FltOY SJCI 



N W Prov flees 
Punjab 

Central Prov acea 
Coorg 

II a darabad A&s gad D stncts 



Par u tB aw sio Em n 





n nthrinu 

IP ULJCTH*k 




61 09S 




237^9 


71503 


75^77 


5193 


1 i%A\<} 


3 «9 


11 074 


2 772 




3670 


4200 


■57 


5*3 


i Q 33 


1033 



268 Text-hooks in secondary Schools —There is no serious complaint 

as to the text books in use m secondary schools, and we hare accordingly no 
specific Recommendation to offerunder this head The machinery for providing 
test hooka m the different Provinces, the different degrees in which freedom 
m the choice of books is permitted, and the faults that have been noticed in 
them, will be fully discussed m Chapter YII o£ this Report, where tho 
appropriate Recommendations will also be found The course in high schools 
is determined by the requirements of the matriculation examination, and 
accordingly in some Provinces the text books, at least for the highest chss are 
settled by the independent authority of the University The Universities of 
Calcutta and Madras prescribe for that examination fixed text books in all 
subjects The University of Bombay follows a different sjstem, and prescribes 
no text books The Provincial Reports give full detads of the books most 
generally read They include such books as Bain's higher English Grammar 
Edith Thompson s History of England and MCLcmillan's Science Primers* m 
addition to the text books in English literature and m the classical and verna 
cular languages In middle schools, agai